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Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2017 with funding from 
Getty Research Institute 


§ln Illustrate Jltaga^me af Jlraritke aub ^Ijrarj 





From March 21 , 1891 , to March 12 , 1892 . 



[all rights reserved.] 


Advertising Machine, 7S0 
Air-pump, 497 
Alarum, 424 
Aphengescope, 236 
Appliances for Work, 136, 180 
Arch, Lattice Girder, 270 
Arches, 96, 205, 376 
Armourers’ Hammers, 807 
Ash-pan, 566 

Backstay, 237 
Balloons, Toy, 134 
Banjo Case, 139 
Bank, 492 
Barometer, 477 
Bassinette, 274 
Bath, A Folding, 645 
Battery Plates, 36 
Bellows, Fletcher’s, 358 
Bell-ringer's Table, 380 
Belt (Leather) Joints, 779 
Bench Stop, 229, 617 
Bench and Tool Chest, 223 
Bending Brass Treads, 441 
Bent Iron, Hall Lamp, 321 
Bevels, Instrument tor, 299 
Billiard-cue Tip, 203 
Bird Cage, 59 
Blinds, Venetian, 86 
Blow lamp, 269 ; -pipe, 282, 356, 810 
Boiler, 317, 589, 812 
Boiler Pump, 684 
Bookbinding, 28 
Book-box, 2, 37 
Book-rest, C48 
Bookshelf, 252, 520, 565, 685 
Boot for Shortened Leg, 490 
Boot Repairing, etc., 12, 112, 201, 280, 
345, 405, 516, 534, 796; Heels, 637, 
Bottle Top, 252 [796; Lasts, 253, 301 

Box, Folding, 504 
Brackets, 198, 520, 811 
Brass-melting Furnace, 429 
Bread-cutter, 526 
Bristles, 716 

Bromide, Apparatus for Making, 558 
Bunsen Burner, 636 
Butter Cooler, 826 

Cage, for Squireei, 365; Rat, 382 

Camera Lucidafor Micro. Sketching, 

Camera Obscura, 396 [326 

Candelabrum, etc., 593 

Candlestick, 43 

Cane, Grooving, 510 

Canoe, Canvas, 412 

Canopy for Bed Hangings, 243, 242 

Canvas, Stretching, 644 

Cap, Paper, 43 - 

Carpet Planning, 22 

Carpenter's Rule, 381 

Carpentry, Stage (see Stage) 

Carts, Newspaper, 78; Oxford, 525; 

Tip-cart, 401, 403 
Case for Stuffed Birds, 44 
Cask Til ter, 266 
Casket, 409 

Castors, 410; Ball-bearing, 218; Canti¬ 
lever, 106; Fixing, 507 
Castor-pin, 699 
Ceiling Panels, 825 
Chain-coupling Link, 759 
Charcoal Heater, 574 
Chess-board, 770 
Chicken-rearing Appliances, 737 
Child’s Carriage, 426 
Chimneys, 281; Pot, 266 
Chuck, 490, 604 
Clock Case, 385, 387, 473, 811 
Clocks, American, 236 ; Gravity, 820 ; 

Sand, 333; Water, 699 
Closet for the Hall, 145 
Clothes Pegs, Novel Cse for, 250 
Clothes and Tool Chest, 156 
Coil, Dr. Spanner’s Induction, 282 
Coil heated from Register Grate, 221 
Colour for Cornice, etc., 210 
Colour in our Homes, 689 
Compass Work, 231 
Concrete Building, 60 
Coop for Hen, etc., 788 
Copying Machine, 554 
Cordage (see Knotting , etc.) 

Cork Ornaments, etc., 761 
Cornice, 21,0; Frieze and Dado, 837 
Cottages, Plan, of, 724 
Counter Case, 301 
Cowl, 268 

Cramp Boards, 253 
Cramps, 21, 289, 619 
Greaser. 270 
Crests, 29 

Cricket Bat (splices, 75 


Curves, Methods of Striking, 475 
Cycles, 524 ; Anti-vibrator, 407, 525; 
Bearings, 571 ; Crank and Shaft, 
620 ; House, 573, 585 ; Parts, 812 ; 
Stand for Training, 635 (see also 
Cycloidal Curve, 238 [Safety Bicycle) 
Cyltine Manifold Copier, 554 

Dadoes, 715, 753 
Damp Course, 556 

Decoration of, Fireplace, 651 ; Study, 
Design for Corner, 637 [617,648 

Design for Embossed Work in 
Design for Sign, 397 [Leather, 817 
Designs for Repoussb Work, 305, 377 
Desk and Chair, 29 
Diamond Pattern Lumber, Machine 
Die for Stamping, 651 [Cut, 170 

Distance Register, 460 
Doll's House, 221 
Doors, Posts of, 620 ; Sliding, 112 
Dove-cot, 289 

Dovetailing, 285, 389, 637, 691 
Draught-board, 745 [235 

Drawers, 310, 792 ; Irregular Form, 
Drawing, Mechanical, 105 
Drawings for Patent Office, 215 
Dresser for Kitchen, 529, 530 
Drinking-fiask, 666 
Drying-horse for Boots, 313 

Ear-rings, 20,101,161,165 
Easel, Artist's, 350, 478, 614 
Egg Saucepan, 422 
Eggs, Incubation of, 737 
Elbow-pipe, Marking, 477 
Electric Bell, 804 ; Lines, 7C0, 733 
Electric Lamps, 27 1757 

Electrical Appliances, 465,584,661, C68, 
Engines: — Hot-air, 570, 586, 717; 
Launch, 346; Petroleum, 618; 
Quarter H.-P., 89. 260, 261, 328, 
329, 420, 501, 581, 708 

Fairy Bells, 572 ; to Piano, 28 
Fastener for Shirt Studs, 90 
Fender, Kitchen, 219; Scroll for, 310 
Fiddle Case, 423 
Fire-guards, Wire, 601 
Fireplace, 449, 760 
Fitment, Hanging, 565 
Flower, Box, 203 ; Holder, 505 ; Stand. 
Foot-warmer, 806 [107 

Force-pump, 717 [732 

Forge, Portable, 705 ; Blacksmith’s, 
Fountain, Self-acting, 657, 748 
Fowls’-house, 62, 673 
Frame for Coins, 285 
Framework Testing, 326, 126, 523 
Framing, Hints on, 68 
Fret Machine, 155, 461, 478. 540, 827 
Fretwork, 39, 41, 546, 637, 763 
Fryer for Fish and Potatoes, 476 
Furnace, Section of, 637 
FurnitureArmchair, 661; Bed¬ 
room Suite, Combination, 341 ; 
Bedstead, 317, 413, 645; Bookcase, 
159, 236, 317 , 353, 565; Chair and 
Desk, 29; Chair, Antique Dutch, 
790; Corner Bookcase, 652 ; Hang¬ 
ing Bookcase, 663; Cabinet, 433, 
434, 577,579; Card-table, 745 ; Coal- 
box, 75, 410; Commode, 555; 
Couch, 236; Couch-bedstead, 413 ; 
Desk and Chair, 29 ; Drawers, 
Chest of, 792; Fender, 219, 349; 
Hall-stand, 49, 50; Hat or Clothes 
Stand, 266; Hat-stand of Rails, 
213; Jewel Cabinet, 109; Medicine 
Cheat, 233, 520; Mirror, 653, 664 ; 
Music Canterbury, 3, 4, and 
Frontispiece; Ottoman Couch, 
204, 824 ; Secretaire, 643; Sofa- 
bedstead, 317 ; Table, 121,404, 808 ; 
Umbrella-stand, 213; Wardrobe, 
105, 177; Wash-hand Stand, 251; 
Whatnot, 369; Writing Cupboard, 
1, 2, 3; Writing Table, etc,, 353 

Galvanometer, 318, 430 
Garden, Arches, 740,741 ; Decoration, 
129 ; Label, 218 ; Tool-house, 225 
Gas Bag, 172; Globes, Wire, 533 
Girder, “ Fish-belly,” 163 
Glass Bevelling, Shapes for, 40 
Glass Case, Framing, 493 
Glass, Cutting, 476; in Furniture, 117; 
Greenhouse, 383 [Lead Pattern, 685 
Grindstone, 450 
Gun-rack, 60, 494 ; 110-ton, 382 

Hair Curling and Crimping, 619 
Hall-marks, 521 


Hall and Staircase, 709; Lantern, 320 
Halving, 691 

Harness, Pad, 743; Top Hame, 487 

Hat Pegs, 517 

Helioscope, 526 

Hen-coop, 108 

Hive Observatory, 285 

Hive for Transportation, 12 

Homacoustic, The, 762 

Honey Extractor, 298 

Hot-water Fitting, 13, 252, 397, 742 

Incubator, 75, 561, 605, 609, 731. 796 
Inlaying Monogram, 395, and see M 
Iron Joists, Fixing Wood Floor, 573 

Jack, Pope’s Carriage, 138 [563 

Joints, Mortise, Tenon, and Halved, 

Keltic Ornament, 721 
Kiln, 93 

Knotting, Splicing, and Working 
Cordage, 65, 137, 200, 215, 309, 361, 
469, 552, 553, 613, 677, 725 

Labour-saving Appliances, 441 
Lace Frame, 430 

Lamp, 253; for Lantern, 597 ; Wicks, 
Landing Nets, 775 [Trimming, 26 
Lantern, Cabinet, 316 ; Carrier, 685 ; 
Curtain, 205 ; Lamp for, 597 ; 
Microscope, 749 ; Objective, 219 
Lathe, 453, 569, 714; Attachment, 666; 
Chuck, 490, 604 ; Headstock for, 
813 ; Mandrel, 430 ; Overhead, 716 ; 
Lead Joint Runner, 425 [Treadle, 621 
Lenses, 461 

Limelight Apparatus, 220 
Lithography, 149, 231, 232, 297,450, 451 
Locomotive Steam Chest, 316 

Macrame Board, 681 
Machines and Appliances: — Ad¬ 
vertising, 780 ; Appliances, 136 ; 
Bundling Firewood, 590 ; Dove¬ 
tailing, 602 ; Drilling, 10 ; Mitring, 
9, 170; Planing, 346; Squaring, 9; 
Wire Crimping, 120 
Magnesium Lamp, 62 
Mandoline, 777 
Mantelboards, 265 

Masons’ Work, 96, 98, 185, 265, 321, 376 

Mast, Scarfing, 523 

Mat Making, 750 

Meat Safe, 216 

Medicine Cupboard, 233, 520 

Metronome, 628 

Microscope, 749,796; with Polariscope 
Microscope Lamp, 51 [fitted, 631 
Mirror, Hanging, 653, 664 (539 

Mitre, etc., 136; Board, 478; Cramp, 
Models, Horizontal Engine, 781; 

House and Figures, 301; Yacht, 
Money-box, 492 [77, 91 

Monogram Designs:—E.E., 379; 

N.H.H.,395; T.W.C.,461; E.M.N., 
604; C.L.H., 667 : J.D.B., 700 ; 
E.M.C., 733; E.H.S., 733; N.R., 
766; S.B., 779 
Mortising, 121, 285, 524 
Motors— Electro, 785 ; Griscom, 331; 

Siemens’ Bridge Type, 72 ; Water 
Muzzles, 533 [—Demon, 122 

Nail, Double-pointed, 570 
Nests of Pigeon-holes, 104, 249 
Nut-cracker, 218 
Nut, Double Grip, 618 

Organ, Parts of, 669; Pipes, 446 

Paint Mill, 588 
ainting Brush, Tying, 234 
anel, 648, 665, 745 
Panelling, 822 
Pattern Making, 277 
Pen, Combination, 293 
Pencil Sharpener, 380 
Perspective ( see Stage ) 

Photographic, 127; Cabinet. 557 ; 
Camera, 45, 234, 395, 477; Camera 
Case, 660 ; Dark Room, 279 ; Dark 
Slide, 426, 459, 476 ; Draining 
Rack, 132; Enlg. Camera, 395; 
Frame, 763 ; Instant. Shutter, 348, 
408; Lenses, 461, 827; Studio, 620; 
Tent, 152,172,217; Transparencies, 
696 ; View Finder, 699 
Photographs, Novel Use for, 520 ; for 
Household Decoration, 745 
Piano, 589, 733,745 ; Fairy Beils to, 28 ; 
Picture-cord Grip, 442 [Stool, 141 
Picture Frames, Oxford, 25 

Picture Hanging, 184 
Picture Suspender, 551 
Pigeon-holes, Nest of, 101, 249 
Pigeon-house, 285 
Pipe Mounts, 92 
Plan of Heavens, 638 
Planchette, 317 

Plans, Cottages, 724 ; Schools, 489 

Plant Case, 12 

Plumber’s Joint, 333 

Polishing Metal, 103 

Polishing, Movement of Rubber, 54 

Porch for Cottage, 161 

Poultry Houses and Runs, 673, 728 

Pulleys, 173 

Puzzle Money-box, 73 

Rain-pipe, 253, 381, 765 
Raising Heavy Weights, 53 
Razor, How to Strop a, 7 
Razor Strop, 390 
Reading Stand, 648, 684 
Repoussd Work, Designs for, 377 
Resin Box, 539 
Resonance Box, 823 
Retort Stand, 538 
Revolver and Sword, 775 
Rifle Rack, 60, 494 
Room, Plan of Removable, 205 
Rope Mat Making, 750 
Ruling, 231 

Rustic, Bracket, 811; Chandeliers, 
etc., 593 ; Clock Case, 811; Dove¬ 
cot, 289; Porch, 161; Tool-house, 
225; Verandah, 193, 257 

Saddle, 566 
Saddler's Clamp, 470 
Safety Bicycle, Its Practical Con¬ 
struction, etc., 33, 92, 100.168, 223, 
283, 308, 356, 436, 521, 596 
Sails, Canoe, 13 
Sashes, 487, 680 
Sash Fastener, 154 

Saw, Crack in, 294 ; Frame, Circular, 
107; Guard, 525 ; Hammering, 
235, 525 ; Repairs, 205 
Saws, 347, 637 ; Bow, 518 ; Hand, 421 
Scaffold Chain, 378 
Scarf Ornaments, 773, 805 
School, Design for, 489 
Scraper, Sharpening, 474 
Screen, Cheval, 748 ; Hinges. 319 
Screws. Cutting. 808 ; for Leg Joints, 
252 ; in Metal Work, 69 ; 'lop and 
Reamers, 344, 744 ; Thread of. 
133 ; for Wood Carvers, 375 
Sheet Metal Work, 360, 472, 537 
Sign-writing Design, 397 
Smiths’ Work, 312 ; Forge, 732 
Speculum Grinding, 13, 865 
Spirit-lamp and Blow-pipe, 282 
Splicing (see Knotting, etc.) 
spoon and Salt Box, 605 
Springs for Gluing Purposes, 439 
Spurs with Concealed Rowels, 458 
Squat Ball Shapes, 445 [793 

Stage Carpentry, 561, 563, 633, 711, 713, 
j Stage Perspective, 417, 456, 500 
Stand for Lantern, 299 
Steamer for Bamboo, 252 
Stencilled Decorations, 17 
Stencils and Brushes, 189 
Steps, 376 
I Still Parts, 702 

Stone Carving, Examples of, 357 
Stove Slips, 173 
Stretching Canvas, 644 
Stuffed Bird Case, 44 
Sundial, 445, 542, 685 
Sussex “ Trugs," 697 

Table, Folding, 808; Parts, 780; 
Tea-tray, Oak, 824 [Shelf, 683 

Telegraph Instruments, 300 
Telephone, 588 ; Line, 733 
Telescope,414; Astro., 701; Parts of,599; 

Speculum Grinding, 13. 365 
Testing Framework, etc., 326, 426, 523, 
Thermometer, Making, 181 [795 

Tin, Apparatus for bending, 302 
Tool, Chest, 156, 801; Sharpening, 172 
ToolsAnvils, 699; Appliances, 136 ; 
Bevelling, 299; Boot Making, 12, 
541; Broach, 243 ; Chisel, 253; 
Cramp Drill, 826; Cycle Making, 
228; Diamond and Pearl Setting, 
284; Drill Stock, 325; Jigger-iron. 
541; Masonry, 185; Metal Turn¬ 
ing, 103; Panel Gauge, 766; Plane, 
776; Poker Work, 538; Rimer or 
Broach, 243: Rule, 381; Saw Ham¬ 
mers, 699; Saw Set, 421; Scribing 



Blocks, 457 ; Smithing, 372; Span¬ 
ner, 267, 378 ; Vice Saw, 810; Vice 
Bench, 169,421, 461: Vice, Parallel, 
714; Violin, 85; Wood Carving, 
455; Wrench Hammer, 378 
Trammels, 616 

Traps, Mole, 606; Pigeon, 28; Rat, 
Trestles, 337 [485 

Tyre, “ Ring ’’ Cushion, 154 

Valve, 238; Box, 329 
Ventilator for Windows, 603 
Verandah, 193, 257 

Accordion, 830; Reeds, 251 . 
Accumulator, 126, 172, 204, 460, 475, 
571, 685 ; Pocket, 285, 443, 539 
Acid, Hydrofluoric, 45, 668 
Adhering Composition, 765 [780 

Advertising, 476, 493; Machine for. 
Advice to Young Workmen, 157 
Agreement, 332 

Air Cushion, 222, 302, 398; Proofing, 
142; Pump, 222, 635, 651, 798 
Alabaster, Polishing,59; Working,637 
Alarum, 29, 44, 396, 398, 540, 589, 654, 
734, 766, 812 

Algebraical Question, 155 
Alloy, 429 

Amateurs, Hints for, 779 
American Leather Cloth, 156 
Ancient Lights, 108 
Aphengescope, 236, 364 
Aquafortis, 731 

Aquarium, 188, 363, 365, 380, 507, 571; 

Cement for, 187 ; Painting, 13 
Arches, 190, 205, 668 
Architecture, 748 

Artificial, Eyes, 635; Foot, 413, 701; 

Asbestos, 702, 814 [Hand, 702, 814 

Ash-pan, Making, 491 

Astronomy, 653 

Aviary, 188 

Axes, 573, 731 

Axle, 668 

Backstay, 237 
Bagpipe, 764 
Balloons, 222, 254, 302 
Balls, 302 

Balusters, Turned, 158, 254 , 286 
Bamboo, 107, 302, 446, 542, 733, 830; 

Binding, 252, 780 ; Canes, 205, 797 
Banjo, 27, 76, 139, 140, 331, 411, 412, 443, 
462, 590 ; Fittings, 221: Piccolo, 
318; Tailpiece, 253; Vellum, 270 
Bar Hole, 366 

Barometer, 366, 413, 573, 796; Repair¬ 
ing, 477; Tube, 77 

Barrels, Measurement of, 526, 606, 622 
Basket Making, 443; Sussex “Trug,” 
Bass, 142; Bar, 61, 111 [619 

Bassinette, 124 

Bath, 171; Heating, 414, 510, 558, 574 
Bath-room Air, 763 
Batteries, 14, 270, 317, 398; Austin- 
Leclanche, 13, 157 ; Box, 139; 
Bunsen, 395; Chromic Acid, 731; 
for Coil, 604,621, 795; Dry, 110,174, 
203, 364, 508, 540, 574 ; for Electric 
Bell, 364 ; for Electric Light, 428, 
508, 540, 603, 604, 621, 667, 684, 700 ; 
for Electro-Motor, 236, 828; for 
firing Fuse, 621; Galvanic, 411, 
573,813 ; Gassner. 395 ; Leclanchb, 
78, 142, 158, 283, 302, 380; Medical, 
208, 283, 427 ; for Night Light, 621, 
763 ; Pocket, 93; Potash, 92; 
Voltaic, 701 

Battery Masters;—Carbons, 30, 92, 
316, 427 ; Casting Lead Caps to 
Carbons, 44 ; Charge for, 44, 189, 
795; Chromic Acid Cells, 62; 
Coupling Cells, 139; Current from, 
93; Electro-motive Force of, 126; 
Plates, 188; Repairs, 364; Troughs, 
206; Zincs, 139 
Beaded Mahogany, 494 
Beams, 171 
Bear on Pole, 443 
Bearings, Squeaking, 539 
Beer, 588 

Bellows, 605; Carved, 14, 108, 110 [380 
Bells.Tuning, 798; Bell-ringer's Table, 
Belting, Cotton, 158, 254, 270, 347; 
Belts Slipping, 221 [Joints, 779 

Bench, 302, 427 

Bench and Tool Chest, 142, 2-22, 667 
Bending, Metals, 558 ; Tube, 123, 285, 
413, 667, 702 ; Brass Treads, 444 
Bent Iron, 77, 189, 653, 812 
Besoms, 750, 766, 779, 782 ; Plates, 635 
Bevels for Dovetailing, 285 
Bevels, Instrument for, 299 
Billiard-ball Dye, 107 ; Cue Tips, 203 
Bird Cages, 43, 59, 235, 237, 702 ; Bird 
Stu fling, 188 

Blackboards, 155, 620, 731 

Black, Dead, 268, 300 

Black (Berlin) for Lamp Stand, 158 

Violin, 4, 5, 85, 148 212, 827 ; Bow, 647 
Violoncello Sound-hole, 348 
Vulcanite, Joining, 430 

Wall Decorations, 625, 753 
Wash-tub, 468 
Water-closets, 296 
Water-pot, etc., 360 
Weather-glass Tube, 484 
Weights, Moulding, 782; Raising, 
Wheatstone Metre Bridge, 373 
Wheel, 358 ; Cutting, 61 ; Rubber 
Felloe, 505; Toothed, 411 

Whip Crock, 711 
Window Box, 394 

Window Decoration, 617, 789; Plant 
Case, 12 [tary Rail, 93 

Window Making, 481,548,776; Sani- 
Wire Fencing Design, 670 
IVire, Straightening, 153; Gauge, 55 
Wirework, 8, 120, 153, 196, 197, 244, 
293, 340, 393, 437, 485, 533, 601, 692, 
693, 740, 741, 788 
Wood-carver’s Screw, 375 
Wood Carving Butter Dish, 81 ; 
Clock Case, 385, 387, 473 : Fire¬ 
place, 760; Panels, etc., 549 


Blacklcad, 142, 635 
Blast Gas Furnace, 190 
Bleaching Wood, 669 [Roller, 651 
Blinds, Venetian, 43, 189, 750 ; Spring 
Blocking, Cards, 76,251; Gold, 334,700 
Blower, Foot, 716 ; Root's, 398 
Blower, or Blast Fan, 286 
Blow-lamp, 187,188,269; Blow-pipe, 190 
Boats ;—Canoes (see C); Pair-oared, 
350; Punt, 446, 478 ; Propeller, 557; 
Sailing, 606, 718 

Boiler MattersCorrosion in, 750; 
Feed, 446 ; Field’s, 459 ; for Green¬ 
house, 476 ; Incrustation, 475 ; In¬ 
jector, 61 ; Lid, 124 ; Marine, 174, 
317, 686 ; for Model, 812 ; Pocket, 
414 ; Pump, 684 ; Water Tube, 76 
Bois-Durc, 620, 637 
Bones, 398 ; Calcined, 332 
Bone Handles for Knives, 157 
Bookbinding, 27, 45, 108, 188, 508, 510, 
652; Bookcases, 171; Gold Blocking 
(see B ); Leather, 188 ; Printing in 
Gold, 652 ; Repairing Bible, 220 ; 
Bookshelves, 685 [Sewing, 91 

Books, Soiled, 108 ; Stains out of, 364 ; 
Books “ Applied Mechanics," 445; 
Arches, 190 ; Bird Stuffing, 188 ; 
Blacksmithing, 45; Boat Build¬ 
ing, 13 ; Book-keeping, 493 ; Brass- 
work, 108 ; Brazing, 571 ; Cabinet- 
rnakg., 748 ; Canoes, 13, 812 ; Cast¬ 
ing, 413 ; Chemistry, 109, 139, 683, 
731 ; Coach Building, 158 ; Colour 
Mixing, 190 ; Crests and Mono¬ 
grams, 156 ; Drain Work, 126 ; 
Drawing, 365; Dynamo, 77, 141, 
621 ; Electric Bells, 75,171, 254, 399, 

605, 654, 717 ; Electric Lighting, 
605; Electrical Engineering, 77, 
604; Electricity, 798; Electro¬ 
plating, 460, 476; Electrotyping, 

■ 189 ; Engines, 302, 475 : Engineer’s, 
190, 301, 717, 827 ; Estimating, 653 ; 
Exotics, 590: Flues, 315; Geo¬ 
metry, 507 ; Glass Working, 139; 
Glass Wriling, 43, 347 ; Gold¬ 
smiths’, 828; Hot-water Engineer¬ 
ing, 315 ; Hydraulics, 781 ; Iron 
Founding, 413; Iron Work, 701; 
Joinery, 60; Lathes, -475; Litho¬ 
graphy, 268 ; Locks, 593, 686 ; 
Machine Design, 77, 411 ; Mathe¬ 
matics, 221; Measurements, 491, 
573, 718 ; Metal Plate, 446 ; Metal 
Turning, 28; Metal Work (sheet), 
574 ; Microscope, 93 ; Milling Ma¬ 
chines. 669 ; Motors (Electro), 636 ; 
Moulding, 413; Paint Mixing, 
190 ; Painting Prices, 509 ; Pattern 
Making, 140, 589, 812 ; Perfumery, 
606; Photographic, 315, 444, 814 ; 
Piano Tuning, 667 ; Plumbing, 716 ; 
“Popular Educator’’ (Cassell's), 

573, 701; Pottery and Porcelain, 

606, 766; Ready Reckoner, 573, 

574, 718; Saddlery, 780; Sanitary 

Engineering, 126, 574; Saw 

Benches,475; Scales and Weights, 
171, 190; Screw Cutting, 798; 
Sewing Machines, 206; Sign 
Writers, 156, 667 ; Silversmiths, 
443; Slide Rule, 574 ; Staining, 
etc., 220, 255, 718; Tailoring, 654, 
733, 734, 750, 814 ; Technical, 780; 
Varnishing, 718; “Violin as it 
Was and Is,” 46; Water-colour 
Painting, 811; Water Power, 781; 
Weights of Metals, 301; Wood 
Carving, 110, 573, 651; Wood Tur¬ 
ners’ Patterns, 238 

Boot and Shoe Making, 187, 733, 812; 
Finishing, 541; Hand Sewn, 493, 
589 ; Iron Feet, 412 ; Lasts, 46, 252, 
268, 301; Repairs, 571, 637, 651, 748, 
779, 796, 812; Soling, 12, 45; Tennis 
Shoes, 109; Wax, 301; Welting, 
12 ; Wurtemburg Heels, 637 
Boot Blacking, 75, 110; Shoe Gloss, 
Boot for Shortened Leg, 587 [302 

Boot Studs, 589 
Boots, to soften, 812 
Boring and Cutting, 27, 812 
Bottles, 347, 396, 462 ; Paraffin, 252 
Bow-hairing, 221 
Boxes, Millboard, 782; Tin, 126 


Brace Making, 206 
Bracket, 811; for Clock, 331 
Brackets, Plush on, 620 
Brass, 76, 108, 222, 285: Angle, 108; 
Bearings, 366; Castings, 76, 765 ; 
Cleaning, 718; Colouring, 683 ; 
Ferrules, 460 ; Instruments, 477 ; 
Lacquer, 14, 254, 285, 364, 476, 750 ; 
Melting, 270, 429; Moulders, 683 ; 
Plates, 444 ; Savings Bank, 382; 
Scraps, 478; Wind Instruments, 
Brasses, Connecting, 574 [45 

Brazing, 333, 605, 620, 761, 812; Gas 
Generator for, 477 

Bread Cutter, 366; Machine, 286, 398, 
Bricks, 171 [526 

Bridge, Building, 715 
Bristles, Fastening on, 716 
Bromine, 558 

Bronze, Darkening, 156; Paper, 589 

Brooklet, 235 

Brooms, 348 

Brush Making, 142, 443 

Brushes, Paint, 797 

Bugs in Room, 715 

Building, Cost of, 267; Accommoda- 
Buliion, 606 [tion, etc., 156 

Bunsen Gas Burner, 626 
Buttons, Linen, 510 
Burnishing, 75, 76 

Cabinet Ironmongery : — Brass 
Cabinet Maker, 509 [Angle, 108 

Cages for Birds, 45, 59, 235, 237, 702, 
830; Mice, 14; Rats, 382; Squirrels, 
Cameo Cutting, 765 [365 

Camera Obscura, 396, 460 
Camphor, Black, 795 
Candle Making and Tallow Refining, 
Candlestick, 43 [481, 782 

Cane, for Chair, 478; Grooving, 310 ; 
Split, 350 

Canoe Building, 158, 476, 621, 701; 
Canvas, Oil, 332 [Sails, 13, 412 

Cap, Paper, 43 

Carboline, or Carbolinum, 765 
Carbon Plates, 45, 427, 494 [477 

Cardboard, Use of, 572; Designs in, 
Carpenter, Naval, 156 
Carpenter's Bench, 302, 331, 460, 494; 
Carpenters’ Society, 251 [Shop, 508 
Carpentry, 171, 363, 395, 557, 715 
Carpet, 92 ; Cleaning, 300 
Carriage,ICrests, 172; Fittings, Silver¬ 
ing, 398; Painting Mottoes, 221; 
Varnishing, 123, 235, 254 
Cartridges, 205 

Carts;—Battlesden, 14; Dog, 124; 

Newspaper, 78 ; Oxford, 535 
Carvers' and Gilders' Society, 637 
Case Hardening, 252 
Case, Turned Wood, 14 
Case for Stuffed Bird, 44 
Casks, 653 

Castings, 14, 46, 76, 108, 142, 188, 189, 
221, 574, 576, 590, 765 ; Dynamo, 
366; for Engine, 477 
Castors, Fixing, 507 ; Pin, 699 
Casts, of the Foot, 19; Plaster, 476 
Catches for Jewel Case, 173 
Catgut, 174 
Cattle Marking, 142 
Celluloid, 267 

Cement, 364, 462, 525, 542, 590, 651, 765, 
828,829; Glass, 798; Hydraulic, 571 
Cementing Lenses, 718 
Central Foundation Schools Car¬ 
pentry Classes, 763 
Chains, Gold and Silver, 60 
Chair Making, 46 

Chair, Canes for, 478, 829; Repairing, 
171; Renovating Leather Seats, 
302, 366, 462, 590 ; Seats, 270, 414 
Chairs, Hammock, 76 ; Invalid, 493 
Chapel and Class-room, 589 
Charcoal Furnace, 589 
Chasing, 109 
Checkering, 142, 270 
Chemicals, 333, 444; Apparatus, 427, 
Chemist, 300 [541 

Chess-board, 124,174, 636; Chessmen, 
Chimney, Smoking, 126 [109 

China, Drilling, 44, 411, 828 
Chloride of Mercury, 156 
Chronometer, 78 

Chucks, 366, 430, 590, 716, 733; Four 

Woodcock s Feather, 221 
Wood Floor, Fixing to Iron Joists, 573 
Wood Turners, Galvanometer for, 57 
Woods, Sycamore, Section, 4 
Wool Winder, 765, 782, 798 
Workbox, Lady's, 365, 781 
“ Work ” Certificate Frame, 603 
Workshop Plan, 205 
Work-table, 821 
Writing-desk, 683, 765 

Zither, 392 

Zither, Stringing, 530, 551 

Jaw, 652; Mounting Cushman, 
123; Oval, 604 ; Self - centring, 

Circle, Dividing the, 29 
Clarionet, 156 ; Reeds, 683 
Classes, Carpentry, 491, 763; Draw¬ 
ing, 605; Instruction, 203; Wood 
Turning, 653 

Clay for Building, 110 ; Colouring, 
108, 334 ; Mixture, 260 
Clocks, 75, 124, 141 ; Alarum (see A ); 
American, 139, 140 ; Cases, 93, 220, 
236, 350, 493, 811 ; Chime, 78 ; Clean¬ 
ing, 13, 108, 140, 539; Conversion, 
187 ; Dutch, 605 ; French, 155.190 ; 
German, 188 ; Gongs, 796 ; Grand¬ 
father, 187 512 ; Hydrostatic, 492, 
699 ; Magnetising, 443 ; Match 
Lighting, 605 ; Parlour, 187 ; Pen¬ 
dulum, 46; Repairs, 13,108 ; Sand, 
333 ; Tools, 78 ; Wheels, 444 ; 
Workman s, 283 
Closets, Dry Earth, 108 
Clothes and Tool Chests, 156 
Coach-work, Transfers, 221 
Coal-dust, 526, 750 
Cocks, Leaking, 508 
Cocoa-nut Fibre, 155, 603 
Coffin Plates, 814 

Coils, 685; Induction, 125, 174, 428, 
701; Insulation for, 189; Materials 
for, 508, 685 ; Medical, 28, 92, 204, 
283, 331, 397,603, 829; Shocking, 28, 
125, 171, 398, 492, 654; Spark from, 
125, 331: for Vacuum Tubes, 189 
Coins, Fixing, 285, 397 
Colours, 333; for Cornice, 253; for 
Diagrams, 765; Matching, 622; 
Mixing. 190 

Colouring, Bright Steel Surfaces, 542, 
622, 638; Kitchen, 237 ; Plaster 
Compasses, 270 [Figures, 668 

Concertina, Keys, 652 ; Reeds, 350 
Concrete, 60 
Conservatory, 348 
Contract, 492 
Cooking Utensils, 125 
Coopering, 46, 635 
Coop for Hen, 108 
Copal Resin, 316 
Coppering Solution, 46, 394 
Copper, Repairing, 299 [Weight, 668 
Copper, Sheets, 267, 414; Turning, 315; 
Copying Apparatus, 620, 750 
Copying Printed Matter, 108 
Coral Cleaning, 94 
Core-box, 589 

Cork, To use with Glass-paper, 476 
Cornet Valves, 652 
Cornice, Colours for, 253 
Corrosive Sublimate, 156, 251 
Cot, Child's, 797 
Cotton Band Machine, 430 
Cotton Belting. 158, 254, 270, 347 
Couch Scroll, 78 
Counter Case, 301 
Cradle Swings, 299 
Cramps, 253, 299, 539, 619 
Crank-pin, 301 

Crewel-work. Transfer, 477, 557 
Cricket Bat, 75, 507 
Crystoleum Painting, 238, 350 
Cuffs and Collars, Glazing, 12 
Curling Hair, Liquid for, 493 
Cutlery Case, 828 
Cutting, Fine, 523 

Cutting Cone Patterns, 685; Ele¬ 
phant’s Teeth, 155 
Cuttings, Arrangement of, 493 
Cycle Matters 76, 78, 251,349,459,524, 
556,558,604, 652,813; Anti-vibrator, 
510, 525, 763; Bearings, 539, 571 ; 
Brazing, 189; Castings,189, 349,812; 
Cement, 590: Chain, 446; Crank, 
Safety, 620; Cyclometer, 349, 444, 
748; Enamel, 94, 108, 189, 364; 
House for, 78; “Hub Dish,” 348; 
Mechanics, 396; Parts, 267, 269, 
318,366; Patents, 637,717; Plating, 
235, 508 ; Repairs, 189: “ Safety ” 
Gear, 334; Spoke, 637; Tandem 
Safety, 476 ; Tires, 349, 524, 652, 
748, 829; Varnish, 443; Wheels, 
235, 247, 302, 637. Bicycles. 13, 92; 
Safety, 44, 283. 365. 446, 476, 494, 
573, 589, 670, 748. Tricycles, 302 



Cycloidal Curves, 363 
Cylinders, Toy, 251; Wax, 188 

Damp Walls, 269, 102, 590 
Darning Weavers, 621, 734 
Decanter Stains, 333 
Decoration, 541; in Applied Arts, 203; 

Smooth Surface for, 423 
Delta Metal. 702 
Dentistry, 797, 812 
Designs for Wall Papers, etc., 732 
Desk and Chair Combined, 29 
Desk, Leather, 652 
Diamond and Pearl Setting, 284 
Diamond Chips, 541, 619 
Diamonds (Paste), 733, 798 
Diapason, 190 

Die, 651; Cutting and Stamping, 587 ; 

Embossing, 574; Sinking, 349, 395 
Distance Register, 28, 460 
Distemper, 396, 509, 587; Lines, 428 
Distillation, 828 
Dividing Rules, etc., 220 
Dog Kennel, 652 
Doll's House, 46, 221 
Door, 491; Automatic, 316; Papier- 
machd, 14; Sliding, 412 
Double Bass, 253 
Dovetailing, 285, 637 
Draught-board, 124, 174, 636; Table, 
Draught Excluder, 603 [206 

Draughtsmanship, 363, 443, 162, 493, 
Drawers, 492; Supporter, 317 [571 

Drawing, 605 ; Enlarging, I t, 141, 142, 
174; Crayon, 268; Fixing Chalk, 
174; Fixing Pencil, 411; Repro¬ 
duction, 222; Transfer, 734 ; 
Dresser, 733 [Working, 782 

Driers, 699 
Druggists, 109 
Drum Heads, 812 

Dulcimer, 29, 62, 107, 155, 188, 380, 397, 
444, 492, 494, 557, 667 [430 

Dye for Billiard Ball, 107; Crimson, 
Dynamos, 27, 29, 76, 77, 125, 251, 283, 
317, 366, 427, 540, 571, 588, 589, 605, 
621, 684, 700, 813 ; Castings, 701 ; 
Engine for, 732; Gramme, 189; 
Heating of, 461; Manchester, 141, 
685; Model Alliance, 141; Motive 
Power for, 427, 684, 732; Power 
of, 316; Shunt-wound, 28; Sim¬ 
plex, 396, 491 ; Voltage of, 461 ; 
Winding, 396, 685 

Early Riser’s Friend, 686, 766 
Earth—Analysis, 141 
Easel, Artist’s, 158, 350, 478, 795 
Ebonising Pinewood, 811 
Ebonite, 44 

Ebony for Walking Sticks, 491 
Kidograph, 620 
Elastic Mould, 326 

Electric, Appliances, 414; Belt, 174, 
203, 204, 251, 315, 349, 396, 413, 427, 
588, 795; Coils (see Coils ); De¬ 
tector, 621; Engine, 508; Leyden 
Jar, 508; Machine, 28, 475, 668, 
715, 830 ; Magnets, 475; Scarf Pin, 
731 ; Signalling, 254 ; Strength of 
Current, 221, 382 

Electric Bells, 77, 93, 94, 125, 171, 174, 
364, 476, 573, 658, 733, 829; Connec¬ 
tions, 605; Cost of, 189; Jumpers, 
443; Lines, 700; Magnets, 508 
Electric Lamp and Lighting, 14, 44, 
45. 75. 126, 139, 140,172, 221, 238, 254, 
363, 364, 394, 411, 491, 540, 571, 684, 
686, 700, 715, 732 ; Arc Lamps, 460 ; 
Carrying Capacity of Wires, 540; 
Cost of, 139; Coupling Trans¬ 
formers, 795 ; Gas Lighter, 206, 
316, 334, 589; Incandescent, Re¬ 
pairing, 188, 413 ; Maguay, 733, 
765; Manager, 588 ; Materials, 
332,414; for Neck-tie, 349 ; Night 
Light, 77. 621, 683; Safety Fuse, 
491, 797 ; Voltage, 427 
Electrical, 573; Engineering, 604; 
Experiments, 27; Galvanic Wa¬ 
ter, 732 ; Instruments, 315; Mean¬ 
ing of Voltage and e.m.f., 332 ; 
Measurements, 221; Schools, 157, 
427 ; Shock, 684 ; Swindlers, 763 
Electro-deposition, 411, 812 
Electro-magnetic Apparatus, 428, 605 
Electrotyping, 45, 158, 507 ; Copy of 
Hound’s Head, 364 
Elliptic Curves, 300 
Emigration, 125, 173, 190, 795 
Employment, 125, 668 
•' Knamelloid," 300 

Enamels and Enamelling. 251, 444, 
509, 555, 748, 798; Black. 365; 
Cloth, 125 ; Fretwork, 750 ; Metal, 
44 ; Slates, 46, 142; Stoving, 524; 
White, 350 

Engines, 45,75,332,461,574,748,795,813; 
Beam, 221, 716; Compound, 286, 
414 ; Compressed Air, 795 ; Cover, 
348 ; Cylinder, 462, 670 ; Drawings 
of. 110 ; Electric, 508; Gas, 75, 
142, 206, 257, 302, 347, 604, 733, 764, 
798; Horizontal, 171, 509, 781 ; 
Hot-air, 79, 201, 445, 539, 715, 716, 
717, 732. 748, 781 ; Naphtha, 475; 
Oil, 462 ; Oil for, 461; Painting, 

590; Petroleum, 109, 142, 222, 235, 
254, 764, 779 ; Power of, 45, 796 ; 
l-H.P., 235, 620, 716, 811; Valves, 
364 ; Water. 427 

Engine and Boiler Management, 652 
Engineering, 331,334 
Engraver’s Wages, 156 [494, 733, 830 

Engraving, 110, 221; on Metals, 156, 
Envelopes, Expanding, 477, 494 ; 

Estimating, 653 [Patent, 541 

Etching, 430, 781, 827 
Examinations, 812 ; Engineering, 798 ; 
Exhibitions, 76, 510 [Papers, 301 

Exotics, 590 

Fairy Bells, 28, 61, 268, 269, 571, 572, 

Fan, Blast, 286, 398 [718 ; Pegs, 747 

Fan Blowers, 222, 750 

Fan, Covering, 78 ; Mounting, 126 

Fender, 219, 349, 798 

Fern Case, 749 

Ferrotype Process, 364 

Fiddle, 635; Japanese, 637 

Field Glass, 541 

Filling, 668 

Fire Boxes, 683; Extincteur, 606, 734; 
Grate, 556; Lighter, 142; Smok¬ 
ing, 126 

Firewood, Bundling, 478, 590 
Firing Paintings on Glass. 108 
Fish and Potato Fryers, 476 
Fishing Rods, 94. 557, 733 ; Ferrules, 
Fittings, Brass, 555 [190, 460 

Fixing Carbon, 428 
Flageolet, 702, 814 
Flask, 795 

Floorcloth, Copal Varnish for, 428 
Floor for Warehouse, 573 
Flower-box for Bay Window, 203 
Flower-pot Cases, 621, 782 
Flower-stand, 107, 508, 733 
Flute, 620 ; Cases, 221 
Force Pump, 717 
Forge, Blacksmith's, 732 
Fork Crown, 731 

Formulae Capacity, of Barrels, 526, 
606; of Saucepan, 157 ; of Tank, 
13, 670 ; Curves, 475; Electric 
Current, Strength of, 221, 382 ; 
Girders, 588; Hydraulic Lift, 716; 
H.p., 27, 30, 45, 203, 796 ; Propeller 
Screws, 588; Speed of Drums, 
Pulleys, etc., 475 ; Speed of Wag¬ 
gon, 315 ; Velocity of Gases, etc., 
699; Water Delivery, 29, 60 
Fortune-telling Cards, 636 
Fountain, 156, 188, 380, 397, 507, 748 ; 
“Desideratum,” 190; Driven by 
Engine, 510, 638; Feet for, 126 ; 
Self-acting, 635, 651, 748, 829 
Fowls’-house, 62 
Framing Engravings, 587 
Frame for Looking-glass, 268 
Frames for Wardian Case, 462 
Freezer, Ice-cream, 619 
Freezing Mixtures, 737 
French and Herman Accents, 764 
Fretwork12, 75, 269, 412, 494, 556, 
654, 766,827; Bending, 157; Bracket, 
108; Clock Design, 350 ; Corner 
Design, 637 ; Cornice, 139; 
Enamelling, 750; Enlarged, 619; 
Frames, 414 620,763; Fret worker’s 
Address, 190; Machine, 94,110,141, 
155, 157. 173, 235, 301, 334, 443, 401, 
475, 478, 540, 557, 590, 686, 760, 797, 
830; Market, 733, 830 : Patterns, 
188, 379, 380; Piano Frets, 208; 
Saws, 59, 444, 748, 766; Shield, 700; 
Thin Lines, 222, 380, 414 ; Wood, 
Frosting, 14, 427, 779 [270 

Frosty Windows, 764 
Fungus, 364 

Furnaces, 637 ; Hydrogen, 684 ; Port¬ 
able, 414; Smelting, 60; Vertical, 

Furniture:—Armchair, 395; Bedroom 
Suite, 494 ; Bookcase, 125, 157,172, 
188, 236, 283, 397, 443, 524, 556, 652, 
798; Bookcase, Corner, 494, 652 ; 
Bookcase, Rotating, 316; Book¬ 
shelf, 125, 252 ; Cabinet, 139, 254, 
732; Chitfonier, 443, 572; Coal- 
box, 75, 254, 364, 732 ; Commode, 
555 ; Couch - bedstead, 413; 
Couches, 188, 204, 236; Crib, 733; 
Drawers, Chest of, 555 ; Dressing- 
table, 157 ; Escritoire, 108 ; Fen¬ 
der, 219, 349, 798 ; Hall Lamp, 108; 
Jewel Cabinet, 109; Moorish 
Stools, 782 ; Ottoman Couch, 704 ; 
Overmantel, 364, 443, 653, 670 ; 
Sideboard, 94, 285; Sofa - bed¬ 
stead, 317; Table, 558, 683, 

733, 780 ; Wardrobe, 334, 541 ; 
Washstand, 251; Work-table, 
252; Writing-desk and Bookcase, 
236; Writing-table, 108 
Furniture Matters: — Antique De¬ 
signs, 782 ; Colouring, 59, 315 ; 
Education in, 571; Fancy, 315 ; 
Firms, 555 ; Folding, 620 ; Home¬ 
made, 91; Restoring, 620 ; Re¬ 
viving, 779 

Galvanised Iron, 750 
Galvanising, 173, 251, 254, 318 

Galvanometer, 206, 300, 313, 427, 430 
Garden, Barrow, 173; Hammock, 
108; Workshop, 571 
Gas Matters, 283, 749 ; Burners, 427 ; 
Incandescent Light, 475, 621 ; 

Luminous Flame Stove, 461 ; 
Meter, 364; Water in Pipes, 91 
Gases, Velocity of, 699 
Gauges, 539 
Gesso Work, 541, 668 
Gilders’ Society, 637 
Gilding, 350, 398, 668; Frames, 398, 
412, 443, 604; Metal for, 626 ; on 
Varnish, 428 ; with Alloyed Gold, 
Gilt Frames, Cleaning, 429, 606 [779 

Girder, 588; Holes in Web, 257 
Glacial Decorations, 286, 366 
Glass :—Blowing, 542, 638, 686; Case, 
493 ; Cement, 365, 542, 798; Cut¬ 
ting, 476; Decanter Stains, 333; 
Drills, 411; Embossing, 76, 443, 
667 ; Etching on, 157 ; Fastening, 
365 ; for Fountain, 748 ; Gilding, 

107, 125, 267, 379, 382; Ground, 
Imitation, 654 ; Lamps, 493; Lead- 
work, 685; Measuring, 126; 
Mending, 750; Mildewed, 364 ; 
for Overmantel, 316; Painting, 

108, 573; Removing Letters from, 
398; Shades, 443; Signs, 395; 
Silvered, 668 ; Silvering, 44, 45, 59, 
107, 364; Views on, 300 ; Work¬ 
ing, 139 ; Writing on, 43, 110, 222, 

Glazier’s Diamond, 668 1347 

Globe, 620 

Glue, 76, 443, 558, 606, 734; Cox's, 268; 
Fish, 316; Preserving, 477; Water¬ 
proof, 428, 542, 574, 590, 638 
Gold, Alloys, 828; Colouring, 828; 
from Buttons, 13, 668; Frosted, 
173 ; Gold Lace, 667, 779; Leaf, 75 ; 
Paint, 574 ; to Soften, 60; Trans¬ 
fers, 76; Unworkable, 412 
Gold Blocking, 334, 700 
Gold Bronze, 221 
Gold Size, 555 
Golf Balls, 413 
Gongs, 796 

Graining, 140, 509, 541, 588, 651, 702, 

795, 797 ; Cheap Furniture, 187 ; 
Oak, 509 ; Tools, 652 

Granite, Imitation of, 365 
Graph, 38, 220, 283, 635 
Greenhouses, 157, 221, 319, 363; Boiler, 
476; Heating, 526; Wash, 268 
Grinding Scissors, 221 
Grinding Stones, 699 
Grindstone, 206 ; Drilling, 510, 622 
Gum, 350, 556, 622, 733 
Gun, 110-ton, 383 

Gun, Barrels, Browning, 94 : Colour¬ 
ing, 158; Walking Stick, 125; 
Rack, 60, 334, 494 

Hair Curler and Crimper, 619 
Hair Cloth, 46 
Hair Oil, 366 

Hair, Removal of, 396; Teasing, 142, 
Hall-marking, 379, 524 [206 

Hammock, 108, 508, 635 
Hand Screws, 731 

Hardware, 171 [Reeds, 45 

Harmonium, 141, 588, 748, 781, 795; 
Harp, 140, 478, 607 : -TEolian, 29,108, 651 
Harvest Festival Decorations, 460 
Hatching, Heat for, 411 
Hat Making, 398 
Hearthrugs, 637 

Heating, 13, 252, 605; Coil, 221, 397 ; 

Perkin's System, 171; Room, 462, 
Heliograph, 398, 526 [574, 590 

Hinges, 61, 92, 283 
Hints, 779 

Hives, 12, 107, 828 ; Observatory, 107, 
Hole-boring, 300 [2to 

Home Industry, 765 
Home-made Novelties, 812 
Honeycombed Holes, 827 
Honey Extractor, 461 
Hook, Steel Spike, 764 
Hoop Rollers, 303 
Horns, Polishing, etc., 396, 444, 445 
Horse Collar Haines, 733 
Horse-power, 203 {.and see Formulce) 
Horse, Wooden, 718 
Hot-water Fittings, 13, 252, 605 
Hour Globes, 700 

House, Colouring, 333 ; Repairs, 303 
Hydraulic, Lift, 302, 716; Propulsion, 

Ice-cream Freezer, 91, 619 
Ice, Preserving, 78, 142 
Illuminating, 381, 606 
Illustrations, Newspaper, 716 
Impressions, 46 
Improving One’s Position, 94 
Incubators, 27, 75, 78, 91, 94, 141, 157, 
158, 188, 189, 235, 251, 283, 411, 459, 1 
477, 558, 571, 573, 605, 668, 731, 781, 

796, 811, 829 ; Damper, 461 
Index Rerum, 158 

Indiarubber, 604, 798 ; Arrow Shooter, 
398; Balls and Balloons, 302 ; 
Covering Steel, 798 ; Cutting 
Rings, 750; Felloes, 125; Hand, 814 ; 
Mat, 414, 558; Moulding Compo, 

635 ; Softening, 332, 798 ; Stamps, 
365, 430, 443, 633, 701; Substitute, 
221; Types, 619 
Influence Machine, 475 
Ink, 75, 604; Autographic, 206; Pos¬ 
ter, 430; Printers’, 158, 701; Re¬ 
moving Stains, 302, 493; Ticket 
Writers’, 158, 254, 493, 604 ; Trans¬ 
fer, 558. 622. 734 

Inking Roller Composition, 302 
Inlaying, 139, 171, 173, 188, 414, 446, 
606, 718, 780; with Fret Machine, 

797 ; Mother of’Pearl for, 13 
Insects in Woods, 556 
Inspectorship, 27, 525 
Insulating Compound, 364 
Insulation for Coil, 189 
Invention, 381, 494, 589, 827 
Invisible Printing, 622 

Iron, Angle, 60; Galvanised, 750; 
Lasts, 110, 412 

Ironwork, 108, 253, 635 ; Venetian, 796 
Ironmonger’s Spare Time, 764 
Ivorine, 556 

Ivory, Balls, 142; Carving, 14; Colour¬ 
ing, 350 ; Imitation, 302; Tablets, 
574, 686, 718 

Japanese Leather Papers, 428 
Japanning, 91. 318, 717 
Jewel Case, Making, 477 
Joints, Wiping, 124 
Junction for Water Pipe, 253 

Kaleidoscope, 445 
Kettle, to Clean “Fur,” 219 
Kiln, 93 

Kinetic Theory of Matter, 829 
Kites, 462 

Knife and Spoon, 445 

Knife, Treadle, 206 

Knitting, 78 [Cordage, 173, 715 

Knotting, Splicing, and Working 

Labels, Tin, 42, 442 
Lace Frame, 158, 430 
Lacquering, 43, 93, 637, 70S ; Brass, 14, 
254, 285, 364, 476, 750 ; Electro¬ 
plate, 795 ; Steel, 158 
Lam p, 253, 507 ; Explosions, 507, 603 ; 
Filling, 93 ; Magnesium, 62 ; 
Moderator, 156, 219, 268 ; Paraffin, 
156, 253 

Lantern, 28, 172, 187, 219, 235, 349, 365, 
683 ; Cabinet, 316 ; Carrier, 685 ; 
Curtain Rolling, 205; Lamp for, 
491 ; Lens, 604 ; Microscope, 749 ; 
Oil, 606; Slides, 204, 269, 557, 
829 ; Stand for, 299 
Lapidary Work, 542, 622, 718 
Lasts, 46, 252, 268, 307, 412 
Lathes, 11, 123, 286, 332, 428, 443, 475, 
539, 542, 621, 670, 684, 750, 779, 781, 

798 ; Angle for Centres, 413; 
Chuck, 716 ; Elizabethan Twist 
in, 443 ; Fan Power for, 733; Fret 
Saw, 444, 812; Headstock, 813; 
Mandrel for, 142, 206, 430, 446, 539; 
Overhead, 716; Rounding Wood 
in, 331 ; Speed, 651; Wheel, 300, 

Launch, 782 ; Screw, 606 [795 

Lead, Burning, 315, 716 ; Glass Work, 

Leather In Binding, 188, Buff, 238 : 
Patent, 268; Restoring, 462 ; 
Scrap, 46, 206 ; Skiver, 366 
Lenses, 653, 797, 798, 813, 827, 828 ; 
Mounting, 157 

Lettering, 397 ; Bottles, 188; Cart and 
Waggons, 187 ; Embossed, 286 ; 
on Opal, 171 

Letters, 828; Affixing, 620 ; Opal Glass, 
365, 398, 605 ; Removing from 
Leyden Jar, 508 'Glass, 398 

Life Buoy, 364 
TJfts, Hydraulic, 302, 716 
Lime, 429 

Limelight Apparatus, 220 
Lime Washing, 350, 509 
Lithography, 108, 157, 268, 286, 524 ; 
Reverse Transferring, 509; Trans¬ 
fer Paper, 509 ; Zinc Plates for. 
Locket, Repairing, 316 [509 

Locks, 77, 428, 429, 478, 590, 638, 763; 
Locomotive, 652, 812 [Picks, 78 

Looking-glass, 428 
Lubricant, 141 

Luminous Paint, 556, 637, 750, 798 

Machines, 94; for Advertising, 780; 
Bread, 286; Burnishing, 603 ; 
Cutting, 156 ; Lead Burning, 716; 
Milling, 124 ; Mitring, 62, 635 ; 
Pea Planting, 475 ; Power to 
Drive, 510; Rollers, 125; Sand 
Blast, 349; Tagging, 763 ; Wire 
Crimping, 539 ; Wimshurst’s, 445 ; 
Wood Slicing, 174; Wood-wool 
Making, 620; Wool Working, 
Machinery Oil, 331 1734 

Macramd Board, 811 
Magic Lantern, 604, 715 
Magnetic, Belt, 174, 349; Needle 
Poles, 44 ; Saturation, 73 
1 Magnetism, 765, 828 
I Magnets, 76, 251 
I Magpie, 652 



Mail Cart, 521, 653, 670; Handles, 111, 
Mandoline, 606 [510 ; Springs, 203 

Manganese, 319 

Mangle Hollers, 651, 731, 795, 811 
Maps, Colouring, 175 
Marble, 557 ; Cleaning, 961 ; Imita¬ 
tion, 398 ; Removing Stains, 317 
Marbling, 267, 115, 699, 795, 797 ; 

Colours, 45; Learning, 11 
Marine Glass 813 
Marionette, 510 

Marquetry, or Buhl Work, 16, 798 
Mast, Splicing, 523, 603 
Mastic Cement, 651 
Match Making, 733 
Mathematical instruments, 731 
Mats, 286, 111, 558, 590 [300 

Mattress, Spring, 206 ; Cleaning Tick, 
Meaning of Voltage and k.m.f., 332 
Measuring Instrument, 123 
Measuring Up, 782 
Mechanical Office Work, 620 
Medal, Copying, 381 
Medical Electricity, 175 
Medicine Chests, 316 
Melting Brass, 429 

Metals, 13 ; Hammered, 29 ; Soften¬ 
ing, 798 ; Strength of, 300 
Metal Work, 363 
Mice Cage, 14 
Microphone, 414, 780 
Microscope, 93, 459, 749, 796; Mount¬ 
ing, 252, 573; Objects, 798 ; Polari- 
Milk Pan, Rusty, 78 [scope, 587 

Mill, 590 

Mining, 414; Engineering, 334, 416 
Mirror, 459, 619; Hanging, 653; Sil¬ 
vering, 45; Wardrobe, 716 
Mitre Cutting, 478 

Mitre Shoot, 78 [798 

Modelling, Clay, 748; Wax, 206, 622, 
Models:—Boat, 556 ; Boiler, 814 ; 
Boiler for, 812, 827 ; Cardboard, 
14, 574, 702 ; Engines, 350, 493, 572, 
781; House, 301 ; Locomotive, 670, 
812 ; Ships, 14, 126, 635, 701, 733, 764, 
830; Steam Launch, 494, 590, 622, 
638; Wheels, 107; Working, 493; 
Yacht, 77, 91, 493, 572, 781, 830 
Mole Traps (see Traps) 

Monograms, 510, 558, 606, 798, 814 ; 
E.E., 379; N.H.H., 395: T.W.C., 
461; N.R., 590, 766 ; C.L. H., 667 ; 
J.D.B., 700; E.M.N.. 604; E.M.C., 
733; E H.S., 733; S.B., 779 
Mosaic Work, 459;. Flooring, 124 
Motion, 539 

Motors :—For Dynamo, 427 ; Electro, 

, 27. 93, 236, 365, 508, 636, 684, 732, 
813: Atkinson, 316; Griscom, 331, 
443; Manchester, 204; "Paddle- 
wheel,” 301; Water , 269; 332, 411, 
606, 766, 796; Demon, 542 ; Haag’s, 
782; Wind, 414, 764, and see 
Engines [Carbon Iffates, 286 
Mould for Lead Casting, 44; for 
Moulding, Compo, 331, 635; Lead 
Weights, 782 ; Plumbago, 188, 331 
Mounting, Engraving, 686 ; Etchings, 
524 ; Maps, etc., on Linen, 300, 573 
Mounts, 155, 173, 590, 828 
Musical Box, 29, 60, 652, 669 
Musical Instrument, 636 

Nails, 302 

Naval Architecture, 733, 830 
Nets, 430 
Netting, 491, 573 
Nickel Bath, 45 
Nose Instrument, 811 
Nut, Grip Lock, 781 

Ohm, The Standard, 283 
Oil, Boiled or Unboiled, 459, 542, 633: 
Delicate Machinery, 331; Light, 
798; Lubricating, 446; Marks, 
Removing, 331 [686 

Oil Colours, Quick-drying Medium, 
Oiled Paper, 300, 508 
Oil Paintings, 414; Cleaning, 349; 

Framing, 349 ; on Silk, 427 
Oilstone, 92, 718, 814 
Opal Glass Letters, 365, 398 
Optical Illusion in Advertising, 476 
Organ, 108, 382, 462, 493. 669, 779, 811 ; 
American, 91; Blowing, 446 ; 
Diapason, 190 ; Pipes, 219, 416 
Organette, Chords for, 76 
Oxide of Cobalt, 748 

Pack Sheeting, 525 
Paint, 125, 110, 411, 428, 444, 509, 667, 
797 ; for Art Metal Work, 555; 
Brushes, 797 ; for Cart, 189 ; for 
Cloth, 669 ; Enamel, 221 ; Filling, 
668 ; Gold, 574; Luminous, 556, 637, 
750, 798 ; Testing, 140 ; for Tickets, 
Painter, 140 [30 

Painting, 125, 250, 350, 509, 686, 702, 
715, 766, 814; Banner, etc., 798 ; 
Bird Cage, 237 ; Brushes, 652 ; 
Blinds, Venetian, 189 ; Coach, 91, 
539; Engine, 590; House, 108, 395; 
Lantern Slides, 61, 829 ; Poster, 
107 ; Pottery, 332 ; Scene, 605 ; on 
Silk, 235, 427 ; Tile, 444 ; Van, 539 

Panels, 619; Alabaster, 651; Back¬ 
ground for, 61; in Cabinet, 732 
Pantograph, 13, 187, 667, 795 
Paper, 604; Damp Proof, 350; Hang¬ 
ing, 398; Lanterns, 493; Letters, 
257 ; Making, 45, 702 ; Machine, 14 : 
Staining, 237; Wheels, 460; Wood 
Papering, 715 [Pulp, 460 

Papier-mache, 299, 332 
Paraffin, Mixing, 587 ; Stove, 590 
Parchment, Transparent and Water¬ 
proof, 44 

Paste, 733 ; Preserving, 477 
Patents, Taking out. Cost, etc., 45,77, 
155, 156, 203, 222, 366, 381, 444, 491, 
492, 508, 587, 620, 635, 683, 717, 763, 
813; Agents, 573, 619; Bicycles, 639, 
717 ; Colonial and Foreign, 491; 
Lock, 429; Patenting an Improve¬ 
ment on an Existing Patent, 412 ; 
Provisional Protection, 380, 492, 
542, 671 ; Receipt of Deposit, 749 ; 
Selling, 508; Specifications, 251, 

301, 492, 557; Tables, Various, 191; 
Use of the Word, 171 

Patterns, 189; Tinware, 300 
Pearl Setting, 284 
Pelican Writing Pencils, 107 
Pen, 142; Fountain, 142 
Pencil-holder, 45 
Pencil-sharpener, 380 
Penholder, 333 
Periscopic Glasses, 764 
Perpetual Motion, 492, 764 
Phonograph, 43, 78, 91, 173, 188, 220, 
331, 350, 366, 700, 750, 780; Cylin- 
Phosphor-bronze, 686 [ders, 429 

Photographs, Colouring, 142, 653; 
Mounting, 7X8; Sizes of, 462; 
Tinting, 443 

Photographer's Cabinet, 557 
Photographic Appliances, etc:—Bro¬ 
mide Enlargements, 127; Camera, 
13, 45, 91, 92, 190, 238, 270, 284, 331, 
334, 366, 380, 397, 443, 444, 459, 461, 
476, 477, 541, 556, 573, 605, 636, 654, 
670, 686, 811, 813, 814; Cam. Bel¬ 
lows, 158, 204,300; Camera (Enlg.), 
395,637; Chemicals, 444; Collodion 
Wet Process, 748; Dark Slides, 
459, 461, 476; Detective Camera, 
107, 300, 331 ; Developer, 347, 461 ; 
Developing, 76: Duplicating on 
Plate, 124; Dry-point Work, 444; 
Enamelling, 715; Enlarging, 91; 

302, 427, 509; Expedients, 779; 

Frames, 204, 620, 763, 812 ; Lenses, 
77 ; Negatives, 302, 381, 557, 652; 
Plates Backed, 797; Positives on 
Dry Plate, 510 ; Prints (Blue), 619, 
654; Re-touching Medium, 334; 
School, 715; Sensitised Paper, 
381; Shed, 716; Shutter, 348 ; 
Studio, 395, 620; Tents, 172; 

Transferring. 459; Varnish, 381, 
715; View Finder, 699 

Photography, 14, 204, 206, 270, 332, 348, 
683, 686, 718, 766; Chemistry of, 
315; Ferrotype, 364,443; Kallitype, 
828 ; on Metal, 763 : Pinhole, 428; 
on Wood, 284; on Zinc, 781 
Photo-lithography, 142, 219, 350 
Piano Matters, 61, 268, 269, 573, 5S9, 
717,731, 797, 829.; Damp, 717 ; Fairy 
Bells to, 28,268; Frets, 268; Front, 
717; Keys, 267; Panel, 139; Sticker 
Action, 267 ; Stool, 141, 300 ; Tun¬ 
ing Hammer, 268: Wrest Pins, 29 
Picture, 269; Cords, 237 
Picture Framing, 185, 283,349,587,590, 
603, 620, 652, 653; Circular, 557 ; 
Clay, 381; Cleaning Gilt, 429, 606 ; 
Cork, 828; Fretwork, 414: Gilding, 
398, 412, 443, 604; Mouldings, 222, 
635; for Photos, 204, 620, 763 
Pigeon-house, 285 
Pins, 622, 766 

Pipe, Mounting, 14, 92 ; Mouthpieces, 
188, 622, 798 : Vulcanite Stem, 476 
Pipe over Plinth, 381, 573 
Pitch, White, 427 
Planchette, 317 
Planing, 283, 588 
Plan ot the Heavens, 510, 638 
Plant Case, 12, 189, 749 
Plaster-of-Paris Cement, 364 
Plate, 795; Cleaning, 334 
Platelayers, 475 
Plate Racks, 30, 46 

Plating, 60,77, 124,267,779,781; Cycles, 
267, 508; Outfits, 174, 653; Strip¬ 
ping, 443 ; Nickel Plating, 45, 123, 
396, 491 ; Silver and Electro-plat¬ 
ing, 285, 316, 395, 397, 160, 475, 508, 
510, 571 

Platinum, 59 ; Contacts, 443 
Ploughs, 508 

Plumbago, 509, 635; Moulding, 331 
Plumbers’ Joints, 124. 171, 333 
Plush in Brackets, 620 
Plush Frames, 509 
Pneumatic Tires, 748 
Pointing, 542, 574 
Poisons, Sale of, 315 
Poker Work, 493 

Polishing, 44, 60, 75, 77, 94, 109. 12!, 
157, 171, 173, 203, 220, 254, 315, 381, 

411, 445, 462, 476, 494, 556, 653, 669, 
702, 780, 829; Alabaster, 59; Book¬ 
case, 318, 429; Cleanser, 462; 
Cracked and Dull, 315; Fillers. 
251; Fretwork, 653; Glaze, 716; 
Horns, 444, 445 ; Marble, 139, 651, 
668, 683 ; Pebbles, 638; Removing, 
188; Reviver, 238, 315, 397, 462; 
Table, 109; Tin, 716; Tool Handles, 
315; Vulcanite, 718; Walking 
Stick, 397 

Pompeian Blue, 190 
Porcelain Studies, 427 
Posters, Theatrical, 187 
Potash Solution, 702 
Praxinoscope, 254 
Prescription, 429 
Pressure Rivet, 348 
l J rinting, 92; Ink, 158, 701 ; Invisible, 
622; Letterpress, 222; Press, 283, 
317 ; Rollers, 303, 428 ; on Tin, 445 
Propeller Screws, 588 
Protection Stamp, 413 
Protractor, 349 
Puffs of a Locomotive, 652 
Pulleys, 475; Chain, 173; Loose, 395; 
Pumps, 13, 331, 398, 558 [Rope, 158 
Punch Trade, 413 
Punt, 446, 478 
Purses, Puzzle, 701 
Putty, 556; Hardened, 14 
Puzzle, 219, 572, 701 
Pyrotechny, 158 

Quartz, 206 

Quasi-square Turning, 811 

Rails, Circular. 221 
Rain-water Pipe, 764 
Rat Cage, 382 

Razors, 254; Case, 622 ; Paste for 
Sharpening, 475; Setting, 221; 
Strop, 347, 653 

Reading Stand, Invalid’s, 681 
Rearer, 459 

Reeds, Accordion, 251; Concertina, 
350 ; Harmonium, 126, 795 
Reflector, 316 
Refrigerator, 398, 574 
Registration of Designs. 510 
Resin, 556; Resin Box, 539 
Riddle, 270 

Rifle Rack, 60, 331, 494 

Ring, 651; Repairing, 477 

Roasting Jack, 686 

Rocking, Cradle, 558 ; Horse, 493, 781 

Roller Model, 91 

Rollers. Hoop, 94 

Roofs, 189; Iron, 364; Pitch of, 462 
Room, Removable, 205 
Rope Mats, 750 

Royal Engineers, Subjects for, 667 
Rule, A Two-foot Slide, 413 
Rushes, 525 
Rust, Removing, 220 
Rustic Woodwork, 414, Sll 

Sable Pencils, 205, 443, 604 
Saddlery, 780 ; Collar Hatties, 733 
Safes and Safe Locks, 462 
Sanitary Rail, 93 
Sauce, 445 

Saucepan, Capacity of, 159 
Saucer, Combination, 476 
Savings Bank, Brass, 492 
Saw Bench, 622, 766 ; Guard, 535 
Sawing, 748 

Saws, 107, 141, 332, 317, 398, 478, 574, 
637, 782 ; Band, 46, 190, 286,653, 700, 
813; Blade, 508 ; Buckling, 139,203, 
205; Circular, 14, 30, 46, 91, 94, 107, 
188, 203, 395, 492 ; Cracked, 253; 
Grinding, 188; Hammering, 188, 
235, 332, 525, 606, 699, 734; Hand, 
205, 523, 603, 763, 795; Rate, 187, 
235, 251, 299, 379, 491,635 ; Set, 652 ; 
Scales, 171 [Sharpening, 556 

Scene Painting. 43, 108, 141, 605, 716 
Scenic Artist, 267 
Scholarship, 493 
Scissors, Grinding, 221 
Scrapers, 459 
Scraps, 124 

Screens, 30, 26. 349, 556, 636 ; Cheval, 
748 ; Draught, 28, 556, 7S1; Scraps 
on, 429; Varnish for, 220 
Screwing Tackle, 606 
Screw Propeller, 588 
Screws, 10S, 654 
“ Scriptograph,” 220 
Sealing Wax, 206, 366, 686 
Set-pan, Repairing, 299 
Sewer Gas, 363 
Sewing Machines, 206 
Shafting, 459 
Shafts, Bent, 397 

Sharpening Clipping Machine, 110 
Shed, Price for, 157 
Sheet Metal Work, 523, 571. 603, 604 
Ship and Naval Craft, 556; Stoker, 349 
Shocking Coils (see Coils) 

Shooting Board, 108 
“ Shop ” Insertion, 573; Letters, 603 
Sieve, 46, 156 

Sign Writing, 125, 365, 397 ; Charges 
for, 156, 317 (and see Lettering) 

Silk Weaving, 331 

Silver, Bleaching, 173; Chloride Cell, 
781; Cleaning, 93 ; Foil, 60 
Silvering, Buttons, 124 ; Mirror, 45 ; 

by Nitrate, 44 (and see Plating) 
Size, 267, 637 ; from Parchment 
Skates, 653, 637, 766 [Scraps, 135 
Sketches, 717,827 

Skins, 94 ; Cleaning, 253; Curing, 30 ; 
Dyeing, 798 ; Preserving, 397 ; 
Softening and Mounting, 507,795 
Slab, 700 
Slate Pencils, 14 
Sledge, 608 
Sleepers, 524 
Slide Rest, 77, 219, 413 
Slide Rule, 333 
Slide Valve, 347, 653 
Soap, 77, 331, 332, 350 
Soda, 587 

Solder and Soldering, 30, 92, 174, 667 : 
Jewellery, 332 ; Lamps, 156; Pew¬ 
ter, 206 ; Rings, 477 ; Unsoldering, 
605 ; Whitening Joints, 126 ; Zinc 
Soldiers, Metal, 635 [to Brass, 491 
Solenoid, 316 
Spanner, 267 

Speaking Machine, and Tube, 43 
Speculum, Grinding, 13, 365 
Speed of Waggon, 315 
Spindles, 380, 539 
Spiral Cutters, 732 
Spirit Stand, 590 
Sponge, Slimy, 524 
Spoon Boxes, 301, 605 
Spray Diffuser, 526 
Springs, 189, 590; Steel, 61, 686, 734, 798 
Squat Ball Making, 445 
Squirrel’s Cage, 365 
Stains and Staining, 125, 203, 220, 285, 
315, 476, 525, 653; for Blackboard, 
620 ; Black and Ebony, 110, 172, 
332, 380, 445; Fishing Rods, 557; 
Floor, 220, 411; Green, 251, 269, 
668, 780; Ivory, 349; Mahogany, 
44, 60, 142, 716; Oak, 428; Red, 
349, 414, 716 ; Walking Stick, 187 ; 
Walnut, 254; Wicker, 462, 558, 
574 ; Xylonite, 701 

Stains, Monuments and Tombstones, 
Stair Blockwood, 636 1798 

Staircasing, etc., 108, 301, 493 
Stamping, 45 ; Relief, 43, 76 
Stationery, 299; Holder, 573 
Stay Bolts, 750 
Steamboat, 332 

Steam, Carriages, 62; Chest, 316 ; 

Consumption of, 795 
Steamers, Propeller for, 493 
Steamship Sarah Sands, 302 
Steel, Fastening to Cloth, 14; Har¬ 
dening, 588; Sheet, 171; Tubing, 

Stencils, 156, 1S9, 269, 444; Paper for. 
Steps, 829 [459, 590 

Stereoscope, 828 

Stereotyping, 110; Metal, 779 ; Plates, 
Stick liandles, 446 i635 

Still, 542, 620, 702 

Stones, Cleaning, 764, 798; Combe 
Down, 332; Preserving, 526, 638, 

Stove, 59 ; Cooking, 268; Enamel, 46, 
142, 524 ; Finishing, 700 ; Repair¬ 
ing, 173 ; Trivets, etc., 683 
Strainingand Mounting Tracings, 193 
Strength in Metal Work, 363 
Stuffing Fish, HO, 206 ; Bird, 188 
Sundial, 413, 445, 542, 685 
Surveying, 413 
Sussex " ’Drugs,” 619 
Switchback Railway, 764 
Sword Scabbard, Spots on, 31S 
Syphon, 62 

Table Alteration, 558 
Table for Bell-ringers, 383 
Table Shelf, 683 
Table-top Stand,'733 
Tailoring, 782 
Tank, Capacity of, 13, 670 
Taps, 622 
Tar Stains, 589 
Tarpaulin, 222, 396 

Telegraph, Instrument, 300, 814, 828; 

Wires, 91 
Telegraphing, 251 

Telephones, 91, 125, 508, 5S8, 6S6, 780; 

Bell, 587, 748 ; Lines, 733 
Telescopes, 379, 381, 444. 460. 621, 635, 
636; Astronomical, 701; Cleaning. 
190; Galilean, 541; Lenses, 571; 
Refracting, Achromatic Eye¬ 
piece, Magnifying Powers, 054, 
701; Speculum Grinding. 13. 365 
Tempering, etc., 188, 493 ; Axes, 573. 

731 [25i 

Terra-cotta, Mending and Stopping, 
Terra-cotta Plaques, 398 
Testing the Accuracy of Fraipcwork, 
427, 507, 523, 603, 683, 811 
Texts for Church Walls, ,>25 
Thermograph, 189 
Thermometer, 61, 220, 573, G53, 781 
Ticket Writing, 269; Ink, 158, 251, 
493, 601 

Tile Painting, Medium for, 114 



Timber, 286; Purchasing, 462 
Tin: — Boxes, 126, 203 ; Can Ear, 
604; Printing on, 302, 334,445; Run¬ 
ning, 413 ; Scrap, 334 ; Spangled, 
Tinfoil, 779 [268 

Tinners' Mixture, 267 [Spots, 429 
Tinning, Copper Pans, 315; Rusty 
Tips, 525, 651 

Tire Clincher, 604; Pneumatic, 478 
Tobacco, 45 [667 

Too! Chest, 142, 156, 222, 2SG, 299, 556, 
Tool. Cleaning, 140; Fitting, 188; 

Handles, 414; Tempering, 493 
Tools, 94,812Anvil, 699; Bevelling, 
299; Bits, 14, 158; Boot Making, 
283 ; Carpentry, 381, 718, 814; 
Carvers', 446, 494; Draw-knife, 
46; Drill Chuck, 239; Drills, 251, 
411, 492, 572, 750 ; Engravers’ 

Metal, 156; Gauge, 251, 333, 606 ; 
Glaziers’, 763, 764 ; Grainers', 268 ; 
Hammers, 699; Ivory Carving, 
14, 556; Panel Gauge, 606, 766 ; 
Plane Iron, 190 ; Plane, Chamfer, 
347; Ploughs, 700; Purfling Gauge, 
251; Rebating Cutter, 443 ; Rose 
Cutter, 469 ; Spanner, 556 ; Spiral 
Cutters, 732; Tinman’s, 716 ; Vice- 
bench, 461; Watch and Clock 
Making, 73, 141, 443; Wood Carv¬ 
ing, 172 ; Wood Screwing, 573, 654 
Tortoiseshell, Imitation, 667 
Toy Manufacturer, 605 
Toy Wheels, 619 
Trade, Choice of, 124 
Trade Marks, 348 
Tram Line Curves, 397 
Transfer Drawings, etc., 590, 731 
Transfers, Gold, 267 
Transferring, 459 ; Printed Matter, 78 
Transparleum, 14, 30 
Traps, Mole, 590, 606. 653, 763, 764, 
Trellis Work, 478 [782; Pigeons, 28 

Triple Expansions, 574 

Advertising, Machine, 314; Phono¬ 
graph, 538 

Air-pumps and their Construction, 
Alarum, 423 [498 

Amateurs, Woodworking for (see W) 
Ambulance, Simple, 151 
Analysis, Chemical, 37 
Appliances, 135, 179, 75$ 

Aquarium Cement, 410 
Arches, 375; for Garden, 739 
Armourers’ Hammers, 807 
Artistic Lithography (see Litho- 
Art Work in Leather, 818., [ graphy ) 

Ash-pan Making, 565 

Balloons, Toy, 134 
Barometers, 483 
Bassinette, 274 
Bath, A Fold-up, 845 
Batteries for Electro-gilding, 35 
Beading, 742, 762 
Beaumontage, 727 
Bedsteads and Fold-up Bath, 645 
Bench, 758 ; Stop, 647 ; Vice, 189 
Bent Iron, Hall Lantern,' 321 
Blinds, Venetian, 86 
Blowpipe, 810; and Spirit Lamp, 282 
Boiler, Explosions, 388 ; Scaling, 378 
Boiler Management (see Engine and 
Boiler Management) 

Bookbinders, Wrinkle for, 602 
Book-rest, 648; Bookshelf, 565 
Books, New Coverings for Old, 418 
Books :—“ The Amateur,” 58,122, 314, 
602, 698 ; “ Art Decorator,” 314 ; 
Astronomy, 522; Blaeksmithing, 
234 ; Building Construction, 586 ; 
Cabinet Making, 746; Church 
Decoration, 490 ; Colours for 
Marbling, 202 ; Cyclist, etc., 522 ; 
Decoration,490; “Discovery,” 570; 
Electrical, 378,714; “ Electrician ” 
Primers, 362; “Electro-Plater’s 
Handbook,” 58; Furniture De¬ 
signs, 506; Geometric Turning, 
202; Graining, 90, 634; “Guide to 
Dublin,” 522; “Light,” 650 ; “ Ma¬ 
chinery Market,” 170, 314, 602 ; 
Magnetism, 714; Manual Instruc¬ 
tion in Wood, 794; “Measures, 
Weights, and Moneys,” 186; Me¬ 
chanics’, 650; “ Mechanics’ Al¬ 
manack," Calvert's, 778 ; “ Optics 
of Photography and Photo. 
Lenses,” 826; Photographic De¬ 
velopment, 58 ; “Photography in a 
Nutshell," 90, 602: “Screws and 
Screw' Making,” 186 ; Sldjd, 330 ; 
Smith’s Tables, 202; “Success, 
and the Way Into It,” 26; Tables 
for Ascertaining Area of Super¬ 
ficies, 698; Telephone Handbook, 
826; Ventilation, 58; Watch and 
Clock Making, 346; “ Wood 

Carver,” 474, 826; Woodwork, 
298, 794 ; Catalogues, Price Lists, 
etc.: —Cox & .Co., 122; Garrett | 

Tubing, Gas fitters’ Compo., 829 
Tub, Pig-scalding, 30 
Tuck Pointing, 462, 542, 574 
Turkey's, 302 

Turned Surfaces, Finishing, 459 
Turning Designs, 557 
Turning, Patterns for, 445 ; Square, 14 
Type, 331, 523; Cases, 587; India- 
Type-writing, 828 [rubber, 019 

Umbrellas, Silk, 302,-443; Fittings, 
302; Materials, 364; Repairing 
Silver Handle, 443 ; Sticks, 443. 
542 [590, 702, 733, 731, 781 

Upholstery, 124, 286, 379, 398, 430, 462, 

Vacuum Pans, COG 
Valve, 238, 572 ; Cornish, 540 
Vapour Bath, 331 

Varnish and Varnishing, 44, 75, 139, 
220, 237, 379, 398, 411, 556, 557, 702, 
765, 811; Black, 416, 510, 558 ; Black¬ 
thorn, 555 ; Bookbinders’, 414 ; 
Carriage, 123, 235, 254 ; Colourless, 
397; Copai, 268, 379, 42S, 509; 
Cycles, 443 ; for Floorcloth, 428 ; 
for Leather, 733 ; Oil, 555 ; Photo¬ 
graphic, 381, 715 ; Shellac, 699; 
Stain for, 315; Transparent, 477 ; 
Violin, 253, 443, 715, 827 ; Walking 
Sticks, 429 ; for Zither, 636 
Vellum, 765, 812 
Velocity of Gases, etc., 699 
Veneering, 76. 171, 587 
Ventilation, 93, 603, 701 
Ventriloquism, 606 : Dolls for, 493 
Views, Coloured, 45 
Villas and Cottage Plans, 27 
Violin, 30, 45, 46, 94, 111, 286, 302, 651, 
683, 827 ; Bass Bar, 333 ; Bridges, 
188, 301; Case, 635 ; Split in, 189 ; 
Varnish, 253, 443, 715, 827 
Violoncello, 141, 221, 318, 636 
Voting, Mechanical, 619 

Vulcanite, Joining, 430; Pipe-stem, 
476; Polishing, 718; Tubing, 701 

Wages, 475, 764 
Walking Sticks, 238, 476 
Wall Papers, Washable, 542 
Walls, Decoration of, 428; Dry, 556; 

Tarred, 542, 797 
Wardian Case, 493 
Waste Products, 779 
Watches, 78, 93, 300, 652; American 
Lever, 123 ; Ancient and Curious, 
747 ; Case, 412; Case Engraving, 
427 ; Cylinder, 382; De-magnctis- 
ing, 605; Geneva, 111 ; Jobbing, 
718; Movement, 493 ; Oil, 315; 
Parts, 540; Plates, 475; Springs, 
363; Tools for Cleaning, 141; 
Verge, 187 ; Waltham, 635 
Watch Key, 477, 492 
Watchmakers, Papers for, 526 
Water, Aspirator, 670 ; Delivery, 
29, 60; Power, 92; Spray, 189; 
Wheel, 718, 765 
Water Colours, 574. 686 
Waterproof, 140, 558 ; Cloth, 348, 556, 
620'; Cotton, 396; Covers, 509; 
Glue, 428, 542, 574,590,638; Leather, 
413 493 

Wax, ’ 286; for Carvers, 157; for 
Modelling, 206, 622, 798 
Weather-glass, 670, 796 
Wheel of Life, 493 

Weights of Copper, G68 ; of Cordage, 
139; of Galvanised Iron Sheets, 
Wheelbarrow, 811 [etc., 443 

Wheels, 77, 107, 269. 398, 619, 669 ; for 
Back Gear, 28; Cart, 670, 764 ; 
Cast Steel, 349; Clock, 414; Cog, 1 
588, 653 ; Cutting, 61, 219 ; Emery, ! 
700, 716 ; Fly, 539 ; Paper, 334, 460 ; I 
Setting out Teeth, etc., 142; Speed i 
of, 237; Spokes, 59 ; Toothed, 411; ! 
Toy, 619 


and Son, 122; Hobday’s, 474 ; 
Melhuish’s, 826; Photographic 
Annual, 122 

Boot and Shoe Repairing Soling 
and Heeling Tools, 113 ; Patching, 
201; Invisible Patching, Blind- 
stab, 279; Underlaying, Toe- 
piecing, Loop-stitch, Seat-stitch, 
How to Stitch-draw, 345; Half 
Heeling, Keep Heels Level, 404; 
To Re-welt and Re-sole Hand- 
sewn Work, 515 

Boots, Mechanical Blacking, 426; for 
Shortened Le^, 490 : Cycling, 378 ; 
Drying-horse tor, 313 
Boring Square Hole with Centre-bit, 
Box for “ Work," 36 [26 

Box, Folding, 503 ; Glass-topped, 282 
Bracket, 198 
Brazing, 356, 375 
Briquettes, Smokeless, 373 
Bronze, To Imitate, 602 
Bruises in Wood, How to Raise, 183 
Brush for Bottles, 314 
Brush, How to Tie a Painter's, 231 
Butchers’ Trays, 697 
Butter, Cooler, 826; Dish, 82 
Button, Bachelor’s, 394 

Canopy for Bed Hangings, 241 
Carpentry for Stage (see Stage) 
Carriage Jack, 138 
Cart, ‘‘Tip," 402 ; Painting, 403 
Case Hardening, 770 
Cask Tiller, 266 
Castings, Sheet Iron in, 442 
Castography, 314 [106 : “ Ideal,” 410 

Castor, Ball-bearing, 218 ; Cantilever, 
Ceilings, Panelling, 825 
Cement, Aquarium, 410; Hard-and- 
Fast, 602 ; for Lamps, 26 
Chain-coupling Link, 759 
Chamfers, 742 [ti ties, 199 

Charcoal, To Prepare in Small Quan- 
Chess-iable, 770 

Chicken-rearing Appliances, etc., 738 
Child’s Carriage, “victor,” 427 
Chimney-pot or Cowl, 266; Smoky, 
and How to Cure them, 281 
Chimneys, Clearing of Jackdaws’ 
Nests, 375 [514 

Clarionette Repairs by an Amateur, 
Classes : — City Polytechnic, 522 ; 
Goldsmiths’ and Jewellers’, 522 ; 
Finsbury School, 522 ; Wood 
Carving, 506 

Clock Case, Carved, 384, 473 
Clock, Mysterious or Gravity, 818; 

A Perpetual Electric, 347, 362 
Clothes Peg, Novel Use for, 250 
Collar and Saddle Lining, 730 
Colour Applied to Form, 209 
Colour in our Homes, 689 
Colours, Lithography, 457 ; Marbling, 
Conjuring Tricks, 330 [202 

Constructive Strength in Metal W ork, 
52,162, 275, 630 

Coops for Hens, etc., 787 
Copier, The Cyltine Manifold, 554 
Copper Welding, 426 
Copyright in Design, How to Secure, 
562, 674, 722; in Sculpture, 790 
Cordage (see Knotting, etc.) 

Cork Work, 761 

Cottages, Specification and Design, 
Cranes and Hoists, 184 [723 

Cycles, Anti-vibrator for, 407; House, 
514, 585 ; “Ring” Cushion Tire, 
154; Safety Stand and Home 
Trainer, 634 ; Tires, 378; Winter 
Care of, 615 ; and see also Safety 
Cycle Boots, 378 [Bicycle 

Cyltine Manifold Copier, 551 

Dadoes, Wall, 754 
Decoration, 662 ; Drawing - room 
Stencilled, 17 ; Fireplace, 657 
Designs for Chess - table, 770 ; for 
Cottages, 723 ; for Fretwork, etc., 
458 ; for Furniture, 506 ; for Re¬ 
pousse Work, 376; for School, 488 
Dish in Repoussb Work, 300 
Dog- Muzzles, 532 
Door, 628, 632 ; Plate-glass, 439 
Dove-cot, Rustic, 289 
Dovetail, 389, 691 
Draught Excluder, 50G, 698 
Drawers, to Make, 258, 310 ; Bearers, 
Drawing, Mechanical, 105 [374 

Dresser for Kitchen, 529 
Drilling Glass or Porcelain, 533 

Early Riser’s Friend, 423 
Ear-rings and other Ornaments, 20, 
Easel, An Artist’3, 613 [101, 164 

Egg Saucepan, Patent Signal, 442 
Electric Beil, Converting Hand-bell 
to, 803 [730 

Electric Clock, 347, 362 ; Night Light, 
Electrical Machine, and Accessory 
Apparatus, 465, 582, 658, 755 
Electrical Novelties, Jewellery, etc., 
503; Plant Growing, 347 
Electrolysis, Commercial, 538 [282 

Electro-Medical Apparatus, Sehall’s, 
Enamels, Silico and Club Black, 362 
Enamel Letters, 506 
Engine and Boiler Management, 
229, 290, 354, 403 

Engine, How to Make a Quarter H.P. 
Steam, 22, 87, 258, 327, 419, 500, 579, 
646, 7,06, 778 

Engines, 403 ; Ammonia Gas, 426 ; 
Hot-air, 314, 570, 585; Petroleum 
(Capitaine’s), 618 ; Small Launch, 
Envelopes, 378 [346 

Etching on Glass, 330 
Exhibition, Art Work, 766 
Expanding Casket, 403 
Fidbt,e-case, 423 
Fire Escape, 186 ; Fire-guards, 600 
Fire Extinction cn Board Ship, 362 
Fireplace, Decoration of, 657 [565 

Fitment to Hang above Harmonium, 

Whip Handies, 622, 702, 750 
Whip Stand, 590 
Whistle, Brass, 142 
White Metal, 622, 718 
Whitewashing, 363, 395, 556, 636 
Wicker Stains, 462 
Windmill, 414 ; Sails, 222 
Window Cleaning, 27, 46; Frames, 
301, 795; Sash, 397 ; Steaming, 46 
Window Flower Box, 141 
Wiping Joints, 121, 333 
Wirework, 394, 619, 702, 811 ; Basket, 
43 ; Blind Writing, 187 ; Crimping, 
542 ; Covered Wire, 460; Wall, 670 
Wood Balls, 142; Bleaching, 669; 
Imitation, 797 ; Insects in, 556; 
Merchants, 108; Purchasing, 782 
Wood Block Surface, 605 
Wood Carving, 75, 77, 157, 172, 444, 
782, 795; Bedstead, 300 : Compo, 
779 ; Markets for, 622; Patterns, 
187 ; Prizes, 107 ; Writing Cabinet, 
Wooden Horse, 590 (108 

Wood Engraving, 332 
Wood Pulp, 350, 446 
Woods, 109, 141, 287, 349 ; Briar, 142 ; 

Pitch Pine, 125 ; Red, 573 ; White, 
Wood-Turning, 110, 158, 228, 557 [653 

Woodworking, Short Lessons in, 795 
Wool Winder, 621, 765, 782, 798 
Wool-working Machinery, 734 
Work-box, 365, 781 
Workshop, 205, 395, 571 
Worm and Wheel, 269 
Writing-desk, 523, 556, 683, 732, 765 

Xylonite, 109, 238, 251, 286, 348, 366, 
381, 556, 574, 652, 748 ; Staining, 701 
Xylophone, 109 

Zincography, 732 
Zither, 302, 541, 557, 668, 701, 747, 
828 ; Tuning, 588; Wood for, 652 

Flask, Workman’s, 666 

Flower Holder, 505 

Flute, Clarionettes, etc., Repairs, 514 

Fly-wheel to Shaft, Fitting, 358 

Folding Boxes, 503 

Foot-warmer, 806 

Forge, Portable, for Amateurs, 705 
Frames, Plush-covered, 594 
Framing Woodwork, 67 
“ Frederick Crane ” Chemical Com¬ 
pany’s Specialities, 26 
Fret Saw Machine, 59 
Fretwork, Designs, 151, 448 ; Glove 
Box, 39; Music Canterbury. 3; 
Panels, 546; Automatic Savings 
Box, 810; in Xylonite, 130 
Furniture and its Glass, 39 
Furniture:— Armchair, 664 ; Bed¬ 
room Suite, Combination, 341 ; 
Bookcase, 353, 438, 663 ; Bookcase 
and Writing Cupboard, 1; Cabi¬ 
net, 433, 578; Chair, 790; Coal Box 
and Music Stand, 439 ; Drawers, 
Chest of, 791; Hail Stand, 50, 213 ; 
Hat O’ Clothes Stand, 266; Medi¬ 
cine Cupboard, 233, 518; Music 
Canterbury, 3; Music Stand, 439 ; 
Ottoman Couch, 824; Secretaire, 
642; Table, 121; Table, Box Top, 
404 ; Table, Folding, 808 ; Wall 
Mirror, 664 ; Wardrobe, 150, 178 ; 
Whatnot, 369; Writing Cupboard 
and Bookcase, 1 ; Writing Table 
and Bookcase, 353 

Galvanometer, 170 
Games, etc., 362 

Garden, Arches, 739; Label, 218 ; Tool 
House, 225 ; Tubs and Boxes, 129 
Gas Globes, Wire, 532 
Gas Meter, 425 
Gilding Picture Frame, 262 
Girders, 630 

Glass, Cleaning, 184; Door-plate, 
489; Drilling, 538; Etching on, 
330 ; in Furniture, 39, 116 
Gluing, 561, 822; Springs for, 439 
Gold Paint, 119, 186 
Graining, Transfer Sheets, 250 
Graph, 601 

Greenhouse Sashes, 482 
Grindstone, A Workshop, 450 
Gutta-percha Substituted 410 

Hall, Corner Closet for the, 145 
Hall Lantern in Bent Iron, 321 
Hall Stand, Substitute for, 213 
Hardening, 546 

Hard Stopping or Beaumontage, 727 
Harness, Improvements in, 487 ; 

Linings, 730; Pads, 743 
Harp, iEolian, 317 
Hat-pegs, Handy Row of, 518 
Heating Apparatus, 742 
Holdfasts for Wood Carvers, etc., 455 
Homacoustic, The, 762 
Honey Extractors, 298 



House, Making' the Best of a Bad. 

419, 548, 617, 649. 760. 7S9 
Houses, Sanitary Fittings, 44, 295 
Hydraulic Propulsion, 442 

Incubator, etc., 610, 738 [74 

Indiarubber “ Grip ” Handle Cover, 
Ink Blots, Removing, 538 
Inks, Proctor’s “ Defiance ” Writing, 
Insulating Material, 330 [74 

Inventors, Hints to, 314, 330, 346, 362, 
378, 394, 410, 426, 442, 506, 538 
Iron, Cast, Columns, 246 
Iron or Steel, to Discover Flaws, 330 

Jack, Carriage, 138 

Kallitype, Improvements in, 678; 

Photo Printing Process, 306 
Keltic Ornaments, Examples of, 722 
Kitchen Dresser, 529 
Knife and Spoon, 330 
Knotting, Splicing, and Working 
Cordage: —Introduction, Calcu¬ 
lating Strain of Rope, 6 ; Simple 
Knots, Joining .Ropes, 65 ; Eye 
Ifnots, 137; Hitches and Bends, 
199 ; Ring Knots, 244; Shorten¬ 
ings, 309; Ties and Lashings, 361; 
Fancy Knots, 468, 551; Splicing, 
613; Working Cordage, 676; 
Pointing a Rope, Mainstay, Shear 
Legs, Hammock Clews, Stern 
Ladder, Mat-making, Conclu¬ 
sion, 725 

“ Kristaline,” 202 

Labour-saving Appliances, 441 
Lacquers, 26, 202 

Lamps:—For Magic Lantern, 597 ; 
Microscope, 51; Spirit and Blow¬ 
pipe, 282 ; Wicks, Trimming, 26 
Landing Nets, 775 
Lantern, Lamp for, 597 
Lathe, 10, 453, 567, 694; Attachment 
for, 666 ; Chuck, 490; Prize Holly, 
Lead Joint Runner, 425 [714 

Lengthening a Revolver Sight for 
Long-distahce Shooting, 775 
Letters, Enamel, 506 
Lighting Arrangements in Tem¬ 
porary Decoration, 593 
Lithography, Artistic : — Printing 
Surfaces, Stone, Zinc, Transfer 
Paper, 19 ; Materials, Technical 
Work, Stipples, 149; Technical 
Work, Stippling, 231; Chalk 
Work, 296, 386; Practical Work, 
Colour, 451; Practical Work, 
Conclusion, 530; Colours, 457 
Locks, Tubular Reversible, 314 
Locomotive, Something about the 
“Puffs” of a, 406 

Machines Cutting Diamond Pat¬ 
tern, 170; Dovetailing, 602 ; Drill¬ 
ing, 10; Mitring and Squaring, 
9; Mitre, Eclipse, 170; Perforat¬ 
ing, 458; Planing, 346 
Macramd Board, 681 
Making the Best of a Bad House :— 
The Study, 449, 548, 617, 649; En¬ 
trance Hall, Staircase, Front 
Door, Study Door, Walls, 709; The 
Dining-room, 760, 789 
Mandoline Matters, 777 
Mantelboards, 265 

Masons’ Work: — Introductory, 
Various Styles, Various Stones, 
Weight and. Crushing Stress of 
Stones, 98; Tools, Scaffolding, 
Hoists and Cranes, Centres, 
Mortar, Cement, and Concrete, 
Foundations, Setting - out, 184 ; 
Damp Course, Footings, Walling, 
Pointing, Dressing Stones, 263 ; 
Workshop, Drawing, Moulds, 
Ordering Stones, Setting, Dowels, 
etc., Window Sills, Yorkshire 
Paving and Kerb, 323 ; Stair¬ 
cases, Arches, Niches, Chimney- 
pieces, Measuring, 375 
Means, Modes, and Methods, 26, 119, 
151, 183, 234, 250, 375, 439, 601, 647 
Meat Safe, 216 

Mechanical Drawing for Teachers, 
Medicine Cupboard, 233, 518 [105 

Metal Work, Constructive Strength 
in, 52, 162, 275, 630 

Metal Work, Screws in, 69 
Metal Work (see Sheet) 

Microscope, Sub-stage and Polari- 
scope for, 631 

Microscopic Sketching, Camera 
Lucida, 325 
Mirrors, 518 
Mitres, 67, 809 
Money-box, 73 

Motors, Model Electric, 71,785; Water, 
Mouldings, 67, 742, 762 [122 

Mounting Canvas for Painting, 644 
Mounts, 518 
Mousetraps, Paper, 394 

Nail, Double-pointed, 570 
Nests in Chimneys, Clearing, 375 
Netting, Hints on, 535 
Nut Cracker, 218 
Nut, Double Grip, 618 

Oil Painting, Mounting Canvas 
for, 644 

Orrery, Patent Revolving, 730 
Our Guide to Good Things, 10, 26, 58, 
74, 90, 106, 122, 138, 154, 170, 186, 
202, 218, 234, 250, 266, 282, 298, 314, 
330, 346, 362, 378, 394, 410, 426, 442, 
458, 474, 490, 506, 522, 538, 554, 570, 
586, 602, 618, 634, 650, 666, 682, 698, 
714, 730, 746, 762, 778, 794, 810, 826 

Pads to Open and Release a 
Fallen Horse, 743 [657 

Painting, .689 ; Cart, 403; Fireplace, 
Paints, Heat-resisting Mastic, 6S2 
Panels, 67, 713, 822 
Paper, 378 

“ Passe-Partouts,” and other Decora¬ 
tive Matters, 662 

Patentees, Words to Would-be, 182, 
Pattern Making, 277 [213 

Pencil, 378 

Penholder, Novel Combination, 293 
Perspective, Stage, 417,455, 499 
Photographic ; — Camera, Airedale, 
234; Camera, Hand, 474; Camera 
Case, 660; Dark Room Light, 
279 ; Dark Slide, 426; Fixing 
Tank, 386; Instantaneous Shut¬ 
ter Roller Blind, 408 ; Kallitype, 
306, 678; Lens Shutter Adapters, 
821; Photographine, 234 ; Plate¬ 
draining Rack, 134; Tents, 151, 
216; Transparencies, 695 
Photographic Advertising, 538 
Photographic Expedients, 581 
Photography as a Means of House 
Decoration, 695, 744 
Photography, Novel Use for, 51? 
Piano, Decoration of, 745 ; Hammers, 

PictureFrames:—Fastening Corners, 
119; Gilding, 262; Gold Paint for, 
119; Oxford Frames, 24 
Picture Cord Grip, 442; Hanging, 
184; Suspender, 554 
Pigeon-holes, Nest of, 103, 249 
Plane, 551, 567, 579 
Plants, Electrical Growing, 317 
Plating, Silver, 118; Gold, 35, 82 
Platinum, Substitute for, 506 
Pointing, 264 
Poker Work, 538 

Polishing, French, 9; Bodying in, 
194, 226; Chat with a French 
Polisher, 278; “ Dry Shining," 406; 
Fillers, 166; Glazing, 333; Rub¬ 
ber, 53; Spiriting off, 293 
Polishing, Metal, 102 
Porch for Cottage or Small Villa, 161 
Poultry Farm, 673, 728 
Printing of Stereos, Rapid, 442 
“ Puffs ” of a Locomotive, 406 
Puzzle Money-box, 73 
Pyrography, 538 

Raising Heavy Weight, 53 
Razor, How to Strop a,. 7 
Razor Strops, 390 
Reading Stand, 648 
Reamers, Hints on, 343 
Repoussb Work, 306, 657, 665; Finger 
Plates or Panels in, 376 
Resonance Box, 823 
Retort Stand, 538 
Revolver, Lengthening Sight, 775 
Rope Strain, 6 

Rustic Woodwork, 129, 161, 193, 225, 
257, 289. 505 

Saddles, 566 ; Linings, 730 
Saddler’s Clamp, 470 
Safety Bicycle, Its Practical Con¬ 
struction, etc.: — Introduction, 
Gear-up, Tools, etc., 33; Positions 
of Rider, Saddle, Handles, and 
Pedal Shaft, Steering Line, 
Handle - bars, Pneumatic and 
Cushion Tires, 99; Drawing and 
Steering Barrel, Handle - bar, 
Tubes and Mud-guards, L-Pin, 
Materials, 167 ; W heels, 227; 
Turning and Fitting Parts, 307 ; 
Brazing, Socket Joints, 356; 
Brake, Mud - guards, Driving 
Axle and Chain Wheel, Cranks 
and Pedals, Saddle and Spring, 
435; Enamelling, Nickel - plated 
Parts, Rubber Tires and Fixing, 
Fitting Together, Accessories, 
521 • Final Re-fitting up, Acces¬ 
sories, Hints to Cyclists, Care of 
Machine, 595 

Sanitary Fittings of Houses, 295 
Sashes ( see Window Making) 

Sash Fasteners, 154 [Hand, 421 

Saws, Bow, 518; Circular, 26, 294 ; 
Saw, Repairing Circular, 294; Set¬ 
ting, 370, 422 ; Sharpening, 421 
Saw, Use of, 598, 612 
Scaffold Chain, 378 
Scaffold and Hoist, 138, 184 
Scaling (Boiler) Preparations, 378 
Scarf, Ornaments, 771; Rings, 804 
School, Design for, 488 
Sciseophone, 330 
Sconces, 518 

Scraper, How to Sharpen, 474 
Screws, 69, 132, 743, 808 
Scribing-blocks, 457 
Sheet Iron in Castings, 442 
Sheet Metal Work -.—Oval and Cy¬ 
lindrical Vessels— 358,471. Square 
and Oblong Vessels, 536 
Shelves, 518, 822 

Shirt Studs, etc.. Patent Fastener, 90 
Shop, 11, 27, 43, 59, 75, 91, 107, 123, 139, 
155, 171, 187, 203, 219. 235, 251, 267, 
283, 299, 315, 331, 347, 363, 379, 394, 
411, 427, 443, 459, 475, 491, 507, 523, 
539, 555, 571, 587, 603, 619, 635, 651, 
667, 683, 699, 715, 731, 747, 763, 779, 

Shopping Casket, Expanding, 409 
Shutters, Revolving, 248 
Slippers, Leather, How to Make, 531 
Smiths, Practical Papers for, 310, 
Punching and Drifting, 371 ; 
Working of Steel, Iron and Steel, 
Heating, 486; Hardening and. 
Tempering, 546; Tempering 
Mixtures, 710; Case Hardening, 
Model Work, Die Forging, 770 ; 
Arrangemen t of Shops, Machines, 
and Tools,- 802 
Smokeless Briquettes, 378 
Soldering Iron, Gas-heated, 330 
Specification for Pair of Cottages, 725 
Splicing (see Knotting, etc.) 
Spontaneous Combustion on board 
Vessels, 362 

Springs for Gluing Purposes, 439 
Spurs with Concealed Rowels, 458 
Stage Carpentry ;—Profile, Covering 
Boards with Canvas, Gluing, Set 
Pieces, Wings, 561 ; Doors and 
Windows, Springs, Dogs, etc., 
Vampires, 632; Borders, Ground 
Rows, etc., 712; Rollers, 792 
Stage Perspective, 417, 455, 499 
Staining, Mahogany, 119 ; Black, 601; 

Brown, 439 ling, 74 

Steam Pipes, Non-conducting Cover- 
Stone Carving, Scraps of, 357 
Stone-work, etc. (see Masons’ Work ) 
Stucco-work, Artificial, 362 
Suggestions for Workers and Hints 
to Inventors (see Inventors) 
Sussex “ Trugs,” 697 

Tables, Folding, 808; Fixing Tops 
of, 8; Round, 121 
Tambourine, 116 

Tangent Galvanometer for Wood 
Turners, 56 

Tanks, their Shape, Capacity, and 
Weight of Contents, 630 

Taps and Reamers, Hints on, 343, 743 
Tea-tray, Oak, 824 
Telescope, A Four-draw, 598 
Tempering, 516, 710 
Tenons, 67 

Thermometer, How to Make a, 181 
Tiles, Design for, 657 
Tins, What to do with Empty, 647 
Tool Chest, 801 

Tools Bench Block, 229 ; Broach, 
243; Cramp, 21 ; Drill Stock, 325 ; 
Drilling, 825; Gauges, 458; Ham¬ 
mers, 807; Rimer, 243; Smiths', 
802; Vice, 169, 711, 810; Wire¬ 
working, 119 

Trade Notes and Memoranda, 94 
Trammels, their Uses and How to 
Make Them, 615 
Traps, Mouse, 394 ; Rat, 184 
Trestles, About, 338 
Tricycles (sec Cycles) 

Tuning Metronome and Monochord 
for Amateur Tuners, etc., A, 627 
Type-writers, 347 

Varnishes, 212 
Venetian Blinds, 86 
Verandah, Rustic, 193, 257 
Violin, [How to Make It, 4, 83, 146, 
211; Bow, 647 ; Case, 423 
Voting, Mechanical, 538 

Wall Coverings, 625 
Wall Papers, To Clean, 179 
Warming-pan, 775 
Wash-tub, How to Make, 46S 
Waterproof Cloth, 110 
Weather Glass, 483 
Wedges, 67 
Welding Copper, 426 
Wheatstone Metre Bridge, 373 
Wheel, Fitting to Shaft, 358 ; Rubber 
Felloe, 505 

Whip Crock, Girth-tightening, 711 
Willesden Paper, 674 
Window and Door Grip Fastener, 154 
Window Making, 632; Greenhouse 
Sashes or Dead Lights, 482; Roof 
Lights, 547 ; Sashes, 679, 775 
Window Box, 394 

Wirework in all its Branches -In¬ 
troductory, Crimping, 7 ; Wire 
Gauze, 55; Crimping Machines, 
Benches, Tools, 119; Straighten¬ 
ing, Soldering, Galvanising, Tin¬ 
ning, Lacquering, The “Swift,” 
153 ; Crimping, Putting Together, 
Meshes, Guiding Boards. Slides, 
195; Twisting, TwistingMachine, 
244; Lacing, Shuttle, Splicing, 
Cutting-up, 291; Scroll Irons, 
“ Gothics,” 339; Worm Block, 
Tying, Frames, Knuckles, 393 ; 
Peg Latticing, Hexagonal Mesh, 
437 ; Rat Traps, 484 ; Dog Muzzles 
and Gas Globes, 532; Fire¬ 
guards, Bodging, Stay-bars, Eye- 
wires, Hooks, 600; Toasting- 
forks, Grid-irons, etc., 691; Gar¬ 
den Arches, 739 ; Hen Coops, 
Pea-guards, 787 [375 

Wood-carvers’ Holdfast, 455: Screw, 
Wood Carving, 82, 170; Case for 
Clock, 384, 473; Classes for, 506 
Woodwork, Framing, 67 
Woodworking for Amateurs In¬ 
troduction, Listof Tools, 535 ; The 
Plane, 551, 567, 579; The Saw, 
598, 612 ; Setting - out, Squares 
and Gauges, 632, 647, 666; Setting- 
out, Halving and Dovetail Halv¬ 
ing, 691 ; Boring Holes, Panels 
and Frames, 713; Mouldings, 
Chamfers, Beads, etc., 742, 762; 
Hard Wood, 778 ; Curved Lines, 
794; Mitres and Scribes, 809; 
Fixing Shelves, Putting Work 
together, 822 
Wood Turning, 56 
Work-table, 821 

“Work,” Book-box for, 36; Rules 
for Contributors and Correspon¬ 
dents, 42 

Workshop Appliances, 135, 179, 758 

Xylonite for Fret-sawyers, 130 

Zither, 390; Stringing, 550 

An Art Supplement is given Gratis with this Number. 

ft /. 


Wt) R K 

&it 3Uustvatcil Magazine of practice and (JTIjeorj) 


[All Jlights reserved.] 

Vol. III.—No. 105.] SATURDAY, MARCH 21, 1891. [Price One Penny. 

closed. 1 [Fig. 2. 


Cupboard open. 



Utility of Cupboard—Construction—Bookcase 
and Book Boxes—Small Cupboard at Top 
—Plinth—Dimensions and Mode of Making 
—Backboard — Doors—Pediment — Revolv¬ 
ing Bookshelves—WhitingFlap—Finishing. 

Many a man may find such an article as I 
have designed for this week a welcome 
addition to his home. I say “ home,” 
because I have specially intended it to be 
of more service there than in business de¬ 
partments, although in the latter it would 
certainly be found very useful. In most 
offices, however, the adjustable writing flap 
would not have much advantage over the 
ordinary writing-desk tables, as very few 

men indeed would like to clear the papers 
from it every night in order to shut up the 

But, as before said, in the home it may 
find a welcome. There are several persons 
who find it a matter of necessity, or perhaps 
pleasure, when they are within their homes, 
to write or study occasionally; and this 
combined bookcase and writing table, pos¬ 
sessing, as it does, a few advantages over 


A Writing Cupboard , with Adjustable Flap , aac. [Work-March 21, i 89 i. 

ordinary articles of the kind, will enable 
them to do so as comfortably and conveni¬ 
ently as possible. 

As may be seen by a glance at Figs. 1 and 
2, very little trouble will be occasioned to 
put the article into position for use as a 
writing table or bookcase. The cupboard 
has, in front, a flap and a rather wide framing 
hinged together. In opening the cupboard, 
the catch at the top of the flap is released, 
and an arrangement (of which more will be 
said later on) prevents the top edge of it 
coming from between the cupboard sides, 
with the natural result that (the bottom of 
the lower framing being hinged as in Figs. 
1 and 2) the flap is adjusted on the slope, 
and is adequately supported by the lower 
framing, etc. 

The framing is much to be preferred to a 
solid board, as there will then be sufficient 
accommodation for the knees of the person 
who may be writing at the article. 

The other feature of the cupboard, and 
one that will, I think, be considered a novel 
and useful one, is that of the bookcase being 
so made and fixed as to revolve horizontally. 
The advantage of this feature will, perhaps, 
be readily conceived. A series of boxes, of 
which one is shown in Fig. 16, all of one 
size, or of different dimensions (provided, in 
the latter case, space is properly allotted for 
their movements), are pivoted between two 
circular boards, which, in their turn, are 
pivoted to the sides of the cupboard. A 
person may be occupied writing at the desk, 
and find it necessary now and again to make 
reference to some particular volume or paper 
in his possession. With the ordinary secre¬ 
tary bookcase, supposing the volume required 
was on the top shelf, this would necessitate 
his rising from his seat; and in the present 
case, with so large a writing flap, this would 
be found doubly inconvenient; but as the 
shelves revolve horizontally, the volume can 
be obtained by turning the boxes until that 
one in which it is contained comes round to 
the front. 

If all the book boxes are the same size, 
and are generally proportionately stocked, 
whenever the hands were taken from the 
case after revolving it, it would remain 
steady ; but as differently sized boxes may 
be used, or, if all one sized are made use of, 
some shelves might be well filled, while 
others were half empty, I have shown how 
the case can be kept steady by means of a 
bolt fitted within the cupboard, which will 
enter into notches or holes in the edges of 
the two circular boards at the ends of the 
case. It will be best to countersink the 
heads of all pivots, so that none of them 
may interfere with the free revolutions of 
the boxes. 

In Figs. 3,4, and 5,1 have given elevations 
of three bookcases ; in one diagram showing 
equally sized boxes, and in the other two, 
boxes of different dimensions. Other sizes 
may be made, but they will have to be 
worked out very carefully, for in revolving, 
unless proper space is allowed for the move¬ 
ments of each box, some will knock one 
against another. My diagrams are drawn to 
1) in. scale, and those who understand scales 
will have no difficulty in finding what size 
each is intended to be. Here are a few 
hints, however, for those who do not under¬ 
stand scales, and who, by their ignorance are 
unable to arrive at any conclusions concern¬ 
ing what, at some time or another, may have 
been, or shall be, said. If i in. scale is 
alluded to, all that need be done is to have 
a narrow piece of card or paper, and from 
an ordinary rule or measure indicate upon 
it a sufficient number of spaces, each § in. 

long, and divide the first space into twelve 
equal parts. For any other scale, this same 
method should be followed, of course making 
each scale the length of the figure given, and 
always dividing the first space into twelve 
equal parts, which will represent inches. 
When a drawing or diagram is said to be 
drawn to a certain scale, the rule with that 
scale marked upon it should be used to 
measure the diagram or drawing, every 
large space representing a foot, and every 
small space an inch. These remarks may 
seem to some unnecessary, but I have 
personally met with men who have thanked 
me for the simple information. I shall 
give the dimensions of the equally sized 
boxes in due course, but shall leave the 
others to the reader. 

I have represented in my design a small 
cupboard at the top, which may be found 
convenient for a good many purposes, but, of 
course, I need not say that it is not indis¬ 

The suggestion of the bookshelves re¬ 
volving, as shown in the design, may be 
turned to use separately and apart from 
the writing table, such as adapting it upon 
a table within a case, with either one or 
two doors on one side or on each side. 

Sketches of one way of making the plinth 
are shown in Figs. 10 and 11. The latter 
represents a top view of it, and the former 
an under view, showing corner blocks inserted 
to add to its strength, and also to which 
castors (if they are required) maybe screwed. 

The length of it will be 46) in., the width 20 
in., the depth 5 in., and thickness of boards, 
say, f in. To this is screwed the top 

I have intended the sides of the cupboard 
to be “ mock ’’-panelled— i.e., a whole board 
with beading mitred and glued on to it; 
but, of course, with this article, properly 
panelled sides may be used, as the only 
boards joining them crossways will be the 
top and bottom boards and the board form¬ 
ing the bottom of the top cupboard. The 
shelf at the bottom of the job need only lit 
loosely on to a ridge screwed inside the 
cupboard to support it. 

The length of the cupboard sides in front 
will be 62£ in., and at the back 75 in. ; the 
width 18 in.; and the thickness, I think (as 
the job is really so open), no less than 1| in. 
The small doors at the bottom might each 
be 22 in. long and 15 in. wide. 

The top and bottom boards of the article, 
and the bottom board of the small top cup¬ 
board, will each be 42 in. long and 18 in. wide 
(all my measurements in this paper allow 
sufficient for joining), and about | in. thick. 
The sides are joined together in front at the 
bottom half of the article by a board 42 in. 
long, 26 in. wide, and f in. thick. This 
board will be necessary to form a back¬ 
ground for the knee-framing, unless, in 
place of the latter, a whole board is used, 
which I certainty do not advise, on account 
of the inconvenience it will create. The 
board should be joined at a distance from 
the edges of the side boards equal to the 
thickness of the front framing. 

I always prefer the back board of an 
article of this kind to be made as one whole 
thick board instead of thin matchboard. 

The height of it should be 62) in., the top 
edge of it thus coming flush with the top 
surface of the top boards. 

The doors of the top cupboard will 
each be 19? in. long, 10) in. wide, and f in. 
thick. Panels of, say, f in. stuff, nicely 
inlaid, carved, incised, or stencilled, will 
rob the article of some of its plainness. I 
have not intended this small cupboard to 
have a division down its middle ; a piece of 
moulding will be glued on to one of the 
door edges, as shown by a in Fig. 18. 

The pediment and the top back board 
containing the looking-glass are shown in 
Figs. 8 and 9. The top edge of the larger 
back board must be cut to receive the 
bottom of this part, which should be 
screwed to the larger back board and to 
the back edge of each side board. The 
height from the bottom edge to the top 
of the straight moulding will be about 
15 in. 

The revolving bookshelves or boxes now 
claim attention. Two circular boards, each 
18 in. in diameter, and about 1) in., or even 
1) in., thick, are pivoted with good, strong 
pegs to the inside of the job. On the out¬ 
side these pivots need not show, my sole 
purpose for showing them in my drawings 
being merely to indicate their position. 

Taking the boxes represented in Fig. 3, 
the length of them will be 36) in. or 37 in., 
according to the thickness of the circular 
boards, the depth 7 in., the width 6 in., and 
the thickness of the boards composing them 
) in. ; the pivots connecting them with the 
circular boards being driven through pre¬ 
cisely the spots I show, each one being at 
2 in. from the edge of the circular boards. 
When fitted in its proper place, the bookcase 
will, if equally weighted, as 1 said before, 
remain in the position it may be left after- 
turning it round ; but a bolt, or something 
similar, is to be preferred, and whatever is 
used must work only in the edge of the 
circular boards, and not on the surface, as in 
the latter case it would interfere with the 
free movements of the boxes, and they 
would thus become utterly useless. A bolt 
need only be fitted on one side, unless very 
heavy books are within the case. It will be 
fitted as in Fig 12, and the edge of the 
circular board may be either as in that 
diagram, i.e., with holes drilled into it, or, 
as in Fig. 13, with notches. To further 
support the case, I should advise the screw¬ 
ing to the sides of the article, directly under¬ 
neath the circular boards, of stout pieces of 
board, as in Fig. 6. 

I should not recommend the fixing of a 
board underneath the bookcase, other than 
that shown in Fig. 2, as if one is used, 
should a book or paper accidentally fall 
from the boxes, great difficulty would be 
experienced in getting it up again ; whereas, 
should one fall, if the article is made as I 
intend it to be, it would lodge upon the 
lower shelf, and thus be very easy to 
get at. 

I do not say that the present article, so 
far as the bookshelves are concerned, would 
be found desirable where it is not necessary 
to write at the same time as referring to the 
books; although, after all, little extra trouble 
would be required to obtain a book by draw¬ 
ing down the flap than would be caused by 
opening an ordinary bookcase, the extra 
trouble being that, unless the book wanted 
was in view, the shelves would have to be 
turned ; but, as before said, this is a decided 
advantage when sitting at the desk. 

Attention must now be given to the 
writing flap. A very convenient size for it 
will be 39 in. by 18 in. It will be hinged 

Work —March 21, 1891.] 

A Hanging Music Canterbury in Fretwork. 


to the under framing as shown; which 
latter might be 26 in. wide, with a mould¬ 
ing round its inner edge. The flap I have 
represented as having a couple of lines 
incised round it. Of course, a moulding 
would be entirely out of the question. 

If the flap were lined with ornamented 
leather, or leather cloth, it would not be 
found an objectionable feature of the article 
when closed, and would certainly be better 
for writing purposes than the bare wooden 
surface. The thickness of the flap and 
framing should be about f in. ; and here 
let me add that both will work better if 
the edges which meet are canted and hinged 



[For Illustration of Canterbury complete, and Full- 
size Working Drawings of Parts in Fretwork, 
see Supplementary Sheet presented with this 
Number .] 

Why a whatnot with receptacles for music 
is called a Canterbury it boots not to inquire. 
Enough that it be so, and that, whilst ex¬ 
plaining the meaning of the article to be 
constructed after the annexed design, it was 
easier to use the accepted word. Anything 

its defence. It is ill adapted for sorting, as 
the divisions are too capacious; it damages 
the music, lets in dust, and, above all, the 
pieces slide under each other in a maddening 
way too painfully familiar to need descrip¬ 
tion. There are, it is true, Canterburies 
that take the form of cupboards for music, 
with duly panelled shelves. These are 
admirable when the quantity at hand is 
sufficient to fill them ; yet they offer too 
much space for the average amateur, and 
too little for the professional or really rabid 
music lover, who, like his cousin, the biblio¬ 
maniac, knows no bounds to the appetite 
once it is acquired. 

Figs. 3, 4, 5.—Different sized Book Boxes drawn to 1 \ in. scale. Fig. 6.—Wooden Block under End of Circular Board. Fig. 7.—Groove in Side Board. 
Figs. 8, 9.—Side and Front Elevation respectively of Glass Frame. Figs. 10,11.—Under and Top Part respectively of Plintii. Fig. 12.—Bolt in 
connection with Circular Board. Fig. 13.—Notch in Circular Board in place of Hole. Figs. 14, 15.—Two Ways of connecting Writing Flap with 
Lower Frame—A, Erect; B, in Position to write upon. Fig. 17.—Small Peg behind Flap. Fig. 18.—Moulding on Edge of Door. 

as in Fig. 15. A neat, strong catch will be 
required to keep the flap up as in Fig. 1. 

A groove must be cut from just under¬ 
neath the top cupboard to the top edge of 
the front board, in each side board, as in 
Fig. 7. Behind the writing flap, at each 
side near the top edge, will be a peg, as 
shown in Fig. 17. The protruding end of 
this peg will be inserted in the groove a a, 
and it is this that will keep that part of the 
flap always between the cupboard sides. 

I have not provided any place for sta¬ 
tionery ; but, if considered inconvenient to 
keep it in one of the revolving boxes, a 
compartment could be fitted in front between 
the cupboard sides and under the top cup¬ 
board, where it would not interfere with the 
freedom of the book-boxes. 

less suited for its actual purpose ought to 
be difficult to parallel, yet, even as Herbert 
Spencer points out in his first chapter of a 
“ Study of Sociology,” it is an unfortunate 
truth that we all make shift with ineffective 
but conventional articles, when a little 
common-sense, or ingenuity of a very mild 
degree, would fit them for their purpose to a 
far greater extent. 

The orthodox Canterbury does hold a 
series of bound volumes of folio music in 
a fairly satisfactory way—that is, if music 
books must needs repose upon their edges, 
in a different fashion to ordinary volumes. 
But our music in daily use (or, at all events, 
the newest pieces) is seldom, if ever, bound 
into stiff Volumes ; and to contain a quantity 
of sheet music, there is no word to offer in 

The structure herein to be set forth is for 
the lowest mean average—the possessor of, 
say, a hundred pieces of sheet music, more 
or less—and the problem to be solved : 
required, a conveniently placed receptacle, 
fitted to keep the music sorted into its 
several varieties—songs, dance music, piano¬ 
forte solos, duets, and so forth — readily 
accessible, and sightly enough in itself to 
add to the adornments of the apartment. 

Of all mechanical methods of decorating 
wood, fretwork is, perhaps, the most general 
and the least exacting in its demands. No 
art knowledge is required ; patient accuracy 
in each of its simple stages—in the tracing 
of the design, the sawing itself, and final 
polish—will produce work that is, so far as 
it goes, satisfactory and decorative. ■ 

The Violin : How to Make 

Like humanity, it has its faults—it har¬ 
bours needless matter in the wrong place; 
but do not we, physically and mentally ? It 
is spiky, and apt to be intrusive, catching 
in lace and dusters—easily paralleled in 
life. It is not so strong as it looks, and has 
dozens of those failings which an American 
humorist says he loves, because they make 
him feel a brother to every man he meets. 
If you go against its grain, it is short- 
tempered ; if you go with it, it is obtuse : 
and so an excellent homily of mediaeval 
style, full of laboriously trifling affinities, 
might be evolved, with some cudgelling of 
brains, from the much used, yet much 
abused, minor art dubbed fretwork. 

For many reasons, in place of the usual 
Canterbury, a set of shelves to hang at a 
convenient height near the piano was 
thought to be more useful. If a violinist 
is a member of the family, they would, 
placed on the wall at a suitable height, 
support his music desk. In this way, the 
whole thing becomes a bracket with many 
shelves, and has space for bric-k-brac on the 
top one. When artificial light is used, such 
a place is likely to be more handy than the 
usual groping in one’s own shadow at the 
ordinary Canterbury. 

Certainly, the old-fashioned article has an 
enlarged knife-box aspect, as though it were 
meant to be carried about. But, not to 
speak of its peripatetic use in crowded 
thoroughfares—which is absurd—did any 
one ever meet another so laden 1 My own 
notion is that it would break off at the first 
attempt to lift it from its native floor, while 
the absurd little quadruped, with its four 
dumpy legs in the air, would be a funny 
sight, even if it survived the unusual transit. 

But why attempt a crusade against the 
unprotected and helpless piece of furniture ? 
It is better to leave it to its friends, and 
introduce its would-be successor. 

The weight of sheet music is not trifling. 
That so ephemeral a thing as the average 
modern song should be so heavy in bulk is 
astonishing. Yet, to make good its pretence 
to be worth two silver shillings, it must 
needs be on stout paper. Consequently, 
strength must be the aim, and the fretwork 
sides which support the whole weight should 
bu cut out of wood — preferably three-ply 
wood—not less than a ^ inch thick, and of 
fairly hard quality. 

It will be seen that the design is planned 
so as to take shelves at a very short distance 
apart. If the size of the whole side piece is 
too large for the machine, the bracket 
portions may be cut separately, and fixed 
below the bottom shelf. 

The top railing at the sides and back may 
also be cut in detached portions and fixed, 
as the brackets. In this case, the upper¬ 
most and lowest shelves should project 
slightly, and be finished with a moulcUng 
round sides and front. 

It would greatly facilitate reference to its 
contents if false drawers or trays, of thin 
wood or cardboard, covered with cloth, as 
shown, were fitted to each recess. If pre¬ 
ferred, these sham drawers might be de¬ 
veloped into actual drawers, bearing each 
on its front the emblazoned legend of its 

But these additions will easily suggest 
and recommend themselves to workers 
according to their several needs. For 
instance, if the suggestion of its serving 
to support a music desk should be carried 
out, not only might a fretwork desk adorn 
its top, but brass candle sconces might be 
added at its sides. 

For choice of wood, bearing in mind that 
some number of feet are needed, the most 
economical and effective plan would be to 
ebonise the whole, and thus allow common 
deal to be used for the shelves and uncut 
portions, or at best cheap mahogany. 

Aspinall’s enamel on fretwork is possible, 
if great care be taken in rubbing down 
the surface of the wood, using repeated 
applications of scalding water; and after 
each has thoroughly dried, taking off the 
grain which thereby swells up with fine 
glass paper, a good surface might be 
secured, on which the enamel could be used 
with a really good effect. How far a 
naturalistic painting of the leaves and 
fruit forms would be pleasant, I cannot 
say personally. In one out of a thousand 
persons who has an instinct for colour, it 
might be a delightful novelty; but I fear 
me that the nine hundred and ninety-nine 
would achieve an egregious failure. 

Whatever its shortcomings, it is possible 
that the completed article will be found as 
admirable to those who may construct it as 
it has been to its creator. 



Introduction — Wood for Various Parts— 
Belly, Back, Ribs, Neck and Scroll, 
Bass-Bar, Sound-Post — Blocks — Linings 
and Purfling—Outside and Inside Models : 
How to Make Them. 

Introduction.—A great writer on the subject 
has divided mankind into two classes—those 
who play the violin and those who do not. 
It is almost unnecessary to say that the 
violinists are in a minority; but if those 
who do not perform on this instrument con¬ 
tinue to encourage those who do, there will 
be little cause for dissatisfaction. 

It is not my purpose in these lessons to 
attempt to trace the origin of the violin— 
writers without number have used their 
pens for this purpose—but the fact remains 
that the instruments brought to a state of 
perfection never exceeded, if even equalled, 
came from the workshops of the Cremonese 
masters, and have earned for them almost 
immortal fame. The effectiveness of the 
violin, when handled by a competent per¬ 
former, is so obvious that a person must 
indeed be devoid of all musical feeling who 
is not influenced thereby. 

No matter what the theme—a rollicking 
jig o r a sublime adagio—no instrument 
better fitted to give expression to the 
feelings has yet been invented. Its melodious 
strains may for a time be drowned by the 
blare of the cornet or the blasts of the 
trombone. Now and again the liquid notes 
of the flute or the oboe’s plaintive wail 
may divert the ear of the listener, whilst 
the full and sweet melody of the clarionet 
is not to be ignored. The ear, however, 

IT. [Work—March 21,189L 

soon becomes tired of these, although they 
add pleasing variety, and it is the violin 
alone which never becomes monotonous. 
In the orchestra it reigns supreme. To 
dwell further on the merits of this most 
fascinating instrument would only be too 
easy and congenial, but in a publication 
like Work something more practical is 

Fig. 1.—A, Section of Sycamore or Pine, cut cn 
the quarter ; B, Piece marked for sawing 
down; C, Ditto, jointed, ready for Use. 

required. We will therefore proceed with 
the construction of our instrument. 

It is a matter worthy of consideration 
that although the science of acoustics has 
kept pace with other branches of knowledge, 
the efforts of the great masters have not 
been improved upon, and the best results 
have been obtained by following as closely 
as possible the lines laid down by the Cremon¬ 
ese makers during the seventeenth century. 
Though opinions differ as to the relative 
merits of the various outlines and models, 
I propose to take for granted that the out¬ 
line, measurements, and / holes of “ Stradi- 
varius ” are the best, and to describe to the 
best of my ability the methods on which I 
work, and giving, as occasion requires, all 
the full-size working drawings, and a short 

Fig. 4.—Appearance of Model Block ready for 
sawing out. 

description of the tools specially needed 
when making a violin. I hope, in the pages 
which follow, to make myself clearly under¬ 
stood ; should I fail to do so, it will be a 
pleasure to me to give, if possible, further 
explanation on any point which may seem 
obscure. There must, in dealing with a sub¬ 
ject like this in a purely technical way, and free 
from all romance, be a danger of appearing 

Work —March 21, 1891.] 

The Violin : How to Make It. 


tedious ; should this occur, I must plead my 
desire to be explicit as a sufficient excuse. 

Wood for Various Parts.—It is most essen¬ 
tial when setting about making a good 
violin that you have the very best mate¬ 
rials from which to make it. Notwith¬ 
standing all the arguments in favour of 
artificially prepared wood, I am convinced 
that that which has 
been naturally seasoned 
is by far the best, and 
most likely to improve 
with age and use. 

Belly. —For the belly 
we require a V or 
wedge-shaped block of 
clean, even - grained 
Swiss pine, 15 in. long 
by about 5 in. broad, 2 
in. thick at one edge, 
and tapering to about 
t in. at the other. This 
block should be cut on 
the quarter : this mode 
of cutting is shown in 
Fig. 1. 

This gives the reeds 
or veins, which are 
portions of the con¬ 
centric rings, running 
vertically through the 
wood in the direction 
of its thickness. The 
same result is also ob¬ 
tained by using the 
middle board, but in 
this case the two halves 
of either back or belly 
would not necessarily 
correspond in grain or 
in figure; and as we 
are going to work with 
a half pattern, from a 
centre line, let us have 
the wood cut as at b, 

Fig. 1. It is only when 
cut on the “quarter” 
that pine gives the 
beautiful mottled and 
silky appearance known 
as “ flower.” 

The table from which 
the belly is to be made 
should, when jointed and 
planed true (as at c, 

Fig. 1), be | in. thick at 
the ridge. 

Care should be taken 
when selecting this 
wedge to see that it has 
been “ riven ” or split, 
so that the fibres have 
run in their natural 

Back. —The back is 
generally of sycamore, 
cut also on the quarter: 
the stripes or bars in 
sycamore show at their 
best only when cut in 
this way. These strong 
bars or waves are termed 
the “ figure.” The piece 

Neck and Scroll. —To carve the scroll is 
one of the most difficult operations to be 
encountered when making a violin through¬ 
out ; find as it greatly beautifies or entirely 
spoils (as the case may be) the appearance 
of the whole instrument, I think it would 
be better for you to buy a neck with the 
scroll already cut; but as some of my 

Fig. 3.- 
(half size) for mak¬ 
ing Models and 
marking the Blocks. 


for the back should be 15in. long, If in. thick 
at one edge, and about f in. at the other. 
Good back wood is very valuable, and the 
pieces are therefore cut so fine, that there 
is veiy little margin for waste. 

Ribs. —The “ribs,” or sides, are of syca¬ 
more, and may easily be purchased in 
strips, cut for the purpose, 15 or 16 in. long, 
by If in. broad, and about T \ in. thick. 
They should not require much cleaning up 
before being ready for use. 

readers may like to try their hand, I shall 
give, as well as I can, instructions for doing 
so later on. 

Bass-Bar. —The bass-bar is one of the 

* To enable readers to furnish themselves at once 
with Full-size Working Drawings of all diagrams 
given half size, as Figs. 2 and 3, such diagrams 
have been divided into half-inch squares for en¬ 
largement on paper divided into inch squares. If 
any difficulty is experienced in dividing paper into 
squares for the purpose of making the enlarge¬ 
ment, some of Letts’s Sectional Paper on the scale 
required should be purchased.—E d. 

most important parts of a violin, and on 
its dimensions and position depend to a 
large extent the tone of the lower strings. 
It is made of similar wood to the belly, 
and in the rough should measure 11 in. 
long by I in. thick and 1 in. deep, the 
reeds running vertically through its depth 
and parallel the whole length of the bar. 

____ It should be placed 

parallel with the joint 
of the belly, under the 
left foot of the bridge. 

Sound - Tost. — The 
sound-post is a round 
piece of fine-grained 
Swiss pine, I in. di¬ 
ameter, and about 2 T \ 
in. long. Its proper 
position (varying as it 
does in nearly every in¬ 
strument) is difficult to 
determine ; but it is 
usually just behind the 
right foot of the bridge. 
It should be just long 
enough to stand firmly 
before the violin is 
strung, and the grain 
should cross that of the 

Blocks.—' These should 
be made of nice clean 
pine, an inch thick, from 
the middle board, if 
possible, as they will 
then be on the quarter, 
and will cut much 
cleaner. The grain runs 
vertically from back to 
belly. They are for 
affording support to the 
neck and end pin, for 
holding the ribs to¬ 
gether at the corners, 
and to strengthen the 
fiddle generally. 

Linings. —The twelve 
pieces of lining are put 
in to strengthen the ribs, 
and to give a greater 
gluing surface for at¬ 
taching back and belly. 
They may be made from 
either pine or sycamore, 
and are ^ in. thick and 
I in. broad. I much 
prefer sycamore for lin¬ 
ings, as it is not so 
liable to splinter when 
necessity arises to have 
either back or belly 

Purfling. — Purfling 
may be bought from 
violin makers or dealers 
at about Id. per foot, 
and is generally made 
of two thin strips of 
wood, dyed black, with 
a strip of white wood 
between, the whole be¬ 
ing about Jg in. thick 
and Jg in. deep. Some 
of the great makers used whalebone for 
making the black parts of purfling. 

Outside and Inside Models : How to Make 
Them.—There are two ways in which a set of 
violin ribs may be put together : viz., inside 
an outside model, or outside an inside 
model. The latter is, I think, much supe¬ 
rior to the former, being far handier and 
safer ; but both models may be made from 
the same piece of wood, and with very little 
extra trouble. You should procure a piece 

-Fig. 2*.— 
Pattern (half 
size). Arrows 
show direction in which the 
hollow should he carved. 


Knotting , Splicing , may? IVor king Cordage. 

[Work—March 21,1891. 

of well - seasoned straight hardwood, as 
beech, birch, or sycamore, 17 in. long by 
in. broad at one end, tapering to 84 in. 
at the other, and If in. thick. Plane this 
piece perfectly true in length and breadth, 
and finish it 1^ in. thick at the broad end, 
tapered to l£ in. at the narrow end. Now 
make a line down the middle from end to end j 
with a steel marker, or an ordinary bradawl 
sharpened to a fine point. Afterwards trace 
the line with lead pencil to make it more 

Cut out the patterns Figs. 2 and 3, in 
nine or thin wood, taking care to have all 
the marks on Fig. 3 quite distinct. Place 
the pattern, Fig. 3 (which in future shall be 
called the “ inside pattern ”), exactly to the 
“centre line on the block, and an equal dis¬ 
tance from each end, and carefully, but 
decidedly, trace round the pattern with the 
marker, following with lead pencil. Then 
mark through the pattern the position of 
•each block, as shown by the dotted lines in 
Fig. 3, and also the centres for the holes, 
a to f. Now turn the pattern over, and 
mark the other side in precisely the same 
manner ; on the accuracy of this operation 
the ultimate balance of your fiddle depends. 
When ready to be sawn out, your block 
should bear every one of the marks which 
appear in Fig. 4. With a | in. bit bore the 
hole for inserting the saw. The models 
can now be cut out with a bow saw, but a 
much better plan is to get it cut at a saw¬ 
yer’s, with a “fret ” or a “jigger” saw, making 
a cut of J^th of an inch, and going exactly 
round the line, M, M, M, subsequently cut¬ 
ting out the recesses, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 

The edges of both models should now be 
'trimmed up, which must be done by placing 
■each of the models edgeways in a wood vice, 
and, using a file, one end in each hand, taking 

• out all the small ridges which the saw has 
made, still keeping both models square to 
'the side on which the outline was traced. 
Write distinctly on both models the word 

• back : this will avoid much confusion that 
might otherwise arise. Next, with a f in. 
bit, bore the holes, a to k. You should now 
square the centre line down each of the end 
block recesses 1 and 4, and with a straight- 

• edge make another centre line the entire 
length of the other side of model. We now 
have two well-finished models (inside and 
■ outside); and before proceeding further, w r e 
ihad better consider the question of what 
tools we shall require. For this, however, 
>we must wait for the next paper. 




Antiquity of Art of Knotting—Cordage, to 
What Applied—Laying Fibres of Rope- 
Yarns — Strands — Principle of Rope 
Making—Reaumur’s Experiments on Laying 
up Fibres of Rope—Size of Rope—Calcula¬ 
tion of Strain. 

The art of knotting has been said to be 
“probably as old as human fingers,” and 
there is no doubt that mankind must always 
have used some kind of knot to join the 
sinews of animals, fibres of plants, or strips 
of hide that, in ancient days, formed a sub¬ 
stitute for the endless variety of cordage in 
use in the present day. It is needless to 
enlarge on the importance of a knowledge of 
knotting, as hardly a day passes, even in 
private life, but we have to make a knot of 
some kind ; and, of course, to the fisherman 

and seaman, whether amateur or profes¬ 
sional, the subject is one of paramount 
interest. This being so, it seems strange 
that so little, comparatively speaking, has 
been written on the subject. I trust these 
articles will go far to remedy this defect, and 
to supply what I believe to be a real want. 
Even those of my readers who have not 
much occasion for working cordage will, I 
think, still find the subject an interesting 
one. They will be surprised to find what a 
large number of knots the skill of man has 
invented, many of them being highly in¬ 
genious, and capable of being used in 
various ways for decorative as well as 
useful purposes. The importance of being 
able to make a knot rapidly and correctly, 
and, at the same time, the one best suited 
for the purpose for which it is intended, 
cannot be over-estimated. Human lives, to 
say nothing of property, have over and 
over again been sacrificed to ill-made knots, 
and I believe there are few things of an 
ordinary kind that will better repay the 
trouble of learning than how to work 
cordage successfully. 

The generic term cordage comprehends a 
vast variety of different kinds of rope, from 
the cable of a man-of-war to the fine 
“ snooding ” of the sea fisherman. It is also 
composed of a great diversity of materials. 
The most common substances from which it 
is made are hemp, flax, cotton, manilla, and 
coir. It is outside our present purpose to 
go into the process of the manufacture of 
rope in anything like detail, but the suc¬ 
ceeding pages can hardly be fully understood 
without some knowledge of the construction 
of cordage; I shall therefore give a few 
particulars as to the various parts that form 
a rope. 

If the fibres of which a rope is composed 
were laid parallel to one another and fastened 
at the two ends, the combined strength of 
these fibres would be better utilised than 
by any other means—in other words, they 
lose strength by being twisted or “ laid up.” 
But, on the other hand, the length of the 
fibres being at most but a few feet, their 
utility in this state is very limited, to say 
nothing of the inconvenience of using them 
in this way. To obviate this difficulty, the 
fibres are first twisted into “ yarns ; ” these, 
again, are laid up into “ strands,” a strand 
being formed of several yarns ; and, finally, 
three or more strands are formed into a 
rope. As I have before said, the strength 
of a rope is diminished by the twisting of 
the yarns, and this being the case, it is 
important the yarns should be very carefully 
laid up, so as to bring an even strain on 
every part. This should be borne in mind 
when rope is chosen. It should also not be 
laid up too hard—that is, it should only 
have sufficient twist in it to prevent the 
fibres from being drawn out without break¬ 
ing ; anything more diminishes unnecessarily 
the strength of the cordage, and should be 

Hopes are generally made of three strands 
laid right-handed, or “ with the sun,” as it 
is termed aboard ship. They are then called 
“ hawser-laid.” If they are made of four 
strands laid right-handed, they are termed 
“ shroud-laid.” A cable-laid rope is made of 
three hawser-laid ropes laid up left-handed ; 
it therefore contains nine strands. It will 
be seen from the foregoing that the size of a 
rope is regulated by the quantity of yarns 
that compose the strands, and not by the 
number of strands that it contains. 

The principle of rope making is very 
readily shown by holding the ends of a 
piece of twine or whipcord, about a foot 

long, in each hand and twisting it so as to 
increase the lay. If the twine be now 
slackened by bringing the hands nearer to 
one another, a loop will first form in the 
middle of the twine, and it will continue to 
twist itself up into a compact cord which 
will not unlay, as the tension to which the 
strands have been subjected causes friction 
between them, which holds them together. 
In other words, the tendency of each part 
singly to unlay, acting in opposite directions, 
is the means of keeping them together when 

Some very interesting experiments were 
made by Reaumur, the purposes of which 
were to ascertain the loss of strength occa¬ 
sioned by laying up the fibres of various 
substances, one or two of which I shall 

1. A thread, consisting of 832 fibres of 
silk, each of which carried 1 dram and 18 
grains, broke with a weight of 5 lbs., though 
the sum of the absolute strength of the 
fibres is 104 drams, or upwards of 8 lbs. 2 oz. 

2. A skein of white thread which bore a 
weight of 9 lbs., when twisted into a cord of 
two strands, broke with 16 lbs. 

3. Three threads were twisted together, 
their mean strength being nearly 8 lbs. It 
broke with 174 lbs., whereas it should have 
carried 24 lbs. These experiments abun¬ 
dantly prove that though we gain in conve¬ 
nience and portability by twisting the fibres, 
we lose greatly in the strength of the re¬ 
sulting rope. 

In speaking of the size of a rope, the cir¬ 
cumference and not the diameter is alluded 
to. Thus, a three-inch rope would be less 
than an inch in diameter. 

It is often required to know the amount 
of strain that we may fairly expect a rope 
to bear. I therefore give an useful formula 
for calculating it. 

Multiply the circumference of the rope in 
inches by itself and divide the product by 
five, and the result will be the number of 
tons the rope will carry. For example, if 
the rope be five inches in circumference, 
5X5 = 25^5 = 5, the number of tons the 
rope will carry. 

When the strain that a rope will bear is 
alluded to, it must be understood that a 
steady haulage is meant, for if the strain 
comes suddenly on a rope, as when a w'eight 
attached to it is allowed to fall suddenly, its 
resisting power is greatly diminished. This 
is easily demonstrated by giving a suddeL 
jerk to a piece of twine, when it will part at 
once, though all one’s strength, steadily ap¬ 
plied, fails to break it. Knots always more 
or less diminish the strength of a rope, par¬ 
ticularly when they are badly made; so 
that where as much strain as the rope will 
bear is likely to come upon it, care should 
be taken to use none but the strongest 
knots. The Alpine Club, in the report 
issued by them of some experiments made 
on ropes, recommend for joining two ropes 
the fisherman’s knot, and for loops the 
fisherman’s eye.* Probably these knots 
will be'ar as much strain as any. 

If we require to know the weight of any 
description of cordage, we can ascertain it, 
if hawser or shroud-laid, by multiplying the 
circumference of the rope in inches by itself 
and by the length of the rope in fathoms, 
and dividing by 420 ; the result will be the 
weight in cwts. For example, to obtain the 
weight of a six-inch rope 120 fathoms long, 
6x6 = 36 X 120 = 4,320 — 420, makes the 
weight of the rope 10 cwt. 1 qr. 4 lb. 

* Illustrations of these knots will be given with 
subsequent papers, and will be found, the former in 
Fig. 14, and the latter in Fig. 16. 

Work—March 21,1891.] 

Wire- Work in all its Branches. 


The rule for cable-laid rope is somewhat 
different. In this case, multiply the cir¬ 
cumference in inches by itself and divide by 
four ; the product will be the weight of the 
rope in cwts. 

In practising knotting it is as well to use 
-a tolerably firm material, such as whipcord, 
for small common knots, or, still better, 
small fishing line—of course, I mean line 
used for sea fishing. Either of these can be 
tied up and undone over and over again 
without injury to the stuff, which is not the 
■.case with twine ; it is also more easy to see 
which way the parts of a knot lie in the 
harder material, and then to find out 
whether the turns are properly made or not. 
In the case of more complicated knots, par¬ 
ticularly those where the strands of the rope 
have to be unlaid to form the knot, such as 
a wall knot or a Mathew Walker, I should 
advise that three strands of fishing line be 
. used, about a foot long each. If a seizing 
be put round them in the centre, so as to 
hold them firmly together, we have a good 
representation of a rope with the strands 
unlaid ready for working. A knot can be 
made and unmade as often as required in 
this way, without the strands suffering any 
detriment, which is not the case with the 
strands of a rope, which, from their loose 
nature, will seldom bear knotting more than 
once or twice. I have adopted this plan 
myself with great success in making the 
illustrations for these articles. If desired, 
the knots can be made as above described 
;and kept for future reference. In string 
also it is better to use hard laid stuff at 
first, but when these matters are thoroughly 
understood, knots can be made on any sort 
•of cordage without difficulty. 


BY P. B. H. 

A few years ago I could never keep a strop 
for a longer period than about nine months, 
•as, during that time, it got so cut up that 
it was, comparatively speaking, worthless. 
A kindly hint from a friend some five years 
ago saved me a deal of expense in strops, 
as, since then, I have used the same one, 
and there is now only one cut in it, which 
was made when quite new, just before the 
hint was given. 

As l am certain a few hints on this sub¬ 
ject will be useful to some of the many 
readers of this journal, I shall endeavour to 
enlighten them by the following description 
and sketches. 

The regular strop is a flat piece of wood 
about in. wide by 12 in. long, with a 
handle cut out at one end. This wood, 
with the exception of the handle, is covered 
on both sides with leather about £ in. thick. 
The surface of the leather of the one side, 
being covered with some sharpening com¬ 
position, generally flour of emery, is dark. 
This side should always be kept moist by 
every now and again adding a drop or two 
of oil, and, at greater intervals, a little flour 
of emery, in order to keep up the sharpen¬ 
ing properties. The other side is simply of 
plain smooth leather for finishing off the 
razor after being sharpened on the first side. 

The method of procedure is as follows :— 
Raise the strop slightly by placing the end 
on its case (as shown in sketches), or any 
other convenient object, so that a complete 
stroke can be given to the razor. Tiien, 
with the dark side uppermost, and the razor 
in the position shown at b in Fig. 1, draw it 

upwards, and, at the same time, across the 
surface of the strop till it takes the position 
c (Fig. 2). 

As on the turning of the razor at this 
point depends whether the strop is cut or 
not, care should be taken to follow the 
directions carefully. There is a great 

Fig. 1.—Showing commencement of Down Stroke 

(A) on Strop, and commencement of Up Stroke 

(B) . 

temptation to lift the razor bodily from the 
strop at the end of each stroke and turn or 
reverse it with the cutting edge pointing 
downwards, which is the principal cause of 
the strop being cut. The turning should 
be done at the end of the upward and 
downward stroke on the back of the razor, 
which should never leave the surface of the 
strop. During the reversing the razor 
should be slid sideways on the strop so that 
the heel rests on it, as at a (Fig. 1), ready 

Fig. 2.—Showing completion of Up Stroke (C) on 
Strop, and completion of Down Stroke (D). 

for the downward stroke, which is per¬ 
formed as above; the razor at the end 
taking the position D (Fig. 2), ready for 
turning in the direction of the arrow, at the 
same time being pushed forward till it takes 
the position shown at B, the position from 
where we started. The blade should never 
completely leave the strop. After a few 
strokes upwards and downwards, the strop 

should be reversed, and the same process 
performed on the smooth side, when the 
razor should now be found fit for use. The 
razor should be held perfectly flat on the 
strop during the operation. Another great 
point, in keeping a razor in good condition, 
is to dry it well with a towel immediately 
after use, and then draw it a few times over 
the smooth side of the strop. This takes 
off any moisture before putting it away. 
On every good strop and case there is some 
distinguishing mark to show which way the 
strop should be put back. I have shown a 
cross in my sketches. Care should be taken 
that these two marks always coincide—that 
is, that the dark side of strop, when put in 
the case, always touches the one side; 
otherwise the clean smooth surface of the 
strop will get emery on it, which will be 
very detrimental. 




Introductory—Crimping and its In¬ 

By the courtesy and practical knowledge of 
a particular friend, I am in a position to lay 
before my readers details of a trade different 
and distinct from that which for many 
months past I have been permitted to repre¬ 

As most of my readers will doubtless be 
aware, I have striven my best to give them 
designs of folding and combination furni¬ 
ture, which, in many cases, I am glad to 
understand, have met with approval. In 
making public these designs I have not 
tendered any excuse for my conduct, nor 
attempted to defend myself against the 
friendly, yet unpleasant, accusations of 
trade acquaintances, who have made re¬ 
marks to the effect that I have been influ¬ 
encing the trade in a wrong direction, for a 
certain extent, by giving these designs to 
the amateur ; for the designs being original, 
I asked neither any body or any thing, ex¬ 
cept my own conscience, as to what purposes 
I should place them to ; and I have no cause 
to regret that, with the permission of the 
Editor, I have given them to the readers of 

But as I am entering upon the description 
of a trade, for correct particulars of which I 
must rely upon and be indebted to my 
above-mentioned practical friend, I feel that 
I must say a few words upon this question 
of amateur v. professional. My worthy 
fellow contributor, Mr. Clarkson, has men¬ 
tioned in his articles upon “ Bookbinding ” 
(see page 69, No. 57, Vol. II.) that these two 
classes will never clash, and I firmly believe 
that as classes they never will; but it is an 
undeniable fact that in many instances 
members of one or other of these two classes 
look with contempt, distrust, and very often, 
I regret to say, hatred, upon the members 
of the opposite class. 

This should not be. Work is a magazine 
which has been established for the benefit 
of both bodies, and I am pleased to believe 
that, through its instrumentality, each body 
is beginning—in fact, has already begun— 
to look with a friendly and favourable eye 
upon the other body. 

It is rather late for me to make these 
remarks concerning Work’s mission, but, 
as I before hinted, I have never taken the 
opportunity of saying anything of this 
nature before, for the simple reason that 
such might have been construed into an 


Fixing Tops op Tables. 

[Work—March 21,1891. 

excuse on my part for giving designs to the 
amateur in my professional capacity. 

As an illustration of the harmlessness of 
the average amateur, I will take an instance 
from the articles I propose giving under 
the title of “ Wire-Work. Let us suppose 
I have placed these details before the 
readers in a plain, straightforward, under- 

Tig. 1.—Wire as crimped in Machine. 

standable manner (and I am sincere in 
saying that I trust I shall do so), and that 
an amateur has grasped sufficient instruction 
to enable him to make, say, a pair of wire 
baskets for himself, and that he has decided 
to make them. Will he not require the 
material preparatory to the making of the 
baskets? and will he not have to purchase that 
material from the wire trade ? Certainly. 
Then whence comes the supposed detriment 
this inoffensive amateur has created? “Why, 
from the fact that he is about to make 

Fig. 2.—Old Method cf making Wire Trellis. 

articles which he should purchase already 
made, and thereby encourage industry,” I 
fancy I can hear some disgusted wire-worker 

Now, what does encouraging industry 
mean ? I hide behind common-sense when 
I say that if people buy what they want 
they are pleasing themselves, and have not 
the encouragement of industry as their 
motive. But if they purchase what they 
do not particularly require, but may make 
use of, then they are encouraging industry. 

Fig. 3.—Formation of Trellis with crimped Wire. 

But this practice 'is no more to be com¬ 
mended as a stimulus to trade than the 
purchase of goods at a bazaar—both are 
but species of charity. 

Now, it is a fact that the amateur I am 
taking as an example may never have 
dreamt of having a pair of baskets previous 
to reading my article upon that subject, 
although he may have seen hundreds during 
hid lifetime; he may make them because 

he finds pleasure in such work, but when he 
has made them and exhausted the pleasure 
of so doing, he will not destroy them, but 
will find further pleasure in their possession. 

The result, then, is that the much abused 
amateur does not harm any trade he may 
select to work occasionally at, but, on the 
contrary, does good to it—very little, per¬ 
haps, but still the fact remains. 

Then, am I only going to give these details 
in order that, perhaps, a few amateurs may 
gain sufficient insight to enable them to 
while away an hour or so now and again ? 

I don’t know. What blissful ignorance! 

I am going to tell my readers all that my 
friend tells me and explains to me by ex¬ 
perimental lessons. I do not suppose the 
professional wire-worker to gain much bene¬ 
fit, but I do hope that young beginners in 
this trade will find my remarks of assistance, 
as being supplementary to their master’s 
instructions ; and I do also hope that many 
amateurs may experience pleasure from this 
trade as well as from others. 

Many who are in the Birmingham wire 
trade will remember with respect the name 
of Mr. Thomas Bellamy, who quitted this life 
some years back, and who was the inventor 
and patentee of the crimped or corrugated 
wire now so extensively used in many 
branches of wire-working. 

His invention consisted of crimping, by 
aid of machinery, wire intended to be placed 
together to form fences, garden borders, hen [ 
coops, fire guards, etc. The old method of j 
making such things was that of placing the J 
wires over and under each other, and then J 
securing them at their junctions by means of 
tying with pieces of wire. The amount of 
labour this process entailed can be imagined 
by the examination of a piece of work so 
made, or “ put together,” as it is technically 
termed. To simplify matters, Mr. Bellamy 
stirred his inventive faculties, with the 
result that he was deservedly enabled to 
considerably increase his business and his 
fortune by patenting his ideas. 

One end of a coil of straight wire (this 
sentence sounds somewhat paradoxical and 
Irish, but my meaning will be conveyed)— 
one end was put in his machine and drawn 
through it, coming out at the other side 
crimped as shown in Fig. 1 and various 
other diagrams. This was then cut up into 
the required lengths, which when put to¬ 
gether across each other in the same way as 
the old method, were held together by their 
own unison, requiring no ties at the junc¬ 
tions, as did the former pattern. After 
being fitted into their frames, they were 
as firm and more artistic (if I may be 
permitted to use the expression in this 
direction) than were the straight wires. 
The amount of labour saved by this in¬ 
vention was simply enormous. Whether 
this fact was beneficial to the trade workers 
or no I will not venture to discuss, but, in 
the belief of a notable theologian, who wrote 
to that effect some time ago in a weekly 
magazine (which I will not name, for fear 
of being accused of attempting to advertise), 
machines are commendable in every trade, 
by reason of creating labour in the par¬ 
ticular trades wherein they are introduced, 
and also in others. In Figs. 2 and 3 are 
shown the old method and the crimping 
method respectively. 

Various members of Mr. Bellamy’s family 
are still in the same trade, although they 
have left their native town and are scattered 
in different directions, and it is to one 
member to whom 1 am indebted for my 
present facilities of giving the following 

I shall arrange the descriptions under two 
heads—viz., “ Plain and ornamental wire- 
work,” and “Wire-work in conjunction 
with metal mouldings and wood.” The 
first part shall contain explanatory details 
of the construction of such articles as fire 
guards, pea guards, rat traps, fences, hen 
coops, baskets, gas globes, etc., which are 
composed solely of wire and iron rods; 
while the latter part will consist of the 
descriptions of such things as cages, sieves, 
dish covers, fenders, etc., with which metal 
mouldings and wood are usually connected. 



In making tables for kitchen, dining-room, 
and all kinds that have any size about them, 
it very often happens, after all precautions 
have been taken with the wood that forms 
the top, in a little while the joints break 
and open, and what was once a good job 
now becomes an unsightly thing. The 
cause of this disaster, of course, is the wood 
not being dry. What is dry ? It has been 
proved by experience that wood which has 
been cut years and jointed to form a large 
top, when it has been in a warm kitchen it has 

Fig. 1.—Dovetail Key for 
Table Joint. Fig. 2.— 
Button or Tarn. Fig. 3.— 
Section of Top and Side 
Rail, showing Button in 

Fig-. 3. 

“ gone,” the workman has been blamed, and 
the wood called anything but good. Differ¬ 
ent ways have been tried both in jointing 
and fixing the top on, but the following 
method is one which will allow a top to 
shrink or go any way without breaking the 
joints or the top becoming unlevel:—Before 
the table is framed together, get the rails 
which go into the legs, and placing them on 
your bench top edge towards you, inside up, 
with a plough and fin. iron, cut a groove from 
end to end. There should be about f in. of 
wood clear on the top edge before the groove 
commences. Serve all your rails like this 
(if you have any drawer rails in your table, 
you will see they can be done the same way); 
frame your table up in the usual way, pre¬ 
pare your top by slip-jointing it, and if you 
want a really good job put in three dovetail 
keys in each joint. Those who do not know 
what a keyed joint is may learn that it is 
made in the following way:—The joint is made 
first by planing the edge of the board straight 
and true till it fits close to its fellow board ; 
it is then glued with good hot thin glue, and 
well rubbed to get the glue out and get it 
close. After having stood, say ten hours, to 
set, some keys are made out of § or ^ in. oak 
or mahogany, say 4 in. long, shape of Fig. 1. 
One of these is then “ let in ” flush with the 
top on the under side about 4 in. from the 
end. Of course, they should fit well on the 
sides, but a little liberty at the ends is pre¬ 
ferable. These are glued in, and when dry, 
levelled off; in long joints it is necessary to 

Work—March 21,1891.] 

How to French Polish. 


put in three, four, or five, according to length 
of top. It is generally acknowledged that 
this is the best joint for woodwork where 
practical, having the advantage over all joints 
which are dowelled or tongued, it being 
so much easier to get a good close joint. 
To fasten on the table-top, make, say a dozen, 
hardwood buttons or turns (Fig. 2). These 
should be made 1-J in. long out of 1 in. stuff, 
and notched so that they will fit in grooves 
in the rails, and room left for a screw to go 
through into the top. When fixed, which is 
done by placing the table-top on your bench 
under side up and putting the frame on the 
top of it legs up, and placing your buttons 
into the grooves, send a screw through the 
other end. Fig. 3 is a section of the side 
rail, showing the button in its place. It 
will easily be seen that a top fastened down 

suitable material, which works on the bed 
or sole plate over a guide or groove formed 
therein, which is so arranged by means of 
suitable cutters as to cut or plane whilst 
moving in either direction. The cutters 
are provided with suitable means for regu¬ 
lating and adjusting the depth of cut, and 
readily removing and replacing them for 
sharpening or other purposes. On the 
under side of the moving part to which the 
cutters are attached a toothed rack is 
formed, into which a toothed sector or 
pinion wheel gears. This sector or pinion 
works on a short horizontal shaft or stud, 
to which a partially rotating or vibrating 
movement is given by means of an adjust¬ 
able lever, and a projecting part or parts 
on the under side of the part containing the 
cutters fits into the groove or guide, and so 


side of B, into which the pinion quadrant or 
sector h gears ; i, the horizontal shaft or 
stud on which the part h is attached; k, 
socket on end of shaft through which the 
adjustable lever l passes, and is fixed by 
the set screw M. The adjustable counter¬ 
weight and set screw are shown at n in Fig. 
3. The parts on which part of the arrange¬ 
ments connected with the cutters work are 
shown at o, o in Figs. 2 and 3. 

By the use of this machine, mitres of 
10 in. by 5 in. have been shot with the 
greatest ease, and it will work on the 
smallest sizes of material with as much 
facility as on the larger. It is made in 
several sizes, to suit the demands of cus¬ 
tomers, and has been awarded two silver 
medals at the Falmouth and other exhibi¬ 
tions in the West. The prices, complete, 
are very moderate, and vary from £5 10s. 
each, according to the sizes of the machine. 
It is so arranged that narrower or wider 
irons may be used in each machine, and it 
can be seen and tested at Messrs. Engert and 
Co.’s Picture Frame and Moulding Factory, 
75, City Road, London, E.C. I can safely 
say that it is such a machine as ought to 
be in every workshop where mitreing of 
any kind has to be done, as it will quickly 
repay its cost by the superiority of the 
work done and the speed and convenience 
with which it may be carried out. Its 
utility is obvious, and without doubt it will 
very soon come into general use. 

Fig. 1. 

Fig. 1.—Flan of Hutchens’s Mitreing and Squaring Machine. 


2,—Front Sectional Elevation on Line 
a b in Fig. 1. 

in this manner can move along the grooves 
as the wood dries without either warping or 
breaking the joints and still be fastened 
down. This method will commend itself at 
once for many things which require to be 
held firm and yet allow the wood to shrink 
for amateur and all kinds of workmen. 



I have lately had the opportunity of in¬ 
specting a very simple and efficient machine 
for the above purposes, which has been in¬ 
vented by Mr. Wm. Hutchens, of Penzance, 
who has applied for and obtained a patent 
for the same. 

The machine consists of a metal bed or 
sole plate, which supports and carries the 
working parts and the material to be 
operated upon, and which is, or may be, 
placed or supported on a suitable stand at 
the height most convenient for performing 
the work. The working parts consist of a 
movable plane or part of metal or other 

keeps it, when in motion, in the proper 
position to do the work. 

On and to the bed or sole plate is placed 
and attached the adjustable guide or fence 
which regulates the angle or bevel at which 
the material is to be cut, and by means of 
set screws it may be adjusted and firmly 
held in the required position. 

In the accompanying engraving, Fig. 1 is 
the plan, Fig. 2 a front sectional elevation 
on the line a b, and Fig. 3 an end eleva¬ 
tion, the like parts in each being denoted 
by the same letters of reference in each 
Fig. ; a a is the bed or sole plate ; b, the 
movable part containing the cutters and 
arrangements for fixing and adjusting the 
same, shown where the upper part is broken 
off; D, the adjustable fence or guide, and 
the screws, c 1 , c 2 , c 2 , for holding and ad¬ 
justing the same, which, when set square 
with the face of the plane or moving part, 
enables the ends to be squared ; e, the 
groove or guide in which the projections or 
parts on the plane, or part b, work ; F, F, 
the separate parts, projections, or pieces 
which work in the groove or guide E, and 
the screws/, f which hold the same in place ; 
G, in Fig. 2, shows the rack on the under 

Fig. 3.—End Elevation. 

The different parts 
are similarly lettered in 
each Fig. to show their 



Full directions for polishing furniture and 
other woodwork by means of waxing and 
oiling having been already given, no doubt 
there are many readers who will welcome 
the appearance of directions for the more 
difficult process of French polishing, by 
means of which the highest possible gloss 
may be given to suitably prepared wood. 
At the outset, let it be said, for the benefit 
of some, that varnishing and French polish¬ 
ing are by no means the same. The one 
can be done by any person with little or no 
practice, and is not suitable for any but the 
commonest articles of furniture, the other 
cannot be done properly without consider¬ 
able practice and care; but when skilfully 


Our Guide to Good Things. 

[Work—March 21, 189L 

managed, it enhances the beauty of nearly all 
kinds of wood. If badly done, it is often 
rather a blemish than otherwise, so that the 
beginner, if he be wise, will not attempt to 
polish anything of value till he has gained some 
little experience by practising with compara¬ 
tively unimportant articles. I do not want 
to discourage amateurs and novices, but it 
would be only a false kindness to tell them 
that they can at once proceed to polish well 
by attending to instructions. However cleaily 
these are given, they cannot give the knack 
and experience, which can only be gained 
by practice. Many beginners, I am aware, 
labour under the mistake of supposing, 
because they cannot get the same beautiful 
polish that is seen on the best furniture, 
that there is something wrong, either with 
the stuff they are using, or with their method. 
Without saying that one or the other, or 
perhaps both, might not be capable of 
improvement, the defects are probably 
principally owing to want of practice. The 
disappointment, no doubt, is somewhat em¬ 
phasised by having noticed the easy—not to 
say lazy and seemingly effortless—way in 
which an experienced polisher brings up the 
brilliant even gloss. As a matter of fact, 
French polishing, like playing the fiddle, 
is not difficult when the knack has been 
acquired ; but this cannot be got at once. 
The actual directions may no doubt help 
towards success ; but they are unable to do 
more, and though every effort will be made 
by the writer to omit nothing of importance, 
It is quite impossible to foresee every 
trifling difficulty which individual readers 
may encounter. 

To a certain extent, the polisher’s calling 
has, perhaps, suffered in the hands of 
amateurs and novices, who have not had 
■opportunities of learning in a practical 
workshop by the amount of mystery which 
sometimes seems to enshroud it. To prac¬ 
tical polishers, the complicated recipes for 
stains, polishes, etc.,which are often published 
for the benefit of the amateur seeking 
information, are a cause of wonderment. 
They are among the things not generally 
known in the workshop, but as many of 
them are elsewhere vouched for, they may 
be admitted on due report of being useful 

The ingredients of the various prepara¬ 
tions are generally few and simple, and 
success certainly does not necessarily lie in 
■complication and multiplicity of mixtures. 

Although it may be said that, roughly 
speaking, each kind of timber requires 
different treatment, the general manipula¬ 
tion is very similar for all. In the main, it 
consists of coating the wood with a thin film 
•of shellac, either pure or in mixture with 
other gums and resins, and getting a gloss 
on the film as brilliant and durable as 
possible. Before this can be done the wood 
generally has to be prepared, and various 
other minor details attended to. For ex¬ 
ample, the grain, or rather the pores, of open 
.grained wood must be stopped, or, as is 
generally said, filled, to get a perfectly 
smooth surface, and to prevent the excessive 
absorption of the liquid polish. Then there 
are some woods the appearance of which 
is improved and enriched by oiling them 
before applying the polish. This, to a 
certain extent, darkens them, giving a 
mellow look, and, as is said, brings up the 
figure. The different treatment of the 
ordinary furniture woods will be named in 
the course of future papers ; at present only 
general treatment can be dealt with. The 
place in which French polishing is done, or 
rather the temperature and atmosphere of 

the place, are of considerable importance. 
The work cannot be done properly in a cold 
damp room or outhouse. Warmth especially 
is absolutely necessary, so that a room 
which will do well enough for ordinary 
manual work may not do for a polishing 
shop. If the place is too cold, the polish as 
it sets on the wood gets chilled, and becomes 
more or less opaque and cloudy-looking. 
Slight chill may, to a certain extent, be 
cured, but the best way is to avoid it alto¬ 
gether by working in a warm room. By way 
of forestalling possible inquiries addressed 
to “ Shop,” I may as well say that I cannot 
tell what the minimum temperature should 
be, and I expect very few polishers could. 
As a rough guide, it may be said that an 
ordinarily comfortable temperature of a 
living room is about the thing. During 
warm summer weather a fire is not necessary, 
in the winter time it is. For the rest, if the 
polisher notices that his polish “ chills,” he 
must increase the heat of his room. As 
chill will sometimes happen in the best 
regulated shops, it may be satisfactory to 
know that if as soon as it is observed a 
moderate amount of warmth be brought 
near the surface the chill will pro¬ 
bably disappear almost directly. 

A small article, of course, may be 
taken to the fire, but with any¬ 
thing large this course would 
naturally be inconvenient. A good 
plan in such cases is to hold some¬ 
thing warm a short distance from 
the chilled surface, but on no. ac¬ 
count must it be allowed to touch, 
or the heat be great enough to burn, 
the polish. A common plan, but 
not altogether a good one, for 
obvious reasons, is to hold a piece 
of burning paper near the chill. 

Another cause of chill is from the 
article being polished being too 
cold or damp. It is, therefore, 
always necessary to make sure 
when a stain has been used that 
the wood has become thoroughly 
dry. It may be suggested that an 
ordinary flat iron is very useful 
for small patches or local chills. 

Not less important is the employment of 
suitable materials both in the polish and in 
what, for want of a better word, may be 
called the tools of the polisher’s art. These 
latter* are of the simplest possible descrip¬ 
tion, and consist almost entirely of wadding 
or cotton wool and soft linen or cotton rags 
from which the rubbers to apply the polish 
are made, and a few bottles, etc., to keep 
the various polishes, stains, and their in¬ 
gredients in. The exigencies of space, how¬ 
ever, require that consideration of these and 
other matters must be left to a future 

desirable an acquisition for everyone who owns a 
lathe, that I think it well worth while to make 
special mention of it here. The Britannia Com¬ 
pany supply several kinds of drills, well calculated 
for the performance of all kinds of work, heavy 
and light; but this, as far as I am aware, is the 
only one which they manufacture as a special 
adjunct to the lathe. Its construction, and the 
manner in which it is fixed on the lathe and 
driven by the lathe treadle, as well as the manner 
in which the drill is held and actuated, and the 
object to be drilled presented to the drill point, 
are all so clearly shown in the accompanying 
illustration, that there is really no occasion for 
me to describe them in detail. All that need be 
said now is that it can be used on any sized lathe, 
which is a desideratum, and driven either from 
below, if for a treadle lathe, or from an overhead 
pulley. The price of the machine for lathes up 
to 6 in. centre is £2 2s. Those who utilise the 
lathe as a motive power for fret sawing should 
buy this machine. 

Doubtless many a reader of Work, who 
possesses the Britannia Company’s well com¬ 
piled and effectively illustrated Catalogue of 
Engineers’ Tools, Amateur Lathes, etc., supplied, 
the larger one at Is., and the smaller one at 6d., 
will have felt some surprise when he has noted 
the large number of machines and appliances of 


*.* Patentees, manufacturers, and, dealers generally are re¬ 
quested to send prospectuses, bills, etc., of their speciali¬ 
ties in tools, machinery, and workshop appliances to the 
Editor of WORK for notice in “ Our Grade to Good 
Things.” It is desirable that specimens should be sent 
for examination and testing in all cases when this can be 
done without inconvenience. Specimens thus received 
will be returned at the earliest opportunity. It must be 
understood that everything which is noticed, is noticed 
on its merits only, and that, as it is in the power of any¬ 
one who has a useful article for sale to obtain mention 
of it in this department of WORK without charge, the 
notices given partake in no way of the nature of adver¬ 

1.—The Britannia Company’s Lathe 
Drilling Machine. 

My attention has lately been drawn to the Bri¬ 
tannia Company’s Lathe Drilling Machine, and 
it seems to be such a handy appliance, and so 

The Britannia Company’s Lathe Drilling Machine. 

various kinds that are manufactured and sold by 
the Company, many of them—especially the 
lathes, planing machines, and shaping machines— 
being of enormous size and power, and well-nigh 
of boundless capacity. And more than this, he 
must have thought, if he thought at all, that a 
Company which turned out such powerful and 
heavy engineers’ tools and machines as these, so 
numerous and so constantly improved and im¬ 
proving that they are known, like convicts—I 
trust the Company will forgive the simile—by 
numbers and not by names, must he one of con¬ 
siderable importance, possessed of large, well- 
equipped workshops, endowed and hacked with 
almost inexhaustible resources, and finding daily 
bread for a very large number of hands. My 
anticipations in these directions were in no way 
disappointed when I visited Colchester not long 
since for the purpose of looking over the Bri¬ 
tannia Company’s works, at the invitation of the 
courteous and energetic manager, Mr. T. M. Bear, 
who is at once the mainspring and motive power 
of the whole affair. Nothing but a personal 
inspection is sufficient to show the magnitude 
and extent of the work turned out in the Com¬ 
pany’s extensive and vyell-ordered factories, in 
which are to he seen immense workshops, densely, 
but not inconveniently, occupied with a variety 
of machines in motion—one, a screw-cutting 
machine, stretching over the whole width of the 
principal workshop—fashioning, shaping, plan¬ 
ing, and cutting the different parts of the 
numerous machines on order with a rapidity 
and ease that would appear simply wonderful to 
anyone unaccustomed to their action. Indeed, 
one might say that some hundredweights of iron. 

Work—March 21, 1301.] 



introduced at one end of the factory comes out a 
finished machine at the other. I regret that 
space fails me to speak more at length of the 
special machines manufactured there, and the 
handsome, well-lighted, and capacious drawing- 
rooms, pattern-rooms, and other necessary offices 
attached to the workshops. One thing, however, 
I am hound to mention; and that is the order 
which prevailed throughout the factory, and the 
attention every man paid to his work, apparently 
taking the utmost interest in what he was doing, 
and in looking to the machine that was working 
under his care. When scattered here and there 
among the machines, the hands in the 
employ of the Company did not appear 
to he very numerous; but this idea, as 
far as I was concerned, was soon wiped 
out when the dinner-hour came, and 
the hell gave the signal to cease work, 
and from 150 to 200 men soon gathered 
from all parts of the workshops, and 
poured out through the factory gates, 
without crowding and without undue 
noise, about three abreast, in a con¬ 
tinuous stream, which kept going for 
some time before the factory was left 
to the manager and myself, and a dead 
silence followed, which offered a 
marked and marvellous contrast to 
the busy hum of active workers and 
moving machinery that had prevailed 
a few minutes before. 

work hung at the Academy. Surely we might say 
such an one can only now learn from Nature ! My 
friend thinks otherwise, since he cheerfully pays 
a half-guinea to watch a professional master paint 
for an hour an imaginary landscape or a study of 
foliage. If there is sense in this action, surely a 
clever master is no danger to a would-be marbler; 
and I venture to assert, had R. A. D. been so 
fortunate as to be the pupil of a clever marbler 
like Mr. Moxon, Mr. Kershaw, or the late Tom 
Nichol, in more Northern latitudes, he would be 
a far better -practical marbler than he is now— 
however able he may be. I am honestly obliged to 
my critic for reminding me of the translation of 
Van der Burg’s work ; and his information re the 
Technical School justifies his writing. I will only 
humbly endeavour to offer him some useful informa- 


A . Corner for Those who Want to 
Talk It. 

In consequence of the great pressure 
upon the “ Shop ” columns of Work, 
contributors are requested to be brief 
and concise in all future questions 
and replies. 

In answering any of the “ Questions submitted 
to Correspondents," or in referring to any¬ 
thing that has appeared in “ Shop," writers 
are requested to refer to the number and 
page of number of Work in which the sub¬ 
ject under consideration appeared, and to 
give the heading of the paragraph to which 
reference is made, and the initials and place 
of residence, or the nom-de-iilume, of the 
writer by whom the question has been asked 
or to whom a reply has been already given. 

Answers cannot be given to questions which 
do not bear on subjects that fairly come 
within the scope of the Magazine. 

I.—Letters from Correspondents. 

On Learning Marbling_F P. 

iNeutport ) writes “ Can you spare me 
space in which to reply to our friend’s 
(R. A. D.) letter upon the above subject, 
appearing in page 175 of Vol. II.? My 
answer to W. H., therein alluded to, 
is condemned as ‘bad advice’ by one 
who, from the general tone of his, never¬ 
theless useful, letter believes himself 
competent to write thereon. The pith 
of both W. H.’s query and answer in 
4 Shop ’ referred to the cost of learning. 

The practical value of all that has hereto¬ 
fore appeared in Work upon any sub¬ 
ject few will question, and the ‘ value 
for money’ aspect of this wonderful 
weekly pennyworth needs no considera¬ 
tion. Time again will show how far the 
writer was justified in allocating to a 
future series of papers f he premier posi¬ 
tion for ‘ small cost and practical useful¬ 
ness.’ Respecting, however, the definite 
courses that were suggested to the 
learner, I would ask, Does not ’ a clever 
marbler ’ imply a capable, experienced, and trained 
craftsman ? If it does not, to the thinking of friend 
R. A. D„ surely he is unfair (doubtless unintention¬ 
ally) to the writer in inferring and construing the , __ m 

same to mean an incompetent worker-one who j of R. A. D.‘ There is a Dutch work, price £2 10s., 

pretends to imitate that which he has never seen, ■ -- _j. -.- — —- • ' —- 

much less studied; in_ short, any poor craftsman, 
down to the paper-stainer’s boy, who marbles six¬ 
penny sienna (?) at the rate of some 36 feet by 21 in. 
per minute ! F. P. would give place to no reader of 
Work in impressing the necessity of studying from 
Nature ; but the ‘ matter-of-fact ’ side and technical 
aspect must not be overlooked. Is not the name 
of any great art-worker usually connected with 
his master? ‘Nature’ can scarcely be expected 
to teach an individual how to handle his brushes 
and tools, and what are the nature, properties, 
and values of his pigments and vehicles. Carry 
the inquiry still further, and let me give a definite 
instance:—I have a friend who is sufficiently an 
artist (unprofessional) in water-colours to have his 

Home-Made Joiners’ and Blacksmiths’ Lathe. Fig. 1.—General View 
of Lathe. Fig. 2.—B, Plan of Heads ; X, Section of Cast-Iron 
Plates. Fig. 3 —A, Elevation of Front Headstock with Section of 

tion in return. A prominent literary worker and 
marbler (from ‘ Nature ’) of forty years' experience 
gives an authoritative opinion of the above work, 
worth quoting as against the patronising laudation 

in which some of the specimens are fairly good 
(my italics), but the letterpress instructions are 
difficult to follow out, being a translation from the 
Dutch.’ Now a few final queries for my critical 
friend. If this Dutch work is valuable and worth 
following, as he says, would not the personal 
instructions of either of the brothers—doubtless 
‘ clever marblers ’—be of more value ? If there is 
only ‘one class of its kind in the United Kingdom’ 
for the would-be marbler to study at, and that in 
Kennington Park Road, what are all the poor 
provincials to do? Can they go into the streets and 
lanes to study rouge roi, jasper, and porphyry 
from ‘Nature ’? Anti if they could, would not there 
be something still to learn about the manipulation 
of tools, colours, and the varnishing, felting, and 

polishing? There are two other good collections 
also worth mentioning of natural specimens—the 
Geological Museum in Jermyn Street, London 
(Marbles), and the Royal Botanical Gardens at 
Kew (Woods), so that the ‘ City and Guilds, etc.,’ 
very fine collection (all honour to it, however) is not 
quite alone in its magnificence. Let me here ask 
R. A. D., and all other earnest believers in work 
of any kind, to give the contributors of this paper a 
‘ fair hearing,’ or rather reading. Surely R. A. D. 
could count upon the publication of useful informa¬ 
tion without misconstruing and wrongly character¬ 
ising so practical and common-sense an answer as, 
I believe, I have shown to be that which he con¬ 
demns as ‘bad advice.' If ‘marbling’ is ever to 
become as popular again, as a decorative feature in 
buildings, as it was thirty years ago, I venture to 
opine that it will not be due to the 
marble studies and paintings of L. Alma 
Tadema, and such other gentlemen who 
may spend time ad lib. copying pieces 
of marble upon paper, etc., at the ‘Ken¬ 
nington Park Road’ class (excellent imi¬ 
tations although they may be), but 
rather will it be due to those workers 
who can apply their imitative faculties 
in a practical manner, and offer, not 
solely minute and slavish imitations, but 
as much natural effect of colour and 
figure as the very primary and ever¬ 
present considerations of cost and com¬ 
parative values will allow." 

Home-Made Joiners’ and Black¬ 
smiths’ Lathe. — Practical Joiner 
writes:— “ Having been a subscriber to 
Work since its commencement, I have 
noticed many inquiries regarding lathes, 
their construction, etc., especially home¬ 
made ones. I have copied one in our 
shop, made by my fattier, and which 
has been in use exactly sixty years. It 
is drawn in perspective—perhaps not 
very perfectly, I never having learnt 
that branch of drawing. I trust my 
fellow-workmen will be able to under¬ 
stand it. The maker was a joiner in a 
country village, with, I must confess, a 
talent for fitting. The lathe is 10 in.; 
centres partly wood, partly cast iron ; 
the bed is of hardwood plank, 8 in. by 
3 in., with a cast-iron top nicely planed, 
and fitted to the top of wooden bed. 
This makes an excellent job. The poppet 
slips beautifully along it. The fixed heads 
are also wood and iron, the end standard 
being carried up high enough to form 
the back bearing ; the front ones checked 
in between the two planks, and a piece 
of dry wood fitted nicely in between the 
two, and bolted together, making the 
whole perfectly rigid and steady. The 
sliding head is of cast iron, and is the 
most difficult part to construct. This 
head was bored out with a flat boring 
bar, with a piece of half-round wood at 
the back; after each cut, a piece of 
thickish paper is put in between the 
wood, and on the bar, and so on. I 
bored a small engine cylinder with this 
same tool, and succeeded perfectly. The 
mandrel runs in brass bearings; these 
brasses are fitted into cast-iron plates, the 
front of which is seen on elevation at A, 
Fig. 3 (end view of iron bed is also seen 
here). A section of this plate is also seen 
in drawing marked X. b is a plan of heads 
showing the whole construction. The 
bearings are held down by a flat bar and 
two nuts. This plate is much thinner 
where it is fitted into the head than 
where it supports the bearings. These 
plates require careful fitting, being kept 
flush with the top of the wooden heads, 
and fixed with large screws. The man¬ 
drel is 15 in. long, 1J in. thick at front 
bearing, £■ in. at back one, with collar as 
shown, and back centre to tighten up. 
The fly-wheel is 30 in. diameter, of cast 
iron, with a wooden rim fitted compactly 
and firmly round the iron ; the grooves, 
four in number, are turned on the 
wooden rim, and being turned on its 
own axle, ensures perfect truth in run¬ 
ning. The top pulley is about 10 in. 
diameter, smallest speed being 4 in. A 
brass dividing plate completes it. The 
main axle is H in. square, with two cranks. 
The bed of this lathe is 10 feet long, but the 
cast-iron part is only 6 feet, the remainder being- 
carried out in wood, fitting well with the iron, as 
we seldom work so far back. The lathe is capable 
of very heavy work—such as wheel naves, or hubs, 
as they are called in England; these are from 
8 in. to 12 in. diameter. We also turn all our 
wheels not exceeding 20 in. on it; it also carries a 
circular saw, 12 in. diameter, which is one of the 
most useful tools in a country shop. I have seen 
the hand or foot-power saw condemned in print. 
All that I can say is we would not lose ours on any 
account. The speed and accuracy with which 2 in. 
deal can bo sawn, for instance, into such stuff, would 
rather astonish the eloquent advocate of the rip 
saw; it is not only the speed, but they are so accu¬ 
rately done that they can be dressed up with the 
plane in no time. I know what it is to dress up hand¬ 
saw work; as wesay down here in Roxburghshire:‘it 
is nae better than it’s caa'd. ’ Then for cutting tenons 



[Work—March 21, 1891. 

it is first-rate; in order to dress a 12 in. saw lightly, 
it requires the band from a 21 in. speed to the 10 in. 
one. But I am afraid I am wandering, or maybe 
maundering away from my text. Any competent 
workman would have no difficulty in making such 
a machine ; one man made it, and this in the year 
1830, when there were no such tools as can be had 
now. The general idea was taken from a popular 
cyclopaedia of that time, and, honestly speaking, it 
has not cost us over twenty shillings for repairs ; 
and the parts which failed were of birch wood, these 
being the two cross feet and the top pulley. I shall 
he glad to answer any questions regarding this 
lathe, if anyone should try his hand."—[This is a 
capital lathe. It must have been a stunner sixty 
years ago. In these days, cast iron is so cheap and 
easily worked, I doubt whether it would be a saving 
to make such a lathe of wood now. If I am “ the 
eloquent advocate of the rip saw,” I should want to 
know, before modifying my opinion thereon, whether 
our Roxburghshire joiner can drive that 12 in. saw 
with his unassisted foot when ripping 2 in. deal for 
blind slats. He may, perhaps, at a speed ratio of 
only 10 to 24, which is very slow. Query: What is the 
most advantageous speed for a circular saw driven 
by one man? As. however. Practical Joiner 
turns up naves of 8 in. to 12 in. diameter, I rather 
think he must be in the habit of calling upon one or 
two others to help him tread ; or, does he use the 
engine the cylinder of which he bored? A 6 in. or 
8 in. saw is very hard to drive when cutting 2 in. 
wood at ordinary speed ; do we make a mistake in 
running our saws so fast?—F. A. M.] 

n.—Q uestions Answered by Editor and Staff. 

Hive for Transportation.— Bar Frame, J. J., 
and others.—Bar Frame asks for a description of 
a hive which would be suitable for moving to the 
heather by rail or boat; and, as I have such a hive 
in my possession, a short account of it will probably 
he acceptable to others as well as to Bar Frame. It 
is a twin hive, capable of accommodating a couple 
of strong stocks, but, if it is thought too heavy in this 
form, it might easily be made half the length, when 
it would do for a single hive, and be more easily 
carried about. Twin hives, however, possess the 
advantages of economising heat, and being almost 
as easily made as single ones while doing the work 
of two. To make this hive, I first construct a box 
of inch stuff, 17 in. by 34 in. internal measurements. 
It is 9 in. high, and the bottom is nailed on, plenty 
of good glue being applied to every joint. Before 
the bottom is nailed on, I cut a doorway | in. high 
and 8 in. long out of each end. I also strengthen 

Hive for Transportation. End of Porch. 

the bottom with three or four cleats nailed across. 
It is to be understood that the bottom is planed 
flush with the sides all round. I next prepare the 
inner sides, which are to support the ends of the 
frames, and give the hive double walls. These are 
two in number, 31 in. long, J in. thick, and 84 in. 
high. They are bevelled on top, leaving about 
! of an inch to support the frames, or a strip of 
tin might be tacked on for the same purpose, in 
which case the inner sides would be 8J in. high, the 
tin bringing them to 8-1 in. These sides are next 
nailed in place, leaving a space between them of 
14|in.; nails should also be driven up through the 
bottom into these sides, to give additional strength 
to the structure. The j in. space between the inner 
and outer sides may now be filled with cork-dust, 
chaff, or some other non-conductor of heat, and a 
small strip of wood nailed on top to keep it down. 
So much for the body of the hive, which will require 
a well-fitting dummy to keep the stocks apart. The 
roof I make on the Cowan principle, sloping from 
41 in. to 9 in. in height; in the breadth of the hive, 
the top is covered with ! in. boards, placed edge to 
edge, covered with calico and painted. If three 
crates of sections are used, a riser 81 in. high and 
the size of the body-box will be required. Plinths 
break the joints between body-box, or riser and 
roof. The hive is now complete, except for the 
alighting board and porch, which I make in one. 

As it is rather more difficult to describe than the 
body part of the hive, I give an end view of it 
(see'sketch). I first cut pieces, which I may call the 
ends, to about the dimensions given in the figure, 
but this can be varied much. 1 then nail the top 
and back in place, having previously rebated the 
place for the doors in the latter ; the alighting board 
comes last, and projects back far enough to support 
tbe runners. The length is about a foot, and the 
entire porch is secured to the hive with a couple of 
screws. It can thus be removed when a journey is 
in contemplation, and replaced with the greatest 
rapidity. I have now fulfilled Bar Frame’s re¬ 
quirements in describing a hive handy to carry 
about, if the eaves are not made too wide; strong, 
and with few parts ; and able to keep out the cold 
and rain at the heather. If it is made half the 
length, it would be still more handy, but heat would 
not be so much economised. I hope observatory 
hives will be treated of in due time.— Apis. 

Plant Case for Window.— Dew.—T o give full 
details for making a case such as you require would 

Plant Case for Window. Fig. 1.—Side and End 
Elevation of Case. Fig. 2.—Section of Box, 
showing Fitting of Corner Post. Fig. 3.— 
Section of Corner Post. Fig. 4.—Section of 
Case and Window. 

take up too much of the space available for “ Shop ” 
replies, but the following brief description may, 
with tbe aid of the sketches, furnish you with sufli- 
cient particulars for your purpose. Fig. 1 shows the 
appearance of the finished case, the lower part of 
which consists of a box made to fit the width of the 
window in wbich it is to be placed. This box is 
made of } in. wood, and is about 6 in. deep, the 
bottom being firmly screwed to tbe sides and ends. 
Slips of ! in. wood, 11 in. wide, and having a small 
moulding or a plain chamfer worked on one edge, 
are then planted on to the outside of the box, so as 
to form panels on the front and ends, the piece on 
the top edge projecting i in. above the box to form 
a rabbet for the glass. The corner posts are then 
fitted in their place by cutting them away as shown 
in Fig. 2, and fixing them by means of screws. 
These posts are of the section shown at Fig. 3, and 
can be chamfered on tbe edges. Fig. 4 shows a 
section through the case and window when in 
position, two brackets being fitted to the window¬ 
sill and firmly screwed down to it, upon wbich the 
case rests, being also secured at the top by means 
of two iron straps screwed on the woodwork of the 
case and window. The roof of the case should come 
just above the bottom of the top sash, so as to allow 
of its being pulled down if required. Apiece of wood 
of the same thickness as the roof is fitted close 
to tbe window-glass, and the roof is hinged to it, 
and can then be opened at tbe front. The semi¬ 
circular tops of the front and end openings are out 
out of a piece of ! in. wood, which is let in flush 
with tbe corner posts and bars, trefoils being cut out 
to lighten the appearance; the glass goes right up 
behind this wood, and covers the trefoil holes; or a 
very good effect can be obtained by cutting away 
tbe plain glass behind the boles and putting in blue 
or red glass; if your case is seen from the road, this 
is worth doing. Of course, a zinc lining is required 
to prevent the damp injuring the woodwork, and a 
pipe should go through one corner of the bottom to 
let away any surplus water. Use yellow deal if 

possible, and prime thoroughly with two coats of 
thin white lead before painting. I think these few 
hints will give you an idea how to proceed, but if 
you find any difficulty in the course of the work, 
write again.—G. le B. 

Glazing Cuffs and Collars.— Laundry.— There 
are various ways of doing this. Putting a little gum 
arabic into the starch is considered to give a nice 
glaze. Another way is with wax—into a pint and a 
half of boiling water in a saucepan put an ounce of 
wax ; melt over the fire. When it has stood a few 
minutes to cool, stir into it half a pound of starch, 
previously mixed with a little cold water; the whole 
to be boiled and stirred for half an hour. The wax 
starch thus prepared is to be used cold. We believe, 
however, that the glazing substance most used at 
the present day is borax. Some borax is dissolved 
in a saucer, the linen is starched in the usual way, 
an iron is passed over it, a clean rag is dipped in the. 
borax and rubbed over the face of the article, and 
the ironing then finished.—S. W. 

Boot Soling and Welting— S. T. (No Address). 
—Round the sole a little wider than the last: any 
way, at the heel or outside joint. The breadth of 
the feather is decided according to the substance of 
the upper; but for medium work it must be about 
i of an inch ; and to make this feather, a strip of tbe 
leather must be taken away, and the lighter you 
want tbe sole to look when finished, the more of 
this you take away at a (Fig. 1). A line should be 
drawn round about | of an inch from the edge, and 
the awl put in here in holing, as b, and brought out 
at c. This is all done on a board, not on the last, as 
an insole is fitted. For Question 1 you say a 
‘ turned pump." All pumps are turned, but all 
turned shoes are not pumps, and as you ask in Ques¬ 
tion 4 if you should start sewing at “ the left-hand 
corner of the heel," I conclude you mean what are 
called “ sew-rounds"—that is, it is sewn allround 
while it is inside out, whereas the heel of a pump 
is made after the shoe is turned to its right side out. 
The sole should be tacked to the last with four 
tacks (the sole being grain side to the last), and then 
tbe upper lasted on with tacks, as you would for a 
welt: only use small tacks, and the tops must be 
lasted inside out. The sole should be fitted for this 
class of work to such a nicety (that is, have a very 
clean-cut edge), that after it is turned and second 
lasted it should need only to be coloured and 
ironed. The stitches for a gent’s should have 
about five to the inch, and you should commence 
stitching at the corner of the heel, sew up one side 
of the waist, round the foreport, down the other 
side of the waist, and then round the heel. The 
feather for a broad welt can scarcely be too nar¬ 
row—in fact, it must he sewn full, or its beauty is 
spoilt; and after the welt is sewn in, it should be 
beaten up, not between “two hammers,” but with 
a welt-beater in the left hand and the hammer in 
the right. A welt-beater is generally made from 

Fig- 1 

Boot Soling and Welting. Fig. 1.— 
Transverse Section of Sole, D 
being the “Strip’’ to be taken, 
away all round. Fig. 2.—Welt- 

an old rasp, beaten out while hot, and turned over, 
as in Fig. 2, and a is put between the upper and 
welt, and b forms the handle.—W. G. 

Shading Marquetry. — J. K. (No Address).— 
Such shading as you refer to may be done with hot 
sand, heaped up in the centre of the veneer you wish 
to shade, if it, is large enough. All such work re¬ 
quires ’’ dodging.” It cannot be done mechanically. 
It may also be managed by heating a piece of iron 
till it is hot enough to brown the wood when held 
near it. Use either the end of the poker or a piece 
of wire, according to the size of the work. I cannot 
sav how vour old specimens are done without seeing 
them and very likely I should not be able to tell even 
then.’as no doubt old' workers had their own methods 
of doing out-of-the-way jobs like this one, just as 
they do now. When an operation is a common one, 
one or more recognised methods are generally prac¬ 
tised, because they have been found the best for 
obtaining a desired result; but in exceptional cases 
the worker must be guided by bis experience. This 
will sufficiently guide you, whether you are merely 
asking from curiosity or because you wish to imitate 
the work. In this latter case you may he glad to 
know that the shading may be done with ordinary 
water-colour paint on the surface, after the veneer 
has been laid and cleaned up.—D. D. 

Fretwork.—F. G. (London, A 7 )).—No elementary 
articles on this subject have appeared yet, hut some 
are in course of preparation.—D. A. 

Work—March 21,1891.] 



Hand Camera.— E. T. (Bruntcliffe).— They vary 
a little in detail, but both are useful instruments. 
Abrahams, in Aldersgate Street, has a very simple 
and workable one—the movement of one lever 
changing the plate and fixing another ready for 

Fainting Inside of Aquarium.— Jack of All 

Trades.—T ry Aspinali’s enamel; choose the colour 
you think will best suit the aquarium and put on 
three coats, allowing each sufficient time to dry, 
and do not put in the fish until you have had it 
filled with water for, say, a fortnight, changing the 
water every two days during that time. A friend 
of mine has recently treated an aquarium similar to 
yours in this manner ; it has now been in use about 
six months and is perfectly watertight, while no 
apparent harm has been done to the fish.—G. le B. 

Austin-Leclanche Battery. — J. A. (A'o 
Address ).—The ingredients and all other acces¬ 
sories required for making and fitting up the 
Austin-Leclanch6 Battery can be obtained from 
Whitney’s, the Science Depot, City Road, London ; 
also of Caplatzi, 3, Chenies Street, Tottenham Court 
Road, W.C. Either of these will favour you with 
their price lists for inspection by enclosing postage. 
The price of Mr. Caplatzi’s list is 2d.—H. E. A. 

Water-Heating Apparatus.— A. H. H. (Bir¬ 
mingham).— You do not state the size of the 
building you propose to heat, but I imagine from 
your query that it is a small fernery or window 
conservatory. A friend of mine fitted one with hot- 
water pipes as shown in sketch, and he is perfectly 
satisfied with it. I will describe it as he made it, 
but you need not follow it in all details, as he had. 
the saucepan and lamp by him, and you may have 
something else that will do as well. The boiler, a, 
consisted of a two-gallon tin saucepan with the 
handle removed and the lid soldered down. Any 
other utensil will do as well, providing you make it 
water-tight. The lamp is 
a small oil stove, known F 

as the “Beatrice,” costing 
about 5s. 6d. Since it was 
fixed, I have made a tin 
reservoir, holding about 
half a gallon, to replace 
the cast-iron one, which 
was rather small, and re¬ 
quired filling frequently. 

The pipes, b, are I in. iron 
gas barrel, bent at c as 
shown in sketch. You 

Water - Heating Appa¬ 
ratus—A, Boiler; B, 

Hot-Water Pipes; C, 

Bend; D, Cistern ; E, Top of Boiler; F, Air- 

can, if you choose, use two bends, or two elbows 
joined with a nipple to form the bend, but you 
will find it cheapest and best to have it bent. The 
boiler must be placed either below or on a level 
with the pipes, as shown in sketch. You can run the 
pipes to suit your convenience, providing you take 
the pipe from near the top of the boiler, and return 
it to the bottom, as shown. If you run the pipes 
above the level of the boiler, it will be best to take 
the pipe from the top of the boiler, e, and run the 
air-pipe, f, from the highest point in the flow-pipe. 
You ask for dimensions of tank, hut in a low 
pressure apparatus no tank is required, except for 
convenience of filling, as there is scarcely any loss 
of water. My friend used a cake tin for the cistern, 
and ran J in. composition gas-pipe to supply the 
boiler. The air-pipe is J in. composition, and this 
must be carried above the level of the cistern. It 
need not be carried over the cistern if not con¬ 
venient. The hot-water pipes are tinned at the 
ends and soldered into the boiler, hut if you do not 
mind a little extra expense, it will be best to solder 
unions into the boiler, and connect the pipes to them. 
If you do this you will have no difficulty in making 
your connections, and will be able to disconnect and 
re connect boiler easily at any time. If you find any 
difficulty, I shall be glad to assist you if you write 
again.-T. W. 

Bicycle. — Cyclos. — Complete sets for making 
diamond frame safety, consisting of tubes, stamp¬ 
ings, hubs, ribs, tires, chain, forks, brackets, saddle, 
pedals, spring, and every item to complete the 
machine, can be bought of the St. George's Cycle 
Company, Upper Street, Islington, London, for the 
sum of 90s. I cannot say what parts are finished, 
but should say the hubs and bottom bracket are. 
Of course, the rims, tires, chain, saddle, etc., are 
finished. If Cyclos will write to above address, 
they will give him a catalogue and list wherein the 
prices of all rough and finished parts are given. If 
Cyclos is not much of a mechanic, he should get 
as many of the parts machined for him as possible. 
After that he may have difficulties, but no special 
ones, providing he reads up a treatise on the 
subject.—A. S. P. 

Clock Cleaning and Repairing — P. H. B. 

(Highfield ).—You did not enclose the letter you 
wished forwarded to Practical Hand. 

Speculum Grinding for a Newtonian Tele¬ 
scope.— W. B. (Bruntcliffe).— I presume that you 
are acquainted with the principle of the instru¬ 
ment ; if you are not, look it up in any elementary 
handbook on optics. Here is a rough diagram show¬ 
ing the arrangement of the mirrors and lenses. You 
will see that the light which falls on the large 
mirror, a, is reflected in a cone, which, before it 
reaches a focus, is intercepted by the small mirror, 
and turned aside through the eye-tube, d, to the eye- 
lens, e. The large mirror, a, called the speculum, 
and the small mirror, b, called the flat, will have to 
he ground and polished. If the speculum is to be, 
say, 6 in. in diameter (which is a good size to begin 
with, though you may make one larger or smaller 
if you wish), then the flat will be an oval about U 
in. in the major, and 1 in. in the minor diameter. 
For the present, in order that you may set at once 
to work, let the flat drop out of the question, we 
will confine our attention to the speculum. You 
will want no tools, properly so-called, at all. What 
has to be done is this. Given a flat disc of plate- 
glass, free from flaw or defect, to dig out one sur¬ 
face of it to a certain parabolic curve. And if we 
are to set about getting this parabolic curve in an 
intelligent manner, and with a prospect of success, 
we must first make it a sphere. So, for the moment, 
forget the necessity for the parabola, and state the 
problem more simply, thus •— Given a flat disc of 
■plate-glass, free from flaw or defect, to dig out 
in one surface of it an exact spherical concavity. 
The concavity must be such that its section will be 
an arc of the circumference of a circle, the radius 
of which will be twice the focal length of the desired 
Telescope. The focal length of a concave mirror 
is, roughly speaking, the distance from the centre 
of the reflecting surface to the point where the 
lines of the reflected rays intersect, or, in other 
words, to the apex of the cone of reflected light. 
Thus, with a speculum 6 in. in diameter, for 
which a good focal length would be 5 ft., the curve 
of a diametrical section of the mirror must be 
part of the circumference of a circle 10 ft. in 
radius or 20 ft. in diameter. You must really 
master this, because, until you have mastered it, 
you cannot intelligently proceed. A gauge by 

means of which you will 

Fig. 1- 

be able to tell when 
enough glass has been 
ground away can be 
easily made as fol¬ 
lows : — Proc.ure a 
lathe 10 ft. 6 in. long. 
Through it, close to 
one end, stick a long 
bradawl for a pivot, 
by which one end of 
it can be fastened to 
the floor, while part 

C Speculum Grinding for a 
Newtonian Telescope.— 
Fig. 1.—A,The Speculum; 
B, A SmaU Flat Mirror; 
C, C, C, C, Telescope Tube; D, Eye Tube ; E, 
Eye Lens. The dotted lines indicate the 
manner in which the Light from the Object 
is reflected from the Speculum to the Eye. 
Fig. 2.—A, Concave Gauge ; B, Convex Gauge. 
In each case the curve is much exaggerated. 

of a circle is described with the other end. In this 
other end, 10 ft. distant from the bradawl, fix a 
pointed steel tool. Underneath it, on the floor, 
place a 7 in. square of stout soft sheet zinc. Then, 
the bradawl being fixed firmly, the steel point may 
be made to mark the desired curve on the zinc, 
which must be cut with great care through the 
marked line, the curved edge being afterwards 
neatly worked together with a little wetted emery 
powder until they fit precisely. The straight-edge 
of the zinc can then be bent over (as in Fig. 2) and 
tapped down to keep the gauge rigid. The convex 
gauge, a, will fit the concave of the speculum 
exactly, the other gauge, b, we shall want to use 
otherwise by-and-by. Now for the glass. Get 
discs of plate glass 1 in., or better, l; in. thick and 6 
in. in diameter. You will be able to get them from 
any large plate-glass merchant, and they will 
cost a few shillings. The plate-glass people will 
cut them to a circle, but will leave the edges jagged. 
These edges must be smoothed down, either on a 
coarse grindstone, using plenty of water, or by 
mounting the two pieces of glass in a lathe and 
properly edging them. How to do this, I will tell 
you in another note.—E. A. F. 

Extracting Gold from Gilt Buttons.— No 

Name —From a jeweller’s point of view, it is not 
worth the trouble and expense, there being so little 
gold put on. Even refiners do not particularly care 
to buy them at the low rate of Is. per lb. I would go 
into the method of stripping by acid, but there are 
better methods I fancy in which a gilding battery 
is employed. Ask G. E. B. of Work staff.—H. S. G. 

Pump Delivery, Pressure on Fittings, Con¬ 
tents of Tanks.— Talbot.— To find the quantity 
of water delivered in gallons per minute by a pump 
with a 4 in. barrel, multiply the length of stroke 
in feet by the number of effective strokes per 
minute, and by 0 5454. For a 0 in. barrel, replace 
the multiplier 0'5454 by 0'8522. This applies to any 
kind of pump. If the pump is double acting, all the 
strokes will be effective, but if single acting, only 
half of them. To find the pressure per square inch 
upon any fittings, measure the maximum height in 
feet of the water level above the fitting and 
multiply it by 0'434. The size of the supply tank 
does not affect the question. To find the quantity 
of water in an oblong or square cistern in gallons, 
multiply together the length, breadth, and depth, all 
in feet,' and multiply the product by 1/25. To find 
the contents in gallons of a round tank, multiply 
the square of its diameter in feet by its depth in 
feet, and the product by 4'9.—F. C. 

Pantograph.— J. B. (Southu-ark ).—As a panto¬ 
graph can be bought for sixpence, it is not worth 
your while to make one, for the materials would pro¬ 
bably cost you more. You will find some remarks 
on the subject in “ Shop,” on page 569, No. 42, of 
Work, which may be of assistance to you.—D D. 

Canoe Sails.— T. P. (Islington ).—I submit rough 
sketch of sail plan that would suit canoe of dimen¬ 
sions given. The best article on canoe sails, etc., 
is in “ Canoe and Boat Building," by Stephens, pub¬ 

lished by Forest and Stream Publishing Company 
of New York. A licence on the river Thames for a 
canoe from January 1st to December 31st is £2.— 
L. Y. 

Kother-of-Pearl for Inlaying —W. B. ( Lon¬ 
don, E.C .).—The mother-of-pearl can be obtained 
from Mr. Henry Chatwin, 30 and 31, Darwin Street, 
Birmingham. He will also supply you with pre¬ 
pared shell of any thickness for saw-piercing, and 
will also cut it into shape if you like. The prices 
will be willingly given on application if details of 
thickness and quantity required are sent. The tools 
to work it that you will require are saws and files, 
all descriptions of which, including the polishing 
materials, can be obtained of Messrs. Cotton and 
Johnson, 14, Gerrard Street, Soho, London, W. 
Here is some idea of the cost: Saw-blades, from 3d. 
per dozen ; pierch.g-saw frame, from 3s. upwards ; 
file, about6d., although you can get small ones down 
to ljd. each. With these you should be able to get 
the shell into shape—that is, if you have it already 
slit to your desired thickness. If you wish to work 
from the shell direct, which I do not advise, you 
must go in for a hack-saw as well. With any or all 
of these tools use water or soapy water. To polish 
it, when you have done filing it, you must first get 
rid of the file marks with a piece of pumice-stone, 
ground flat, and water; then follow on with finely 
powdered pumice-stone and water, or oil, or better 
still with sulphuric acid and water. Vinegar will 
do if the acid is not to hand. The powdered pumice 
can be applied by means of a cloth lap (see a pre¬ 
vious answer on polishing opals, etc.), or a leather 
buff', to be bought for a few pence at Gerrard Street: 
or even a piece of rag wrapped round a piece of 
wood. With this you must obtain quite a regular 
and smooth, but dull, surface. The next step is with 
similar tools, not the same, but to use powdered 
rotten-stone with any of the before-mentioned fluids. 
The final polish is best given with the palm of the 
hand, on which powdered rotten-stone is rubbed. 
Fine whiting may also be useful in place of rotten- 
stone. I think I will close this reply by mentioning 
a suitable pin or peg to aid you in piercing. You 
can get one at Gerrard Street. It is a piece of wood 
some 3 in. wide and 5 in. long, tapering from | in. to 
i in., and with a piece cut out like sketch. It is 
attached to a board or table by two screws, and 
projects some 4 in. from it. With this you should 
be able to work the thin shell without accident, for 
you can obtain support in any direction. One last 
word. Get your shell already polished if you can. 
The appliances and practice they have give a much 
better result than you will be able to get. I almost 
forgot to say that a grindstone will almost be 
necessary if you work the whole shell yourself. 
—H. S. G. 

Metals. — Amateur. — You can get quantities 
of corrosive sublimate of Townson and Mercer, 


Shop, etc. 

[Work—March 21, 1891. 

Bishopsgate Street Within, or of J. Orme & Co., 
65, Barbican, E.C. To make a saturated solution, 
dissolve ■) oz. of the corrosive sublimate in about 
2 oz, of hot water. As it cools, the excess of salt 
will settle to the bottom, the remaining solution 
being saturated, and can be poured off to use, as 
mentioned in “ Means, Modes, and Methods,” 
page 714, Vol. II. Remember that corrosive sub¬ 
limate is chloride of mercury, and very poisonous; 
the white of egg is the best antidote.—F. B. 0. 

III. — Questions Submitted to Correspondents. 

Briar-Pipe Screws.—C. W. B. ( Plymouth) will 

be glad to be informed where to obtain bone screws 
for pipe-mounting, in. up to f in. diameter. 

Papier-Mache Doors. — H. H. ( Cambridge ) 
writes“ I have lately heard that doors of papicr- 
mdche have begun to be made in Hamburg. Can 
any reader inform me whether or not this is the 
case, and where particulars relating to them can be 
obtained * It seems to me that such doors would 
be much less inflammable than doors made of 
wood, and could without much difficulty be made 
almost fireproof.” 

Carved Wood Bellows.— Caro writes“ Can 
anyone tell me of a wholesale or retail address 
where I could get some bellows that I have carved 
nicely made up with brass nozzles and leather at a 
reasonable price ; also where I can obtain similar 
bellows all ready for carving 2 ” 

Ivory-Carving Tools.—J. E. W. ( Camberwell) 
writes:—“ Will any reader please inform me where 
to get the above tools; also the lathe cutters used 
by carvers and stick-makers 2” 

Turned Wood Cases.—W. H. ( Stirling) writes:— 
“ I am in want of some cheap turned wood cases for 
packing a small phial in—size of case outside about 
31 in. long by l) in. diameter. Can any reader oblige 
me with address of a maker !” 

Slate Pencil Preparation.—R. M. (Braintree) 
writes :—“ Seeing a recipe given in Work, No. 102, 
for a blackboard preparation, I am led to ask for a 
preparation to be applied to wood or millboard, 
which could be wi'itten on with slate pencil. Some¬ 
thing of the kind is sold, called carbon slate.” 

Mice Cage.— Mart writes “ Will anyone give 
me an ornamental design, with dimensions, for a 
white mice cage?” 

Lace Frame.— Mart writes Will anyone 
give me a design and dimensions for a macrame 
lace frame? ” 

Paper Machine. — Fourdrinier writes :— 
“ Would any reader acquainted with the working 
of a Fourdrinier paper machine explain how the 
paper is transferred from the wire to the wet felt?” 

Castings.—R. M. (No Address) writes :—“Will 
any reader give me some good information as to the 
best way of making my own castings? I want to 
make from 1 to 2 cwt. per day. Can I make them 
so as to be cheaper than 7s. per cwt., and what will 
be the probable cost of same ? ” 

Square Turning.—F. W. (No Address) writes :— 
“ Can any reader give me information of this kind 
of work? About what size wheels are used? How 
are the balusters, etc., fixed ; and will the same 
wheels do for all kinds of work, or are the small 
articles, such as spindles, done in a different way? 
Do the turners use a gauge to get the mouldings to 
correspond on all the four sides 2 ” 

Enlarging Drawings. — J. W. {Edinburgh) 
writesWould any reader kindly show the 
correct method of raising a drawing from half to 
full size ; or the reverse, from full to half size? Say 
the scroll figured (page 760, Vol. II.), enclosed in a 
square (in rough numbers) 6 in. x 4 in. = 24 square 
in. If I take a half more each way, say, 9 in. x 6 
in. = 54 square in., there is an excess of 6 square in. 
What is the rule?” 

Bright Steel and Cloth. — Steel writes 
“What is the best solution to stick bright steel and 
cloth together exposed to damp 1 ” 

Battery.— Electric writes“Would any reader 
oblige me with full particulars regarding the con¬ 
struction of a dry battery ? ” 

IV. —Questions Answered by Correspondents. 

Electric Light.—W. G. (Erith) writes, in reply 

to J. S. H. (Dublin) (see page 782, Vol. II.):— 
"If you have an ordinary bell-push, use a clip to 
keep the knob pressed down while you require the 
light. A cheap plug switch would be better, and 
maybe obtained for sixpence; the necessary cur¬ 
rent may be supplied from two 3 pint agglomerate 
Leclanchd batteries ; these can be used exactly the 
same as in electric bell work, and will light up a 
3-volt lamp for several years if only used for, say, 
five minutes per diem, and the current does not fall 
off as in the old form of LeclanchCs. Of course, as 
many lamps as required can be used from the two 
cells, but only one at a time.” 

:-ehooncr Rigging.— Teak writes, in reply to 
T. C. ( Manchester ) (see page 782, Vol. H.> :—“If 
T. C. wants a good book on Rigging, etc., let him 
write to the Bazaar Office, 170, Strand, London, 
W.O., for ‘Model Yachts,' by J. Du V. Grosvenor, 
price 5s. 4d. by post." 

Cart Materials. —W. P. ( Withington) writes, in 
reply to W. S. ( Preston) (see page 717, Vol. II.): 
—“I see that you are inquiring tor addresses for 
procuring material and coach ironmongery for 
making a Battlesden cart. By writing to Mr. Wm. 
Cary, Red Bank, and Tomkmson & Co., Oxford 
Street, both of Manchester, you will be able to 
procure all that you require." 

Photography. — C. M. V. (Forest Gate , E.) 
writes, in reply to C. E. II. (Horwich) (see page 
734, Vol. II.):—“ The method inquired for is termed 
‘ Transparleum.’ The company who introduced the 
process" was the Continental Novelty Co., Leicester 
Square, London.” 

Joiners’ Bits.—M. (Bishop Auckland) writes, in 
reply to A. A. W. (Leicester) (see page 734, Vol. 
II.):—“The bits used by joiners are shell-bits, 
centre-bits. American twist-bits, and expanding-bits. 
Shell-bits are semicircular, with the end turned 
up to form a cutting edge; they are slower in 
action, but not so liable to split the wood. Centre- 
bits have a centre point and two cutting edges, one 
cutting the side and the other the bottom of the 
hole. American twist-bits are formed like a screw, 
with two cutting edges, and a taper screw point; 
they are very quiet in action. Expanding-bits have 
a taper screw point, and a movable cutter for 
various sized holes.” 

Cardboard Models.—C. P. W. ( London , E.) 
writes, in reply to J. F. (Mullingar) (see page 634, 
Vol. II.):—“ So far as I can learn, there are no very 
exhaustive works on the subject. The only one I 
know of forms one of YVeale’s series published by 
Messrs. Virtue & Co., Amen Corner, Paternoster 
Row, E.C., and is entitled ‘ Practical Instructions 
in the Art of Modelling in Architecture,’ by T. A. 
Richardson, price Is. 6d. It is a very useful little 
treatise, but only professes to be elementary." 

Transparleum.—D ean Forest writes, in reply 
to C. E. II. (Harwich) (see page 734, Vol. n.):— 
“In answer to your query, the name of the process 
of painting photos on glass which you could not 
recollect, is, I believe, ‘ Transparleum.’ ” 

Frosting.—W. P. ( Withington) writes, in reply 
to Beta (see page 734, Vol. II.) :—“First clean the 
inside of the window, and polish it dry; then get 
some white lead, ground in boiled oil, and a little 
driers, and paint the window, twirling the brush 
round to imitate frosted glass. Do not paint too 
thickly, or you will obscure the light; leave for a 
few days to thoroughly harden; get the rule, and 
measure an inch next to the sash, and mark all 
round; get a straight staff and a blunt bodkin, and 
run it up on the paint by the side of the staff, thus 
marking the window all round; this, when well 
done, gives a nice finish. Stars and diamonds can 
be done in this way, drawing them first with a 
blacklead upon the paint; they should, however, 
be done with a geometrical preciseness, and I assure 
you the effect both from the inside as well as outside 
is very pretty. If left plain, it should, however, 
have a fine border, as already shown, an inch from 
the sash all round, to take away the plainness of the 

Electric Light.—H. E. (London, N.W.) writes, 
in reply to J. H. S. (Dublin) (see page 782, Vol. II.): 
—“From twelve to twenty large size Leclanchb 
cells (according to resistance of lamp) will light 
a small incandescent lamp for from five to ten 
minutes at a time during a period of from 
twelve months to two years, according to use. 
An ordinary electric bell-push, or pressel, can be 
used, or a two-way switch, as most convenient. 
This is the least troublesome method.’’ 

Hardened Putty.—H. E. ( London*. 1 . W.) replies 
to J. G. (Hull) (see page 782, Vol. XT.):—“If only 
a small quantity is wanted to be kept, put it into 
a vessel and cover with water. If a tub, pour a 
thin layer of linseed-oil over. If you wish to soften 
some hardened putty, knock it up with some linseed- 
oil with a mallet.” 

Hand-Power Circular Saw.—A. R. (Scorrier) 
writes, in reply to S. P. (Penarth) (see page 782, 
Vol. II.):—“ If S. P. has plenty of money to dispense 
with, let him give it to the poor rather than lay it 
out in a machine that would be worse than useless 
to him for the work he wishes to do. If S. P. has 
no back numbers of Work, I would advise him to 
get at least all the numbers of Vol. II., in which he 
will find both sketches and information how to drive 
small circular saw benches for cutting shallow stuff. 
But he must not expect to cut 5 in. deep, unless he 
has other than hand-power. To drive a circular saw 
by hand is not work for a man, even in shallow stuff.” 

Lacquer for Brass.—W. P. ( Withington) writes, 
in reply to Patience (see page 734, Vol. II.):— 
“ Take 2 oz. of shellac, and dissolve in one pint of 
alcohol, coloured with turmeric; this turns the 
lacquer yellow. Clean the brass, and polish well 
off: then place it in a warm oven or before the fire, 
and apply this lacquer with a camel-hair brush. 
Keep the article in a warm place until the lacquer 
is quite dry, or it will he dull and lustreless.” 

V.—Brief Acknowledgments. 

Questions have been received from the following correspon¬ 
dents, and answers only awnit space in Shop, upon which there 
is great pressure •—E. C. i Redruth); Old Paintings; J. C. B. 

( Ot . Ayton); C. C.; Self-Helper; Market; 
S. E. (Chelmsford ); R. C. ( Exeter ); Gimel; C. G. (St. Albaiis); 
A. M. (Rochdale ); H. E. L. G. i Liverpool ); A. B. lEdenfield); 
Iris; W. C. {Glasgow); New Reader; S. H. {London, E.C.); 
J. H. ( Everton ): A. S. ( Blaydon-on-Tyne ); J. J. F. {Shaftesbury ) ; 
H. G. • Brentford); J. L. W. (Sandown ); E. L. ( Woolwich ); J. S. R. 
(Glasgow); S. C. (Ashton-under-Lyne); A. R. B. (Dublin); 
BLorol: J. B. F. (Eastbou: ne); W. T. R. (Newfoundland); 
H. M. ( Liverpool ); W. B. W. (Wolverhampton): E. D. ( Deptford , 
S.E.); No Name (Manchester ); T. L. D.; H. O. B. (Manchester); 
W. T. G- (Bristol) . M. T. 0. ( Stockport ); F. W. P. (London, W.); 
J. Mo V. (Newcastle-on-Tyne); Essbm ; A. L. (London. W.C .); H. 
O’C. (Croydon); Workitb ; Corinthian ; A. V. w. (Chelten¬ 
ham) ; W. N. (Finsbury Park) ; J. F. (San Remo, Italy ); F. H. B. 
(Barking); H. F. ( Birmingham ); Embostyro; T. G. ( Liver¬ 
pool ); J. 0. (Bedale ); D. C. D. ( Ossory ) ; J . G. N. ( Manchester ); 
Piano Stool ; W. S. (Rugby ); J. MoA. ( Glasgow ); A. A. 
(Edinburgh ); F. S. P.; J. J. (Kidderminster')) G. C. (Reading); 
J. H. ( London, N.). 



The Stationers’ Company having kindly 


at the disposal of Messrs. Cassell & Com¬ 
pany for the Distribution of the Prizes 
gained at the recent “Work” Exhibition, 
Notice is now given that the 

Medals, Prizes, and Certificates 
will be given away on 
TUESDAY, MARCH 24, at 8 p.m., 


All Exhibitors who can conveniently 
attend are invited to be present, and will 
be admitted on production of their Ad¬ 
mission Ticket to the late Exhibition or 
Visiting Card bearing their registered 

Each Exhibitor will be entitled to bring 
a friend. 


is published at La Belle Sauvage, Ludgate Hill, London, at 
9 o'clock every Wednesday morning .and should be obtain able every¬ 
where throughout the United Kingdom on Friday at the latest. 


5 months, free by post .is. 8& 

6 months, „ .ss. 3d. 

12 mouths, „ ... 6s. 6d. 

Postal Orders or Post Office Orders payable at the General 
Post Office. London, to Cassell and Company, Limited. 

Terms for the Insertion of Advertisements in each 

One Page.12 00 

Half Page.-6 10 0 

Quarter Page.312 6 

Eighth of a Page - - - - - - -117 5 
One-Sixteenth of a Page - - - - 1 0 0 

In Column, per inch -. 0 10 0 

Small prepaid Advertisements, such as Situations Wanted 
and Exchange, Twenty Words or less. One Shilling, and Ono 
Penny per Word extra if over Twenty. All Other Adver¬ 
tisements in Sale aDd Exchange Column are charged One 
Shilling per Line (averaging eight words). 

Prominent Positions . or a series of insertions, 
by special arrangement. 

*** Advertisements should reach the Office fourteen 
days in advance of the date of issue. 


Victor Cycle Co., Grimsby, sell Mail Cart Wheels. [16 R 
Twelve Full-Size Fretwork Designs, post 
free, 7d. and is. id. Satisfaction guaranteed or money re¬ 
turned.— Taylor’s Fretwork Manufactory, Blackpool. [14 R 
Tools, Tools, Tools. —The cheapest house in the 
trade forEnglishand American tools is Lunt’s, 297, Hickney 
Road, London, E. Send stamp for reduced price lis:. [8 r 

Paper Letters, Rubber Stamps, etc.— Agents 
should apply for samples (free).— Willcox Brothers, 
172, Blackfriars Road, London, S.E. 

Lettering and Sign-Writing made Easy.— 

Also full-size diagrams lor marking out eight alphabets, 
only is. —F. Coulthard, Terrace Road, Bournemouth. 
Note.—100 Decorators’ Stencils (60 large sheets), 2s. 6d. 

Fret, Carving, and Repousse Patterns.— 

100 of either, full-size, is.; 300 Turning designs, is. ; 400 
small Stencils, is.; 500 Shields Monograms, &c., is., post¬ 
age free.—F. Coulthard, Tei.ace Rd., Bournemouth, [is 

Incubator Thermometers, 2s. 6d. Regulator 
Tubes, 2S. 6d. ; with Mercury, etc., 3s. 6d. Postage, 3d. 
—H. Edwards, Lewes, Sussex. [2 s 

Engineer, 27 volumes, 16 to 42, cloth bound, clean, 
with drawings; what offers?—J. F., 79, Ferndale Road, 
Brixton. I20 R 

Water Motors, 5s. to 20s. each ; cheapest power 
known.— Walton, 9, Queen Anne St., Stoke, Staffs. [3 s 
Splendid Cushion Tyre Safety for Sale; ball 
bearings, including pedals ; beautifully plated ; quite equal 
new, hardly scratched; £7 7s., worth much more; satis¬ 
faction certain.-—Mr. W., 34, Hill Street, Ipswich. [4 S 

Work—March 21, 1801.] 




(BY ROYAL LETTERS PATENT.) Hundreds of Testimonials. - 


W E are tne sole Proprietors in the United Kingdom for this New and Wonderful Instru¬ 
ment. Having for many years manufactured and sold enormous quantities of Automatic__ 

organs O r £anettes, it has ever been our aim to produce at a low Price an Organette capable of a VARIETY OP 
TONES the or&anettes hererofore placed before the Public having but a limited compass, and but one range of tone. While 
we have aiven universal satisfaction, we still have had as our motto, “ Excelsior/’and now can exclaim, “ Eureka !” because, 
without increasing the price of the Orchestral Organette (ouruatest production) over other instruments in the market, we have 
witnout mcreaai 5 v - succeeded in producmg the very ACME 

Two complete 
of reeds. 


strument wi:h as mrh variety of tone as 
an organ costing £25. The illustration 
gives you but a faint idea of general make 
and finish, but pvery Orchestral Organette 
is supplied with 28 PULL SIZED 
same size and quality as those used in a 
cabinet organ- The reeds are placed in a 
novel manner (patented) over a double 
sumon beliov s and are controlled by 
THREE STOPS, as follows, viz., Flute, 
Expression, and Vox Humana. The music 
is produced by per orated sheets, which 
pass around the Organette in endless bands, 
enabling a tune to be played over and over 
again wiihout stopping, furnishing the 
EFFECTS, either in sacred, secular, 
dance, or vocal music, affording a rich, 
= sonorous, and powerful accompaniment to 
the voi» e, requiring absolutely no skill in 
the performer, and THE RANGE OF 
CALLY UNLIMITED. By the manipu¬ 
lation of the stops, a tone as soft and 
sweet as a zephyr, or a loud, long and 
swelling melony may be produced; trills 
and high falsetto, as well as reverberating 
bass, and all manner of pleasing combi¬ 
nations at the will of the performer. 

We wish to introduce one of these Or¬ 
chestral Organettes in every town and 
village in the United Kingdom. We caution 
you against the many worthless automatic 
instruments being sold under various 
names. We are the SOLE PROPRIE¬ 
ORGANETTE (ne plus ultra ) and you 
must ol der direct from us or through our 
authorised agents. Remember, the Or¬ 
chestral Organette is NOT A TOY, but 
TEUMENT. builtexactly on the principle 
of CHURCH OBGANS; they are made 

in tne most suostantiai manner. Highly polished, and decorated in gold. The reeds are the productof machinery costing thousands 
of pounds, and are so powerful they produce sufficient volume of music for the drawing-room, chapel, lodge, or ball-room. There is 
nothing about them to tret out of orcie r . They positively improve with nge, producing richer and sweeter tones after having been 
used a few years. For HOME ENTERTAINMENTS THEY ARE UNSURPASSED. Bear in mind that each instrument 
has FOURTEEN MORE REEDS than any otner Organette in the world, and they are ORGAN REEDS, and the special 
feature is THREel STOPS, acharacteristic of no instrument except a costly organ. Our regular price f< r the Orchestral Organette 
is £4 49 . Having just put it before the public, we will sell a limited number to the readers of this Paper at £1 16s., provided the 
above Coupon is cut out and sent with order not later than the date given in it, and we furthermore agree to REFUND THE 
MONEY and PAY CARRIAGE to anyone not entirely satisfied after receiving it. By the aid of the Stops—viz., Expression, 
Flute, and Vox Humana,there is n^t apiece of music which cannot be played with all the varying effects of an orchestra; a false note 
is an impossibility and the most difficult operatic air is played with as much ease as the mo 9 t simple hymn. In many homes will 
be found a Grand Piano or Organ, with not an inmate or tne household, even the most expert player, who can interest company 
on either so well as a child of three years old can on the ORCHESTRAL ORGANETTE. Rememb r any tune can be played 
with artistic effect by anyone, young or old. You can play DaNCE, SACRED, OR SENTIMENTAL MUSIC with as 
much effect as that produced by a FJ RST-CLASS FOUR-PIECE ORCHESTRA. Remember our regular price is £4 4s., 
but ns we have found a well pleaded customer our best advertising medium, have decided to sell a limited number, as an 
introduction to the readers of this paper at £1 15s., provided the order is received rot Inter than the date printed in the Coupon 
immediately beneath the illustration of the Organette. We will give a selection of MUSIC FREE with each instrument. Send 
Money and Coupon by Registered Letter, Crossed Cheque, or Money Order to J. DRAPER, Manager, British Organette Co : , 
Blackburn. For 2s. extra the Organette will be sent to any part of the United Kingdom, carriage paid. List of tunes and Testi¬ 
monials sent anywhere free. Visitors can inspect the Factory daily from 9 a.m. to 7 p m. Saturdays close at noon. 

N.B.-~Above time is extended for Foreign Customers. 

XJRfin fiHAJ 9 FfJPF _We will give ^500 to anyone who can prove that we ever solicited a testi- 

^ UilHILILLfllUL,* inonial, or that any in our Catalogue are not genuine. During Oct., Nov., 

and Dec . i8qo, we received 50 ■ testimonials for our Orchestrals. Surely this speaks for itself. 

COUPON 678a. 

Any reader of 
this pay er who 
forwards this 
Coupon before 
the date named 
herewith can re¬ 
ceive ONE Or- 
chestral Organ¬ 
ette at reduced 
price of £1 15s. 


REDUCED PRICE, £1 15 s. j: 

Goon until May ist, 1891 . :j 

Signed, J. J'R iPER. 


C3 L TJ 3E3 



Invaluable for all 
Out and Indoor 

By Post, Bet. and is. 3 d. per tin. Through Ironmo7igers, Chemists , Chandlers, &-c., 6d. and is. per tin. 


jp jl, u i id 

C3-1L. TJ S3 

( Patent ) 


No Brush—No Boiling- 
Will securely join Wood, 
Glass, China, Metals, &e. 








irrt 0.0 

® <2 

m -J -2 

05 CO 

o 3 o 



a is 


kH rj-J 
— ^ 

^ § 




17, North Audley Street, W. 


Marked I fancy work 



MISS LEAHY, Manageress. 

Extracts from letters. 

11 1 am delighted with the v ork which I received to-day. 

The-are beautiful, ard I shall never go anywhere 

else for Lingerie. I think the things are cheap." 

“We are much pleased with the linen, and think it is 
beautifully worked.” 

“Miss —- has received the handkerchiefs, and 

likes them very much.” 

“ Mrs. -is much pleased with the frocks.” 



These Essences produce in 
a few minutes a delicious Tem¬ 
perance Wine or Cordial, 
<>inger, Orange, Raspberry,, 
Black Currant, Lime Fruit, 
etc. One TablespoonfuL 
of Mason’s Extract of 
Herbs makes one gallon of 
Splendid Beer, refreshing and. 

A Sample Bottle of either 
Essence or Extract sent on 
receipt of 9 stamps, or a bottle- 
of each for 15 stamps. 

Agents Wanted. 

Nottingham . 


Southampton Buildings, Chancery Lane, London. 
THREE per CENT. INTEREST allowed on DE¬ 
POSITS, repayable on demand. 

ACCOUNTS calculated on the minimum monthly balances, 
when not drawn below ^100. 

and Sold. 


FIVE SHILLINGS PER MONTH, with immediate pos¬ 
session. Apply at the Office of the BlRKBECK FREEHOLD Land 
Society, as above. 

The BlRKBECK ALMANACK, with full particulars, post free 
on application. FRANCIS RAVENSCROFT, Manager. 

naa w r 


which is accompanied by six irons, Beads, Reeds, 
Quirks, Rebates, and Hollow and Fancy fReeds. The 
appliance itself is of japanned iron with a bright front. 
Its extreme length is about si in. 

POST FREE, 2a. 3<L 200 Page Catalogue, 700 Illustra¬ 

tions, by post, 6d. 


Month lyf\ 

Cassell’s Time Tables. 

[JPrice Id. 

Are universally admitted to be worth a Guinea a Box for Bilious and 
Nervous Disorders, such as Wind and Pain in the Stomach, Sick 
Headache, Giddiness, Fulness and Swelling after Meals, Dizziness and 
Drowsiness, Cold Chills, Flushings of Heat, Loss of Appetite, Short¬ 
ness of Breath, Costiveness, Scurvy and Blotches on the Skin, Disturbed 
Sleep, and all Nervous and Trembling Sensations, &c. &c. The first 
dose will give relief in twenty minutes. This is no fietion, for they 
have done it in countless cases. Every sufferer is earnestly invited tQ> 
try one Box of these Pills, and they will be acknowledged to be ) 

Worth a, Chimea a les. 


“A priceless boon, a treasure more than wealth; the banisher of pain, the key to health.” 

These are FACTS testified continually by members of all classes of society, and one of the best guarantees to the nervous and debilitated is, 

BEECHAM’S PILLS have the Largest Sale of any Patent Medicine 

in the World. 

Prepared only by the Proprietor, T. Beecham, St. Helen’s, Lancashire, in Boxes cjld., is. i^d., and 2 s. 9 d. each. Sold by all Druggists and Patent Medicine 

Dealers everywhere, IV. B.—Full Directions are given with each Box , 




[Work—March 21, 1891. 


Eolipee Design, No. 102 . 

Wall Bracket. 
Price 5 d. 


J H. SKINNER & Co. having Dissolved Partnership, are offering their Enormous Stock, including 250,000 FRETWORK 
• PATTERNS and 100,000 ft. of Solid and Three-Ply FRETWOOD, Veneers, &c.; 1,000 Gross of FRETSAWS, besides 
an immense quantity of TOOLS, OUTFITS, &c., as a special inducement to their customers to order at once. 

4,500 Is. Books of Fretwork Patterns, each containing Twelve Large Sheets, beautifully lithographed, none of which would be sold 
retail at less than 2d., and many at 3d. and 4d. each ; also 

1,200 2 s. 6cL Books Of Fretwork Patterns, containing Twenty Sheets, 19 in. x 12 in., of new designs, many of which would retail 

at 6d. each. These Books, £375 i n Value, Will be GIVEN AWAY. 

Amateur customers ordering 5s. worth of designs from Catalogue will be presented with one of the above is. Books. Those ordering 10s. worth 
will receive a 2s. 6d. Book. 

An Allowance Of 10 per Cent, in goods will be made on all mixed orders for Wood, small Tools, Saw Blades, and Designs, amounting 
to ios., and 15 per Cent, on orders amounting to 20s. and upwards. Note. — This reduction does not apply to Treadle Machines. 


Complete Fretwork Outfit, comprising 12-inch Steel Frame, Forty-eight Saws, Awl, File, Four Designs (with sufficient Planed Wood and is. Handbook on 
Fretwork). An Archimedian Drill, with brass handle an l Three Bits, will be SENT GRATIS with each Set. Post free for 3s. 6d. Outfits oa Card, is. 6d. and 
:s. 9d , post free. 6 ft. 2nd quality assorted planed Fretwood, xs. 9CL ; post free, 2s. 6d. 12 ft. ditto, ditco. 3s. ; post free, 4s. 3d. 

SKATES! ! !—EVERY PAIR WARRANTED.—Sizes. to 12 in. No. 1, Unpolished Beech, iod. per pair. No. 2, Polished Beech, is. 6d. per pair. No. 5, 
“Acme” pattern, all steel, 3s. per pair. No. 7A, “Caledonia" pattern, screw fastening the whole skate, the best principle, 6s. per pair. No. <f. Metal frame, 
with strap complete, is. ad. per pair ; postage, sd. per pair. These are not rubbish ; we warrant every pair. 

NEW CATALOGUES of Machines, Designs. Wood, Tools, etc., with 600 Illustrations and full instructions for Fret-cutting, Polishing, and Varnishing, price 4d., 
post free. A Specimen 6d. Fretwork Design SENT GRATIS with ea-.h Catalogue; also a List of Designs, Outfits, Tool Chests, etc., at Greatly Reduced Prices to clear. 

N.B.—All orders must be accompanied by remittance. APPLY— 


*r Manufacturers of Fretwork Materials, 

S 3 JL>M j£Ls W Department, 

Kindly mention this paper when ordering. 






Directions sent with each Lamp. 


jjp Thousands have been sold <tnd 
•jive the greatest satisfaction. 

Invaluable also for Soldering, Brazing. Joint-making, 
Tempering Tools, Fusing Metals, Lead Burning, Pipe Thaw¬ 
ing, etc., etc., and all Plumbers’ Work. 

It is simple and most effectual. 

It can be used in almost any position. 

It gives over 1,000 degrees of heat. 

It costs to work id. for four hours. 

Its action is automatic. No pumping is required. 

Tjse Benzoline only. 



Every Lamp stamped V.V. is fitted with White Hard Metal 
Chimnies, and contains all the 1890 improvements. 

Invaluable as a 
Strengthening and In¬ 
vigorating Beverage. 

Indispensable for Enriching Gravies, 
preparing Soups, Entrees, <&c. 

Pure, Palatable, 
instantly prepared. 




“ x n? "w a. s ‘W xs s ■x “S 1 e My* 

“ which,” says The Graphic, “ is equally imaginative, at least equally strong, and beyond all question superior in literary and 

constructive skill to ‘ Called Back,’ ” is 

GIVEN AWAY with No. 300 (Notv Ready, price One Penny) of 

Cassell’s Saturday Journal, 

in which a New Serial Story is commenced, entitled “ ©Ig'a’s Crime,” by Frank Barrett, Author of “ Fettered 

for Life,” etc. etc. 

No. 390 forms a Double Number, consisting of 48 

1. Political Leaders and their Followers. With Fac- I 

simile Letters from the Earl of Derby, the Marquess of 
Hartington, Mr. Gladstone, and Mr. Akers Douglas, 

2 . Major Clay’s Victim. Complete Sensational Story by John K. 

Leys, Author of “The Lindsays,” etc. 

3. Men who have Hoaxed Themselves. 

4. An Interview with Dr. Samuel Smiles. Illustrated, 

Pages, and contains amongst other attractive features :— 

5. Sergeant Von’s Chase. Serial Story. From the Diary of 

Inspector Byrnes, Chief of the New York Detective Force. 

6. My Experiences with Graphologists. 

A Visit to the Returned Parcel Office. 

8 . Female Rogues of To-Day. 

9. Blind Man’s Buff on Horseback. Complete Story of 

Adventure. By David Ker. 

10. Revelations about Songs and Singers. 

N.B. —Part 91 of Cassell's Saturday Journal, published April 27, price 6d., will contain 144 Pages, including the Celebrated 

Story, “As it was Written.” 

CASSELL & COMPANY, Limited, Ludgate Hill, London. 

Prevents and relieves INDI¬ 

other Stomachic Irregularities. 
PURIFIES the BODY, imparting 
sesses marvellous recuperative 
properties. Is invaluable in re¬ 
lieving and stimulating the over¬ 
worked brain and resuscitating 
exhausted vitality. 

LIEUT.-COL. HUGH BAMBER, 40, Hanlev Square, Margate, says:—“I have now used 
the SALT REGAL for two years. I have much pleasure in stating that I have found it the most 
agreeable in taste of all Salines, and a certain cure for bilious headache and furred tongue, from what¬ 
ever cause arising.” 

2 e. 9 d„ of all Chemists and Stores, or by Post from the MANAGER, SALT REGAL WORKS. LIVERPOOL 

the COMPLEXION, and is highly 
recommended by the MEDICAL 
Profession. Corrects all ERRORS 
OF DIET, eating or drinking. 
Is a most pleasant effervescing 
morning drink, STIMULATING 
the APPETITE, and giving tone 
to the entire system. 

Printed and Published by Cassell & Company, Limited, La Belle Sauvage, London, E.O. 


2Vn Jllustratct) Jllagagine of Practice ani) ®ijeovg 


Hights reserved .] 

Vol. III.—No. 106.] SATURDAY, MARCH 28, 1891. [Price One Penny. 

.Fig. 1. Fig. 4. 

Stencil Designs for tte Decoration of a Drawing-Room. Fig. 1.—Dado above Skirting' in Borders and Panels. Fig. 2 .—Frieze below Cornice. Figs. 3 
and 4.— Designs for Borders. Fig. 5.—'Treatment of Upper (A) and Lower (B) Panels of Door and Ornamental Work above Door. 



The ornamental designs accompanying this 
paper are intended for use in conjunction 
with the stencilled ceiling which appeared 
in Vol. II, page 133 (No. 61) of Work. As a 
serviceable introduction to this article, I 
must therefore strongly advise readers who 

may take a practical interest in the present 
effort to carefully peruse the above. In 
common with the ceiling design, an attempt 
has herein been made to meet the different 
circumstances of the worker’s ability and 

Contemporaneously with the ordinary 
householder’s “ spring cleaning ” comes the 
house - painter’s and decorator’s “ spring 
season ” of work. The present is therefore 
a very Apropos time to invite attention upon 

home embellishment; and whilst I think 
the work now suggested to be within the 
capabilities of many amateur decorators, 
an effort has also been made to proffer useful 
hints for the professional painter and decora¬ 
tor—both with regard to material used and 
resultant effects. 

In the article upon ceiling design of the 
“Adams’’type, besides explaining the useful 
adaptability of such disconnective ornament 
for our purpose, it was advised that the work 


Stencilled Decorations for a Drawing-Room. 

[Work—March 2S, 1891 

be carried out in two or three simple tints. 
For use with many wall-papers, a blue tint 
of ceiling design upon a soft cream ground was 
given as being very effective ; whilst further 
mention was made of executing it in other 
monotone tints of terra-cotta, etc., where 
the cream and blue would be unsuitable. 
“ Adams ” ornament—so named after the 
celebrated architects, the Brothers Adams, 
who introduced it—is at the present time 
in much use for high-class and costly draw¬ 
ing-room ceilings. In such cases it is usually 
made in fibrous plaster, and then affixed to 
the surface. In trying, therefore, to repro¬ 
duce in flat tints the effect of a delicately 
modelled ornament in low relief, the relative 
amount of contrast between the ground and 
design is a very important factor in the 
success of the work. On the one hand, we 
must avoid that extreme which gives a sen¬ 
sation of Pompeian harshness and fussiness 
—such as we get in simple black and white; 
whilst, on the other hand, the design must 
be sufficiently plain for the eye to follow it 
trader all fair conditions of lighting, without 
the least strain to the sight. “ Taste ”— 
that highly convenient jargon in matters 
of individual selection—can very often be 
taken as an attribute of common sense ; and 
in the above respect it will be found that 
decoration which is based upon the latter 
•will generally be conceded to express the 
best, or “ correct taste.” 

Turning now to the practical aspect of 
this decorative treatment, we will consider 
Fig. 1 of the illustration. Judging by 
the paper-stainers’ new designs for the 
present year, we may safely state that 
dados for the decoration of drawing-rooms 
are rapidly ‘‘going out” of demand, and 
that deep frieze decorations are in stronger 
call. For the drawing-room—“ with-draw¬ 
ing” room—pure and simple, where the 
apartment is but seldom used, and then 
only for special social purposes, a dado is 
certainly a superfluous feature. The notion 
that dados were merely the outcome of a 
wall chair rail, and not purely a decora¬ 
tive feature, is still as prevalent as it is 
erroneous; and the intimation that their 
source can be explored in the ruins of 
ancient Pompeii comes equally as a matter 
S)f surprise to many. Judging again, how¬ 
ever, from the common-sense basis, we decide 
upon these grounds : whether the amount 
of elaborate work would be sufficiently dis¬ 
played according to the arrangement of our 
furniture; whether, if we simply carry the 
plain treatment down to the skirting, we 
shall probably have any objectionable dents 
and finger-marks to catch and worry the 
eye; whether the height of wall is adapted 
for a dado ; and so forth. This vexed 
question being perhaps settled in the 
general affirmative, I give a few instruc¬ 
tions for its execution. With regard to 
these designs, it may be thought that a 
worker who can draw them large enough to 
use would probably be able to produce his 
own design, and vice versd. Such does not, 
by any means, always apply. The main 
feature of “ Adams ” work is a repetition of 
simple forms in graceful lines; therefore, 
given this feature, the exact proportion of a 
reproduction of my illustrations is not a 
necessity. All wall stencil-work, if it be 
above the level of ornamental doggrel, 
must be drawn with direct regard to the 
size and disposition of the room, hence it 
follows that, with the exception of ceiling 
ornaments and simple borders, sets of 
ready-cut stencils can seldom be applied to 
an apartment without much re-arrangement 
and often mutilation of the designs. The 

dado given is drawn to 1 in. scale, having 
alternating panels 18 in. and 9 in. wide. 
The height above skirting to top of border is 
shown as 36 in. 

In applying panelled dado-stencils to a 
room, we must look chiefly to the dado 
breaks, such as door frame and mantelpiece 
make. At these positions the panels must 
appear intact, and not simply starting at 
one angle, and finding ourselves with half a 
panel to put in against the door, where 
every eye will catch sight of it. The best 
plan is to measure our wall lengths, and see 
what size “ repeat ” will then come in with 
least trouble. The half of each panel de¬ 
sign must be first sketched in on paper with 
charcoal, and then carefully drawn with all 
detail—remembering that we are preparing 
stencilled ornaments. In all intersections and 
connective parts not less than I in. of space 
must be interposed as natural “ties” ; when 
stencilled, these will but nicely separate 
the parts, without any appearance of ugly 
breaks. If we make the tie spaces much 
less the stencil will not stand the wear. 

Both the dado border—a “ repeat ” 6 in. 
by 9 in.—and the bottom simple “ twist ” 
pattern must be put in after the dado. If 
we wish to decrease the height of the latter, 
the base ornament can be substituted by 
a couple of lines. The “fuchsia” upright 
margins to panels will best be put in 
separately, whilst the narrow panel can be 
easily adapted in width, as necessity may 
arise, by “humouring” the plain surrounding 
margin. All main dividing lines should be 
struck out with chalk line, etc., and the 
lines put in, lastly, with lining fitch and 
straight-edge. Two “ repeats ” of the stencil 
border will be sufficient to cut, and most 
convenient for one person to use. 

The deep frieze combination of Fig. 2 can 
either be used as drawn or in parts. If it 
is wished to have a wooden frieze-picture 
rail, the same should be placed beneath the 
bottom straight line of design. If desired, 
the festoons can be then stencilled imme¬ 
diately beneath the rail, suspending the 
ornamental lines upon small “ nail ” orna¬ 
ments. The main design of frieze has to be 
repeated on the right hand until the “ vase ” 
returns, each medallion being therefore 
36 in. apart. If the cameo heads are used, 
the wall length of frieze must be carefully 
spaced out, and the medallions properly 
centred. Instead of the heads, simple cir¬ 
cular pateras may be used for these positions, 
or relief plaques of “Lincrusta” or “Ana- 
glyta” fixed therein. One repeat of the 
stencil, as shown, will be quite sufficient if 
we carefully set the wall-space out, stencil 
in all our left-hand halves, reverse and clean 
the stencil-pattern, and then complete the 
alternative sections. 

Fig. 3 is a border design, to be drawn 
9 in. in height, of a simple but effective 
design. This may be used as a border above 
a dado of plain colour, due allowance being 
made for the extra width. To produce the 
stencils, we must first draw the half of 
pattern, as illustration, on paper twice the 
length; then double the paper, pin it to a 
table, and mark over the outline with a 
wooden point and fair pressure. When 
opened, tne impression of the second half 
will be discernible, and can then be trans¬ 
ferred to the stencil-paper. The latter is 
best attained by rubbing the under side of 
drawing-paper over with a little dry colour 
before we outline the impression, and then 
pinning this inner side down on the cartridge- 
paper for a transfer of red outline by pressure 
as before. Fig. 4 is another border of decided 
horizontal lines, and is suggested for use, nine 

inches wide, above the wooden skirting in 
cases where the dado is not used. 

The remaining items of our illustration in 
Fig. 5 refer directly to the door. The panels 
are proportionately those of the common 
four-panel door, and are placed in such a 
position to enable the effect of an “over¬ 
door” ornament to be fully appreciated. 
Where the deep frieze is used, the height of 
wall must be considerable to permit also of 
over-rloor ornament, and not less than, say, 
a foot of clear filling space should show 
between the nearest portions of each. 

Now, a few notes respecting colours and 
materiaL In No. 53, Vol. II. of Wore - , 
an interesting illustrated paper appeared, 
disclosing the claims and merits of a new tem¬ 
pera paint, Church’s “ House Decorator”— 
or wall decorator, rather. The writer having, 
like many others, in a varied professional 
career, paid the purchase-money of some 
practical experience in connection with 
“ patent distempers ” and silicate paints, 
the contents of the above notice were indi¬ 
vidually taken with due caution —cum grano 
salis* During the last few months it has 
been my privilege to make a pleasing 
working acquaintance with this new com¬ 
mercial product, now rapidly becoming 
known as “ Alabastine,” which is made and 
supplied by The Church Manufacturing 
Company, 127, Pomeroy Street, Hatcham, 
London, S.E. 

To the new “ Alabastine ” tint circular we 
may now profitably give a little attention in 
the execution of this decorative work. A 
very chaste and decorative colour scheme 
may be carried out in this material upon 
the ornamental lines of my paper. For the 
ceiling ground, No. 7 tint may be used. 
Upon this admirable cream ground let the 
ceiling design be stencilled with No. 23, or 
flat paint made to that tint. The cornice 
may be treated in the same creams and blue. 
The wall may be coated right down to skirt¬ 
ing with either Nos. 16 or 23, which will give 
an excellent “ background ” tint for draw¬ 
ing-room wall ornaments, the latter tint 
being lightened up, if necessary, for a badly- 
lighted apartment. The stencil dado and 
frieze must be executed in flat paint-stain, 
(see article in No. 61), made with Prussian 
blue and raw umber to a sufficiently deep' 
shade of soft blue, toned rather to dulness 
than brightness in colour. If a darker plain 
dado be wished, then a thin coat of flat 
paint of the desired colour, painted over the 
“ Alabastine,” would be the best job, and 
the dado border stencilled with the same 
colour, a darker line still intervening. For 
a warm treatment to a room of cold aspect,, 
the Alabastine circular shows equally soft 
and pleasing tints. The frieze medallions,, 
if painted, should be done in cream mono¬ 
chrome against blue background, the latter 
outlined with a fine line of gilding or darker 
blue. Where the ceiling and frieze designs 
may both be used, the circular panels of the 
former should be substituted by suggestions 
of the four “ seasons,” since the cameo heads: 
of musical celebrities, poets, etc., must be 

“Yes, our “London Decorator” objected very 
much to “ Alabastine ” when it was first noticed in 
Work, and I rather think he mentally placed me 
among the majority of the people of the United 
Kingdom, according to Carlyle’s classification, for 
daring to predict a future—and a good future, too— 
for this new decorative material. It has taken only- 
a twelvemonth to show that I was justified in advo¬ 
cating the claims of “ Alabastine ” to public favour. 
For the benefit of the readers of Work I may be 
permitted to say that the “ Church Manufacturing- 
Company,” whose address will be found above, will 
readily send to any applicant their prospectus, with 
specimens of the various tints in which the material 
is supplied, including the newest additions to which 
allusion is made in this paper.—E d. 

Work— March 28, 1891. J 

Artistic Lithography. 


the main feature of one portion only. The 
best treatment of woodwork would be 
enamelled-cream skirting, frame and stiles ; 
panels in light-blue tint, flatted and lightly 
stippled, with ornament stencilled thereon 
in deep blue, and outlined with either tine 
gilded line or a deeper shade of blue. In 
the panel treatment of illustration the 
margin to panel would be painted a few 
shades darker than the remainder, and the 
marginal lines and corner rose , with also 
a bead on panel-mouldings, should be gilded. 
If something beyond the ordinary is desired 
for the panels, the worker may obtain a pair 
of the figure cameo panels made in “ Lin- 
crusta,” and combine his handicraft there¬ 
with by using Alabastine in relief. To this 
end, cover the panels carefully with a stout 
white lining paper ; paint these, when dry, 
with one coat of thin oil paint. Upon this 
mark the position of the panel, then coat in 
the panel ground with Alabastine, stippled as 
the flatting. Paint and finish the Lincrusta 
centre panel, and then work the other orna¬ 
ment on the lines of Gesso work, and accord¬ 
ing to the directions given with the new 
circular and the valuable product itself. 



Printing Surfaces. 

Derivation of Term—What Lithography is— 
Lithographic Limestone—Colour of Stone 
—Varieties of Limestone—Graining and 
Polishing — Testing Grain — Selection of 
Stones—Re-graining, etc.—Other Print¬ 
ing Surfaces—Zinc—Transfer Paper. 

Derivation of Term. —The word lithography 
is derived from the two Greek words, 
“ lith'os,” a stone, and “ graph'o,” I write. 
Chromo-lithography is a further extension 
of the word from “ chro'-me,” colour. 

What Lithography is. —Lithography is 
the art of drawing on a stone or other 
substance that is capable of retaining both 
grease and water, with a fatty or greasy 
matter, with the pen, brush, etc., in such 
a manner that when the stone, after being 
subjected to a treatment of acid, is 
damped with water and passed over by 
an inking roller, the drawing has protected 
the stone from the action of the acid, 
and has thus preserved its natural pro¬ 
perties, which is the quality of receiving 
printing ink, whereas all the rest of the 
stone rejects the ink through the interposi¬ 
tion of the water, which is antagonistic to 
grease ; so, when an absorbent paper is 
pressed on the stone, copies can be obtained. 

Lithographic Limestone. — There are 
several kinds of substances that can be 
used for this purpose, such as zinc, wood, 
etc., but up to the present time nothing 
has been found possessing the qualities 
required in greater perfection than lime¬ 
stone. This is found in quarries in several 
countries; but the best, both in quality and 
quantity, comes from Solenhofen, in Bavaria. 

Colour of Stone. —These few hints being 
more for the use of the artist who draws on 
the stone, it will not be necessary to enter 
into the details of its chemical qualities, 
which really are of more use to the printer 
than the lithographer; but what it is 
necessary that he should know is that the 
stone is of different shades of colour, vary¬ 
ing from a pale yellowish-white to a dark 
blue or greenish - grey. Those lighter in 
tone, being softer in composition, are only 
suitable for drawing with the pen or brush, 
but the darker ones being harder in sub¬ 

stance, are more suitable for chalk, en¬ 
graving, and the bettey class of work. 

Varieties of Limestone. —Limestone is 
found varying from a line to several inches 
in thickness, when it can be easily cut 
from the surrounding earth. This is gene¬ 
rally done in sizes suitable for commer¬ 
cial purposes at the quarries. As a rule, 
the printer will supply the artist with stones, 
the charge being by weight, so much per 
lb. according to the size of the stone, larger 
ones commanding a bigger price than smaller 
ones, stones darker in colour more than the 
lighter-toned ones; and those with a surface 
on both sides suitable for printing from are 
very expensive, on account of the difficulty 
in obtaining a stone that is of an even com¬ 
position all the way through. These are 
termed double-faced stones. 

Graining and Polishing. —When a stone 
is required for pen or brush work, it is ground 
level and then polished with pumice or 
snake-stone, and when required for chalk 
work, an artificial grain is given to it with 
ground glass or fine sand passed through 
sieves having holes of various sizes, according 
to the texture of the grain required ; but as 
grinding the stone belongs to the printing 
department, all that the student need tell 
the printer is the size of the drawing for 
which the stone is required, and whether it 
be for ink or chalk work. It is also neces¬ 
sary to know whether a grain with a fine or 
coarse texture is required, according to the 
nature of the work, writings and small 
drawings requiring a finer grain than a 
larger, bolder style of work ; but as the size 
of the sieves varies so much, and no two men 
grind the sand in quite the same manner, it 
would be impossible to state a regular size 
for any particular class of work ; this the 
student can only obtain by practice and ex¬ 
perience. A good plan would be, on trying 
several grains, and finding one suitable for 
the work in hand, to ask the printer the 
number used in graining that special stone, 
and if for any future work a coarser texture 
is required, subtract from it, and if for a 
finer grain add accordingly. This should in 
every case be done when the artist works 
with a different printer or grinder to whom 
he has been accustomed. 

Testing Grain.— Before beginning his sub¬ 
ject the student should test the grain, by 
making one or two marks with the chalk in 
different parts of the stone, when, if not found 
suitable, it can be easily re-grained. If made 
lightly, these patches do not affect the work, 
as they can be darkened if a deeper tint is 
wanted in that place, or taken away alto¬ 
gether if not required. 

Selection of Stories. —In chqosing stones 
for chalk work, see that the surface is free 
from veins (in appearance like a pencil-line 
drawn irregularly across the stone) and chalky 
spots (in appearance patchy or speckled in 
colour), as either veins or spots are apt to 
show when printed ; but for pen work it is 
not of so much consequence, as the stone, 
being polished, does not exaggerate any im¬ 
perfections such as veins, which is the case 
when an artificial grain is given to it. 

Re-graining , etc. — The stone must be 
properly grained or polished before starting 
any drawing, or else old work which has 
been on the stone sometime may show 
through any new work that the artist may 
do. Although this does not come under 
the artist’s supervision, still it is advisable 
that he should know what the result 
would be were the stone not properly 
prepared. It is sometimes necessary to re¬ 
duce the thickness of the stone ^ of an inch 
in cases where work has been standing for 

any length of time, as the ink adheres so 
strongly to it that it is impossible to remove 
it ; and, of course, the longer it remains on, 
the deeper it sinks, and unfortunately not 
being perceptible to the eye, it does not 
show, or, to use a trade expression, “ work 
up,” until it is in the printing machine. It 
is always better to have the stone rather 
larger than the paper required, in order that 
in printing the paper does not overlap the- 
stone, else its edge is likely to leave a mark 
on the paper from the pressure of the 

The above subject has been perhaps 
enlarged rather more extensively than 
necessary, but as stone plays such a very 
important part in lithography, it cannot be. 
impressed too strongly upon the student 
how particular he should be in selecting his 
stones, and seeing that they are properly 
prepared by the printer. 

Other Printing Surfaces.— It is onlyneces- 
sary to touch lightly upon other printing 
surfaces, as the student having once mastered 
the art of drawing on stone, will find no 
difficulty in working upon foreign substances. 

Zinc. — In reference to other materials 
suitable for printing purposes, zinc gains 
the advantage over stone in being lighter- 
in weight, and therefore more easily moved 
and lifted about. It is not so expen¬ 
sive, and can be printed at the same time- 
with letterpress, which is impossible with, 
stone on account of its size. Being of a dark 
slate colour, however, it is very trying to the 
eyes, and unless the artist is sure of his work 
and able to judge of the different effects 
whilst it is in progress, he is likely to forget 
that the colour of the material has to cor¬ 
respond with white paper, and that a tint will 
only look half the strength on paper to what 
it does on the zinc, the grey shade of the 
surface giving an extra tone to the work, 
thereby softening the whole subject, which 
will look much harder and cruder on paper. 
This refers in a certain degree to stone, but 
not quite to the same extent, it being so 
much lighter in colour. The general tone of 
the work is not so much affected. Zinc 
cannot be used for lithographic purposes to 
quite the same extent as stone, as it does 
not possess those natural properties peculiar 
to limestone, which have been mentioned. 

Transfer Paper. —This is a paper specially 
prepared with a grained surface for chalk 
work, and a smooth one for working with the. 
pen,or brush, but when it is used the drawing 
has always to be transferred to stone before 
any printed impressions can be obtained. If 
is preferable to stone for some purposes,, 
insomuch that whilst all drawings on the 
latter must be drawn the reverse way to the 
original sketch, any drawings on the above- 
paper can be copied the same way, as they 
must be transferred to stone for printing 
purposes. This method is generally adapted 
for writings, legal circulars, billheads, plans, 
maps, architectural drawings, etc., but all 
artistic lithography, such as chromos, etc., 
should be drawn on the stone. 

Having mentioned the above out of 
several different substances for drawing on, 
it will only be now necessary to deal with 
limestone as forming the foundation of alii 
good lithographic printing. I will, there¬ 
fore, proceed in my next paper to speak 
about the materials and tools necessary to 
the lithographic artist. 

I may add that the art of lithography is 
one that admits of high artistic excellence, 
and that as it can be practised with success, 
and is in itself remunerative, it is well worth, 
the attention of women, as a vocation from 
which a good living may be made. 


Ear-Rings and Other Ornaments for the Ear. [Work-March 23, im. 




Introduction—Modes of Attachment to Ear- 
Ancient Ear-Rings —Types of Fastenings— 
Fastenings in Indian Work—Ear-Rings 
Hanging to Front. 

Introduction. — The above limitation is 
necessary in order to keep this paper 
within reasonable space. It will deal with 
a few of the things an apprentice will 
soon be concerned with. These are the 
mechanical and technical portions, for at 
first the artistic merits of the ornament he 
has to do with will be out of his province. 

If he is told to attach the hooks, etc., to 
the other parts that 
make up an ear-ring, 
and he has had a little 
previous consideration 
of the matter, it 
should follow that he 
will be able to turn 
out his work in a bet¬ 
ter form than would 
otherwise be the case. 

These reasons lead me 
to deal with the princi¬ 
ples upon which the 
hooks and other fasten¬ 
ings should be made : 
first, in order to ob¬ 
tain the necessary 
security for the orna¬ 
ment ; secondly, in 
order to show the orna¬ 
ment to the best ad¬ 
vantage — or, in other 
words, to get them to 
hang or set properly 
when worn. 

Modes of Attach¬ 
ment. to Ear. — This 
kind of ornament at¬ 
tached by means of a 
hole pierced through 
the lobe of the ear, we 
shall find, gives us 
several classes of at¬ 
tachment, which we 
will at first divide in¬ 
to two—namely, those 
in the form of hooks 
or rings: that is to say, 
those usually under¬ 
stood by the name of 
■ear-rings; secondly, 
those called ear-studs, 
the ear, while the former hang below it. 
Here in England the ornaments 

too. Seemingly this is a privilege we have 
lost, for in our museums there are plenty of 
so-called ear-rings which would require a slit 
half an inch in length before they could let 
the end of the ear-ring pass. 

The other division will consist of ear-rings 
for unpierced ears, and there will be a little 
to say about them and their inodes of attach¬ 

Ancient Ear-Rings. —The great number 
of modern ear-rings in which joints play a 
part is in complete contrast to those of the 
ancients in the British Museum, for there 
we find Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans 
taking full advantage of the natural duc¬ 
tility of fine gold, by bending or untwist¬ 
ing part of the ear-ring each time they 
wished to remove or attach the ornament. 

A strong reason why we use joints so 
much is this The gold now worked is of a 

Fig. 9. 

'ig. 1.—Ancient Roman Bar-Ring, wit’a Wire tke s'nape of the now-called German Hoolr. Fig. 2.— 
Greek Ear-Ring in the form of a Bird, the Fastening being the same as now used in Modern 
Jewellery. Fig. 3.—Modern English, with same class of Fastening. Fig. 4.—Modern Continental 
Form of same class of Fastening. Fig. 5.—Greek with Spring Fastening, the Tail acting as 
Spring. Fig. 6.—Greek, fastened in the Ear by threading through and coiling Spring 
round. Fig. 7.—Indian Ear-Stud : on Centre Piece is a Screw, to aUow of separation of the End 
for Insertion. Fig. 8.—Russian Ear-Ring : Wire is attached the reverse way to show Edge and 
Back too much when worn. Fig. 9.—Sardinian, Ancient: also hangs contrary to the generally 
approved way. 

The latter rest on 

lower quality—generally very much lower— 
and all, or nearly all, of its ductility is gone, 
and in its place we have elasticity, so we 
attached to the lobe only, but in some parts j cannot, even if we would, twist and untwist 


of India the ear is pierced in the upper 
part as well, in order to wear several pairs 
of ear-rings at one time ; and in addition to 
that, the ear is sometimes slit and lengthened 
by wearing heavy solid ear-rings. On the 
outside of the slit, when the ear has become 
lengthened, there will be a piece of cartilage 
nearly as thick as a lead pencil, and tliis 
they use to clasp an ornament round, much 
the same that you would clasp a bracelet 
round an arm. These ornaments are about 
three-quarters of an inch long. 

One can easily understand that the ladies 
over there do not mind large holes being 
made in their ears, as our ladies do, for it is 
a mere pin-hole in the ear that has to serve 
us for attaching the ornament, while there 
the happy jeweller can have a hole in the 
ear of any size, and in any part of the ear 

an ear-riug hook each time of wearing ; for 
even if the gold would stand it without 
breaking, still it is not “kind,” like fine 
gold, and would require pliers to turn the 
ends in with. 

It would not be to our advantage to go 
back to fine gold for ordinary work, and the 
foregoing is written simply to draw atten¬ 
tion to one of the cases in which a property 
or merit of the metal is used to its full 
advantage. In what follows we shall_ find 
that the elasticity of our present qualities is 
just as profitably employed as was the soft¬ 
ness of fine gold in the old time. 

Types of Fastenings. —With but few ex¬ 
ceptions, most of the simple types of fasten¬ 
ings now in use are to be found at the 
British Museum, even to that which we 
now call the German hook ; and so that 

there should be no mistake about the ap¬ 
parently topsy-turvy way this is worn, the 
Roman has kindly attached a pendant to 
it, and in so doing he has removed any 
doubts that we might have about it, as you 
can see for yourself in Fig. 1. 

There are also a few specimens of a bird¬ 
shaped ear-ring (Fig. 2), in which the wire is 
fastened like the common facetted ear-ring 
(Fig. 3) which we all know. 

In South Kensington are some like Fig. 4. 
This form seems to be made with but slight 
variation in Normandy, Germany (Bremen), 
Italy, and Spain, and its fastening is just 
the same as the Greek bird (Fig. 2). 

Fig. 5, however, does not seem to be 
much followed. It is, as you see, in the 
form of a monster’s head, with a tail formed 
by a coil of tapering rings. In many of 
them the spiral coil acts as some sort of a 
spring, and as a joint 
as well. This gives a 
fairly secure and prac¬ 
tical fastening, and is 
used in India even at 
the present time. My 
rough sketch is taken 
from one as arranged 
in the cases at the 
Museum, but it would 
not hang in the ear 
like that, of course. 

Fig. 6, you will note, 
is of a very strange 
form to us, although 
common enough in the 
East. This fastening 
possesses at least the 
merit of security: a 
state of affairs that 
can only be obtained 
this way with a fine 
gold pin, which, after 
passing through the 
pierced ear, is coiled 
round as shown in 

Fastenings in In¬ 
dian Work. —In Indian 
work the most general 
method of fastening 
an ear-ring, be it the 
shape of Fig. 6 or any 
other shape, or for ear- 
studs like Fig. 7 (this 
latter is drawn the 
actual size of many 
that are worn), is by 
means of a screw. 
These screws, of which 
the details will be 
shown when we come to bracelet fasten¬ 
ings—for they are too large for us to use 
for ear-rings—are obtained from double wire, 
coiled round a mandrel (piece of hard wire), 
one piece being soldered in a tube to 
form the female screw, the other being sol¬ 
dered on a peg to form the male screw. 

The greater number of these screws run 
the other way to ours. Is this because the 
workman finds it comes more natural to 
him, just as we find a new hand will most 
likely chase his first screw in the lathe left- 
handed ? 

In India, also, is worn an ornament the 
size and shape of the ear, which is covered. 
The ornament is, however, perforated so 
that no serious impediment is offered to the 
wearer’s hearing. Naturally the surface, of 
such an ornament gives a good opportunity 
for display, and it is taken advantage of to 
the greatest degree. 

They say comparisons are odious, and if 
we compare the size of ear-rings now worn 

Work—March 28, 1891.] 

A Joiner s Cramp and how to Make It. 


to those of years ago, there seems to be a 
very decided tendency towards their gradual 
extinction. From a trade point of view it is 
to be hoped that this is not what it means; 
but as ladies do not in England wear rings 
in the nose, as some do in India, a mere 
decree of fashion will be enough to totally 
extinguish this class of ornament, and “ the 
pearl in the Ethiop’s ear” will be the only 
survival of a once flourishing part of our 

Ear-Rings hanging to Front. — Before 
entering on the particular sorts of modern 
fastenings, it will be as well for us to 
notice that although very much the greater 
proportion of ear-rings have their front 
to show to the front of the ear—that is, 
at right angles with the ear-ring hook- 
still there are just a few made to hang just 
the other way, and to show their edges, and 
possibly part of their backs, to anybody 
facing the wearer. 

These exceptions are shown in Fig. 8 and 
Fig. 9, one Russian and the other ancient 
Sardinian—not but what plenty of others 

] purchase; if he has not, then he must do 
i without, unless he can contrive or make 
some substitute. If he can do this, he is 
■ still apt to think that he would turn out 
things of much better workmanship if he 
only had something nicer to work with. He 
| would prefer to have an iron cramp, such as he 
! will see for sale in the better class tool-shops, 
i instead of the wooden affair commonly used 
i by professional artisans. Perhaps he does not 
! even know of the existence of these , for why 
| should the dealer in tools proclaim the 
j virtues of an appliance which any worker 
! can make for himself, instead of recom- 
1 mending “the very superior article” which 
he has for sale? As to cramps, these are 
made of iron, either entirely or principally, 
and it would never answer the amateur’s 
purpose to make them, even if he could. 

I am led to make these remarks as, in 
the catalogue of a leading dealer who lays 
himself out to supply the needs of amateurs, 
I several improved forms of cramps are 
| named, but there is no mention of the 
| kind generally used by practical men, 

will be found in general use throughout 
Great Britain. As there is no better cabinet 
work in the world than that of this country 
so far as construction is concerned, it may 
readily be supposed that the native artisan 
does not employ inferior tools. Among these 
must be reckoned the wooden cramp. It is 
not difficult to make, and labour and cost 
will be well repaid by the result. 

The form and details given are from some 
cramps which were being made a few days 
ago by one of the most experienced and able 
cabinet-makers with whom I am acquainted, 
and I know a few of them. I cannot say 
that cramps are any novelty to me, but when 
I see a good man at work I always like to 
watch his methods and what lie is doing. 
My friend Thompson is not one of those 
narrow-minded men who would keep all his 
information to himself or those of his trade, 
under the erroneous idea that it is a mistake 
to let the outside public know too much ; so 
when I said to him that, while I had been 
seated on a vacant bench near his, watching 
and chatting, the idea had come into my mind 

Fig. 1.—Joiner’s Cramp complete. Fig. 2.—Ploughed Groove in Bar. Fig. 3.—Tongue in Movable Piece. Fig. 4.—Diagram showing Mode of fixing 
Screw Block—A, Side Elevation ; B, Plan seen from below. Fig. 5.—Diagram showing Formation of Stops. Fig. 6. —Pin connecting Iron Straps. 

could be drawn, but these are sufficient to 
remind us that ear-rings are sometimes hung 
the other way ; and to prove the rule which 
we seemed to learn at school is what excep¬ 
tions were invented for. 

As another curious fact about ear-rings, I 
may recall a statement made by a writer in 
a well-known magazine, “That at the time 
of the wars of Jugurtha it was the custom 
to wear one pearl ear-ring only, which after¬ 
wards became the sign of an acknowledged 



No joiner, cabinet-maker, or other artificer 
in wood but requires the aid of cramps, or, 
as they are often called, clamps. Compara¬ 
tively little in the way of framing up can 
be done without them, and they are useful 
in a variety of ways—so useful, indeed, as 
to be indispensable. The amateur is ad¬ 
dicted to the use of the best of everything 
if he has the wherewithal needful for the 

although it is as good as any of the newest 
improvements, so called. As the young and 
theoretically far advanced young artisan is 
not above a similar weakness for fancy 
improvements, I may be permitted to offer 
him a word of advice to the effect that 
many a thing of venerable antiquity is quite 
as useful as the latest novelty. In saying 
this, I by no means wish to inculcate 
the principle of “ what was good enough 
for my father and his father before him is 
good enough for me,” for if we were all to 
act on it there could be no progress. On the 
contrary, when any new thing is calculated 
to save time or to facilitate improved work¬ 
manship, by all means adopt it. Whether 
the iron cramp has sufficient advantages 
over the older-fashioned wooden one to in- j 
duce us to discard this is a question I do not 
feel called on to discuss with the small 
minority who think so. One of them, by 
the way, has told us in a lately published 
work that iron cramps are indispensable. 
Well, let those who think so use them, while 
others who know better use the equally 
efficacious cramp about to be described. It 
is no makeshift, but a good practical cramp, 
such as, with perhaps trifling variations, 

that it would be a good thing for the readers 
of this Magazine to be told how to make a. 
really good cramp, he just replied—“ All 
right, Mr. Denning, you can’t do better- 
than tell them about these I’ve got here.” 
The thanks of the reader, therefore, are due 
to Mr. Thompson ; for it may be taken for 
granted that those he was making were the 
result of as much careful thought as if an 
elaborate piece of furniture had been in 
question—that is to say, that the cramps- 
would not have been made as they are if his 
experience had taught him that some little- 
alteration would have made them more con¬ 
venient or better in use. That the model is. 
original in its details I do not say, but it is- 
probably as good a one as could be found. 

Fig. 1 shows the cramp, or rather a por¬ 
tion of it, for the bar is shortened off in 
order not to occupy undue space. In actual 
construction it can be extended to any 
reasonable length. All that is really essen¬ 
tial to assist in understanding the construc¬ 
tion is shown. On examination, the cramp 
is seen to consist of a bar the lower edge of 
which is serrated to form a series of stops for 
the sliding-piece shown on the right, while on 
the left is a fixed head with a screw through it. 


How to Make a Quarter Horse-Power Steam Engine. [Work-March 28 ,i89i. 

The first thing is to determine the length 
of the bar, and this will depend on the size 
of the work that is contemplated. For 
general purposes about 3 feet will be found 
very suitable. If larger, the cramp is apt to 
be unwieldy, though it may sometimes be 
necessary to have them much longer. Any 
tough strong wood may be used, but nothing 
is better than oak, of which a piece of 1 in. 
stuff about 21 in. wide will be required 
for the bar. 

The sliding-piece must be of the same 
thickness. It may be about 4 in. wide 
and high. The shaping is purely a fancy 
detail, as for all practical purposes a square 
block of wood would answer just as well. It 
will, however, be noted that the grain of the 
wood is perpendicular instead of horizontal, 
or parallel with that of the bar, and the 
reason is that it may withstand the strain 
with the utmost of its strength when it is in 
use. The pressure is against the grain in¬ 
stead of with it. 

Now, before proceeding further, the 
upper edge of the bar must have a groove 
ploughed along its centre, as shown by the 
sectional illustration (Fig. 2). The depth 
and width of the channel are not of im¬ 
portance. On the bottom of the sliding- 
piece a corresponding tongue will be inserted, 
as in Fig. 3. Those who prefer to do so 
may form the tongue from the block itself, 
but the better way is to do it as directed. It 
is now evident that the tongue acts as a 
guide to the sliding-block. The fit should 
be fairly easy, without being too loose to 
allow of lateral movement. 

For the present this end maybe left while 
attention is directed to the other. If several 
cramps are being made (and one, it will 
be noted, is by no means a sufficient number 
to have in a workshop, though in the ama¬ 
teur’s workroom it will be better than none 
•at all), it may be as well to get the holes 
threaded for the screws by the turner. If 
the maker has a box and tap for wood 
screws, he will of course be able to do what 
is necessary without further aid ; but it is 
hardly likely that he will have them, and it 
may be satisfactory for him to know that he 
•can do without either them or the turner by 
making use of handscrews. As these are 
obtainable at low prices at any tool-shop, 
there will be no difficulty in meeting with 
what is required. As there are two screws 
•and two jaws in each handscrew, each of 
these will do for two cramps, and there is 
practically nothing wasted, although a piece 
of each jaw will be superfluous. 

One of the jaws will do for the fixed block 
within which the screw of the cramp works, 
and some care will be required in fixing it 
to the bar, as at times there will be con¬ 
siderable strain on it. At first sight it may 
seem as though the bar is simply let into a 
mortice or hollow cut in the lower end of 
the block. This might do, but a moment’s 
'reflection will show that it will be better to 
make assurance doubly sure by partly sink¬ 
ing the block in the sides of the bar. It is 
then held as firmly as possible, and will 
withstand any strain of which the wood is 

Fig. 4, which is a diagram representing 
this part of the work, will make the con¬ 
struction quite intelligible to those to whom 
it might not otherwise have been so. When 
fitting this block, be careful to see that it is 
perpendicular with the bar, or, at all events, 
that the screw is parallel with it, and oppo¬ 
site to the solid part of the sliding-block. 
The fixed block is to be secured in its place 
<by means of two or three screws, but these 
■may as well not be inserted till the notches 

have been cut in the bottom edge of the 

It will be noted that these are not sloped 
off in a straight line, but that what may be 
called the teeth are rounded off instead of 
being carried at a straight bevel from point 
to point, as in a saw. The reason for this 
peculiar shaping, which undoubtedly entails 
more work, is that the points are stronger 
than they otherwise would be, for the wood 
runs to a considerable distance back from 
each. If we wanted to get the utmost pos¬ 
sible strength, a series of half-round notches, 
as shown in Fig. 5, would suffice, but then 
the worker would labour under the dis¬ 
advantage of not being able to slip the 
moving head backwards and check it so 
easily as at present. What is really done is 
simply, as it were, to round off the sharp 
edge at the front of each notch, as shown by 
the dotted line on the figure just referred 
to. The straight side of the other is, of 
course, the natural result of using the most 
convenient tool—viz., the saw—for making 
the cut. The points of the teeth may be 
about 2 in. apart, and the depth of the 
notch about I in., or just sufficient to act 
as a stop to the pin connecting the strips 
of iron which confine the moving block. 

There is nothing important about these 
pieces of iron either in thickness or width, 
and each maker may choose what is handiest 
to him. If it is all the same, he may as 
well use pieces of about the thickness' of a 
shilling and about an inch wide. The pro¬ 
portionate length can easily be estimated 
by reference to Fig. 1. It must be under¬ 
stood that two of these pieces of iron are 
required for each cramp, and that they are 
connected by two pieces of iron rod. One 
of these engages in the notches, and the 
other goes through the sliding-hlock. In 
thickness the rods may very suitably be 
about -j^r in. to J in. thick, but this is im¬ 
material provided they are strong enough. 
At each end a shoulder should be turned or 
filed, the distance between the shoulders 
being exactly equal to the thickness of 
the bar. As cabinet-makers are not ex¬ 
pected to be proficients in metal-working, 
Fig. 6 is a representation of one of these 
pieces of iron. 

Holes must be bored through the thin 
pieces formerly mentioned to fit on to the 
ends of the connecting pieces, which can 
easily be fastened in place by riveting, 
but before this is done the hole must be 
made in the sliding-block and the iron pin 
run through it. 

Having arrived at this stage, it will be 
seen that the sliding-block can be moved 
easily up towards the fixed head, but that 
when pressure is brought to bear on it from 
this direction the notches underneath pre¬ 
vent it being pushed back further than is 
desired. Its action is so simple that surely 
nothing more need be said about it. 

The screw itself will be all the better of a 
little attention. The first thing that may be 
objected to about this, if it is a new one, is 
stiffness in working. This can easily be 
remedied by rubbing it with a mixture of 
ordinary blacklead and—no, not oil, for 
this is apt to cause the wood to swell, and 
so increase the defect we are trying to 
remedy—soft soap This forms an excellent 
lubricant for the purpose, and may be a 
wrinkle worth noting by those whose wooden 
screws of any kind work too stiffly. 

It will also be advisable to put an iron 
point at the end of the screw. Only a small 
one is necessary. If it projects \ in. it 
will be quite sufficient, and it should be 
sharp. The easiest way to make and fix the 

point is to screw a nail into the end of the 
wood, cut its head off, and then file down 
fine and thin. A piece of brass tubing put 
on the end of the wooden screw, the thread 
of which must be cut away for half an inch 
or so, completes the cramp, the manner of 
using which is so evident that nothing need 
be said about it. 

A cramp made as described will be found 
quite equal for practical purposes to an iron 
one costing twelve shillings or more. ‘‘ What 
will the cost of this wooden cramp be 1 ” 
“ Well, I can’t say exactly ; but if you wish 
to make one you can reckon this up as easily 
as I can, and from the same sources of in¬ 
formation—viz., the tool-shops and timber- 


BY F. A. M. 

Introductory—Size and Power op the Engine 
—Time required to Make it— How to get 
Help when in Difficulty—A Comparison 
of Steam, Gas, Hot-Air, and Water Mo¬ 
tors, with their Cost and relative Con¬ 
venience—Work and Power, what they 
are—Power of Animals and of Man— 
What is a Man-Power ?—What is a Horse- 
Power ?—Connection of Enginf, with Lathe 
—Calculation of the Power of our En¬ 

Introductory. —The engine about to be de¬ 
scribed is believed to be of convenient size 
for driving the turning lathe, etc., in an 
amateur’s workshop. Although it is called 
a quarter horse-power, some would probably 
reckon it at a half horse-power ; it might be 
either, according to the pressure of steam 
employed and the speed at which it runs. 
At any rate, it will be of about twice as 
much power as the amateur himself, and it 
will therefore drive any machine he could 
drive, together with the shafting required to 
convey the motion from the engine to the 
machines. The engine, too, is of a very 
manageable size, with no large or awkward 
work about it; anyone who has a 5 in. gap 
lathe will be able to do the whole of the 
work himself, whilst, if his lathe is of 
smaller capacity, he will probably be able 
to do all but turn and bore the fly-wheel. 

The construction has been simplified as far 
as possible without interfering with efficiency, 
and the engine should be a really useful 
motor, which will weai well even when put 
to hard work. Besides, it will form an ex¬ 
cellent opportunity for practice with lathe 
and tools and for learning some of the laws 
of mechanics. 

Before going further, lest any reader 
should be led to undertake too lightly the 
task of constructing this engine, without 
having “ counted the cost ” in time and 
trouble, let us pause and consider what 
amount of labour we are about to under¬ 
take. It may, perhaps, be admitted that 
there is in the complete engine about £9 
worth of labour by a workman whose time 
might be worth, say, 30s. per week of six 
full days of eight hours each. Now, 30s. 
per week is £3 per fortnight, and therefore 
£9 would pay for six weeks’ work or thirty- 
six days, or 288 hours. Let us suppose an 
amateur would take 360 hours ; then, if he 
works on an average three hours a day, it 
will take him four months, and if he works 
but two hours a day it will take him half 
a year. Let no one, then, begin with an in¬ 
sane desire to see the work finished, but let 
them first consider whether they will give 
the requisite time and trouble, and then 
work away steadily, determined simply to 

Work-March28,1801.] How to M ake a Quarter Horse-Power Steam Engine. 

2 3 

do each part thoroughly •well, and then there 
will not be many disappointments. 

If a reader, having already acquired some 
little practice in the use of metal-working 
tools at the lathe and vice, still feels afraid 
to undertake such a piece of work, he may 
probably be able to get assistance in one of 
the two following ways. First, he may be 
able to find a small working engineer’s shop 
within reach, the master or foreman of which 
would be willing to give him lessons for one 
or two hours at a time in the evenings, when 
work is over. One or two such evenings a 
week would be a great help to an amateur, 
who would bring the difficulties he had en¬ 
countered in his work at home for explana¬ 
tion, and would profit by the extra facilities 
in the way of tools, machines, etc., afforded 
by the engineer’s workshop, and learn thus 
how best to complete his own stock. Or, 
secondly, the amateur might call in a work¬ 
man occasionally, of an evening, to teach or 
help him at home. Such lessons might cost 
from 9d. to Is. an hour. Of course it 
will be our endeavour to make such assist¬ 
ance unnecessary by describing every pro¬ 
cess and operation as clearly as possible; 
still, there are always some things more 
easily learnt by a little “ showing ” than by 
any amount of description. The workman, 
however, should not be allowed to do the 
work himself, but rather to stand by and 
show the amateur how to do it. 

A Comparison of Workshop Motors. —The 
steam engine is not the only motor the ama¬ 
teur may employ to drive his lathe. He may 
use a gas engine, a hot-air engine, or a 
water motor ; and as each of these sources 
■of motive power has its advantages and 
disadvantages, a word or two byway of com- 
arison, to enable the reader to choose 
etween them, may be acceptable at this 

We begin, then, by comparing' each of the 
forms of motor as to their first cost, and we 
will put the engine we are about to describe 
as worth (to buy) about £12, and its boiler 
about £12—say £24 complete. A gas engine 
of the ordinary non-compression type, such 
as the Bisschop, of two man-power, costs 
£33. It has no governor, and it may do 
tolerably well without. There is a small 
Otto engine in the market, with a governor, 
for £32, and it runs very silently, whilst the 
.ordinary non-compression kind make a 
very disagreeable thump, not pleasant to 
have in a room in a house. A hot-air engine 
will run silently, but it is large and bulky ; 
a quarter-horse costs £35. The water-pres¬ 
sure engine . may be made with a cylinder 
and piston, or like a small water-wheel in a 
case, a jet of water being arranged to im¬ 
pinge upon the floats, like the “ Thirlmere ” 
of Messrs. Bailey of Salford. This last would 
cost but £310s., and it is very silent and easy 
to regulate by hand. 

We will now compare the expense of 
running the four kinds of motor. That of 
the first three will be very small—about a 
shilling for a whole day’s running. The 
water engine, however, if run from the town 
mains, will prove so expensive as to put it 
out of the question, except in those cases 
where there is a natural supply of water, 
under pressure, available. 

There are two other considerations which 
we can take together—namely, in how much 
time can we start each motor, and how much 
attention will they require to keep them 
going ? The steam engine here appears at a 
disadvantage : it will probably take twenty 
minutes to raise steam ready for starting, 
and all the while the engine runs, the work¬ 
man must keep it in mind, and see that 

neither fire nor water gets low ; for the first 
would cause a stoppage and the second 
might bring an explosion. Coal must be put 
on the boiler furnace about every fifteen 
minutes, and though gas may be employed 
for fuel, it would probably cost about four 
times as much to heat in that way. The 
feed-pump will be set to supply water to the 
boiler at about the same rate as that at 
which it evaporates, but this will not ob¬ 
viate the necessity of watching the water- 
level in the glass water-gauge, to make sure 
all is right. The gas engine can be started 
in a minute, and but for an occasional oiling 
it requires no further attention ; it makes a 
disagreeable noise unless it be of the com¬ 
pression type, and that is expensive. The 
hot-air engine will require about fifteen 
minutes to heat up before it will start, after 
which it requires but little attention more 
than a shovelful of coal or coke every half-hour 
or so ; it is bulky and rather expensive, but 
makes no noise. The water-engine is by far 
the best motor for the amateur ; it has but 
one disadvantage—the cost of the water. 
With the usual price of 1,000 gallons of 
water at Is., the cost of obtaining two man¬ 
power comes out about 2s. an hour—more 
than it would cost to employ two men to 
turn a wheel ! But where there is a natural 
fall of water to be obtained, then by all 
means have a water motor : it has no smell, 
gives out no heat, requires no attention, 
makes no noise, is started and stopped in an 
instant, and if the workman left it running 
he would find it running still when he re¬ 
turned, provided it was not worn out! 

In spite of all that has been said in favour 
of the other three motors, the steam engine is 
not to be despised. It is quieter than the 
gas engine, more compact than the hot-air 
engine, cheaper than either, and better un¬ 
derstood ; moreover, it can be made by the 
amateur himself. But, before we begin to 
describe its construction, we must first give 
some notions of 

Work and Poicer. —“ How many horse¬ 
power is it ? ” must, of course, be the ques¬ 
tion whenever we have to do ■with any¬ 
thing in the shape of a steam engine. But, 
first, what is a horse-power? “ Oh, the 
power of a horse,” people say, and they 
seem to fancy that if one took a locomotive 
of 100 horse-power, and tied 100 horses 
behind it to pull it back, that the two 
forces would be equal. But no, there is 
much more in the question; and we shall 
never grasp this expression unless we under¬ 
stand that horse-power, like man-power and 
every other power, is composed of three ele¬ 

The first element is resistance or pressure , 
such as that of a weight. 

The second element is the space or dis¬ 
tance through which the resistance is moved. 

The third element is the time occupied by 
the movement. 

Suppose a man walk along the ground 
pulling a rope, and let the rope pass over a 
pulley and down a well, being attached to a 
bucket of water or other weight. Let us 
further suppose that the weight is such as 
to require all the strength a man can con¬ 
tinuously exert. First, let him stand still, 
holding the weight suspended. What power 
is he now exerting ? One man-power, do 
you say ? No, indeed ; no power is exerted 
nor any work done, because there is no dis¬ 
tance moved nor space covered. Here we 
have only one element—resistance or pres¬ 
sure. Secondly, let the man now move 
slowly forwards, drawing up the weight as 
he goes, and what have we now ? Two 
elements—pressure and space—and these 

two form work which can be measured, and is 
usually reckoned in foot-pounds. For in¬ 
stance, the bucket might hold four gallons 
of water, weighing together 40 lb., and the 
man might move forwards 10 ft. ; then we 
should say he had done work represented by 
400 foot-pounds. A foot-pound is the amount 
of work required to raise a weight of 1 lb. 
one foot high. To obtain in any case the 
number of foot-pounds of work exerted, we 
have only to multiply the weight in pounds 
by the space moved in feet. Notice, then, 
that the man would have done the same 
amount of work if he had raised 10 lb. 
40 ft. high, or 1 lb. 400 ft. high, or 400 lb. 
1 ft. high. Can we now reckon this work 
in horse-power or man-power ? Not yet ; 
for, observe, we might have told the man to 
exert his utmost strength and seen him pull 
up the weight in a moment ; or we might 
say, “ Take it easy,” and have watched 
him, leaning gently on the rope, bring it up 
in a minute, when the power would evi¬ 
dently have been different. This brings us 
to the third element of power— time. Work 
is composed of only two elements, pressure 
and space; we cannot tell how much 
power is required to do a given amount of 
work unless we know in how much time it 
must be done. A man with a small pump 
can fill a tank as well as a steam engine if 
we give him plenty of time; in both cases 
the same weight of water will have been 
raised through the same space, and there¬ 
fore the same amount of work will have 
been done, but if the work be done in one- 
tenth of the time by the steam engine, then 
the engine will have been exerting ten times 
the powerof the man. It only remains to say, 
the element of time adopted is one minute. 

When James Watt made his engines for 
raising water, it was stipulated that they 
should be able to do the work of so many 
horses. A steam engine is intended to pro¬ 
duce power in return for a certain amount 
of coal, and, evidently, it is necessary to 
have some standard of comparison by which 
power can be measured; that standard 
is usually the horse-power —that is, the 
power required to raise 33,000 lb. one foot 
high per minute, which rule includes the 
three elements of weight, space, and time. 
It would amount to the same thing to say 
that a horse-power is the power required to 
raise 1 lb. 33,000 ft. high per minute : or, 
we might say, it requires one horse-power to 
do 33,000 foot-pounds of work in one minute. 
This is doubtless rather a high estimate of 
the power of a horse, which few horse3 
could exert for more than three or four 
hours at a time ; and here is inserted from 
“ Molesworth’s Pocket Book ” another esti¬ 
mate of the power of the horse and of other 
animals (including the human variety), 
which they can exert continuously through 
an eight hours’ day :— 

Horse . 

Ox . 

Mule . 

Ass . 

Man, as in rowing 
Do., on tread-wheel 
Do., turning a handle 

Lbs. raised 1 ft. 
high per min. 

3,000 foot-pounds per minute will, then, be 
about the power with which the amateur 
drives his lathe, going up to 4,000 for a short 
time when a hard piece of work must be 
done. As to what is a manpower, some 
allow five men to a horse-power, some six. 
some eight, and some ten. Until authority 
decides this point, we will assume to our¬ 
selves all the authority we can command, 
and state with the utmost decision that, so 
far as these articles are concerned, one man* 


Oxford Frames. 

[Work—March 28,1891. 

power is, and. shall be, that power which is 
required to raise 4,000 lb. one foot high per 
minute, making it about equal to one-eighth 
of a horse-power; so that we may call our 
engine either one-quarter horse-power, or 
two man-power. 

Shafting required. — An independent 
workshop motor, whether worked by steam, 
gas, hot air, or water, will involve shafting 
and belting to connect the motor with the 
lathe and other machines to be driven ; and 
as a lathe should properly be arranged to 
run both ways, forwards and backwards, the 
shafting is not quite such a simple matter 
as might be supposed. One way out of the 
difficulty is to make the engine with a 
link-motion reversing gear, and to bring the 
strap from the engine straight on to a pulley 
on the crank-shaft of the lathe ; but this 
pulley and strap would be most likely in 
the way, and as the turner would have to 
go to the engine to move the reversing lever, 
he would not have that instant control of 
his lathe to which he was accustomed when 
using the treadle, and might probably get 
disgusted with his engine and go back to the 
old plan, for want of proper conveniences in 
the way of connections. He must have per¬ 
fect and immediate control of the revolu¬ 
tions of his lathe, and be able to start, stop, 
revei'se, in an instant, without leaving his 
work, or he will go back, for ordinary work, 
to his treadle again. Another way to avoid 
the shafting is to attach the engine to the 
lathe direct, and one may often see nowa¬ 
days a powerful tool in an engineer’s shop 
with a little engine of its own attached to 
it to drive it, so that it can run when all the 
main shafting is still. It would not be wise 
to attach a steam engine to a small light 
lathe, but to a good strong 5-in. centre 
metal turning lathe an engine may be fixed, 
either outside the right-hand standard or 
under the bed over the right-hand crank, 
and, when fitted with link-motion and the 
reversing handle brought up to the work¬ 
man’s hand, it will form a very convenient 
arrangement—self-contained, and therefore 
easy to remove, under complete control of 
the turner—whilst any other machine, such 
as the grindstone, might be driven from 
a pulley on the crank-shaft of the lathe. 
Thus no shafting or belting would be 
needed, and the steam and exhaust pipes 
would be led round the back of the lathe 
from the boiler. The plan is inviting, and 
working drawings have been made of it as 
suited to the writer’s own 5-in. gap lathe (by 
Milnes of Bradford). However, considering 
that a special case such as that would not be 
so good to begin with, and also that a hori¬ 
zontal engine of the ordinary type would be 
more generally acceptable, these plans were 
abandoned for the present in favour of the 
more usual form, though it will involve the 
requisite shafting. 

Calculation of the Power.—II the previous 
remarks on horse-power have been under¬ 
stood, this will not be difficult. We must 
begin by ascertaining the three elements of 
power—Pressure, Space, and Speed. 

Pressure. —The pressure which drives the 
engine is the force in pounds with which the 
steam presses upon the piston, driving it to 
and fro in the cylinder ; it is estimated in 
pounds per square inch. We will adopt a 
maximum pressure in the boiler of 50 lb. per 
square inch, and we must not reckon on 
more than an average of, say, 30 lb. per 
square inch in the cylinder. It will probably 
require a pressure of about 5 lb. per square 
inch to overcome the friction of the engine 
itself. To allow for throttling by the gover¬ 
nor, friction of the engine itself, and other 

small sources of loss, let us take the average 
pressure on each square inch of the piston 
to be 25 lb. Now, the rule for the area of a 
circle is, square the diameter and multiply 
by 78; the diameter of our cylinder and 
piston is 2 in. : 2 X 2 X 78 = area = 372, 
say ’3 square inches. Multiplying 3 square 
inches by 25 lb., we get 75 lb. for the 
average pressure on the piston, and thus 
establish the first element of the power. 

Space and Speed. —The other two ele¬ 
ments, space and speed, we will take to¬ 
gether ; and supposing that the engine shall 
be regulated by the governor to run 150 re¬ 
volutions per minute, and since the stroke is 
4J in. long, during each revolution the piston 
will travel a distance of two strokes, or 
8£ in.; multiplying 8^ by 150 revolutions, 
we get 1,275 in., which divided by 12 gives 
106 ft. travelled by the piston in one 

Now, we have only to multiply together 
our three elements, 75 lb. X 106 ft. X 1 min., 
to obtain 7,950 foot-pounds per minute as 
the power, near enough to 8,000, which we 
have decided to call two man-power, and not 

far from — — 8,222, the true quarter 

horse-power. One pound more added to 
the average pressure per square inch would 
raise the 7,950 to 8,408. 

A simple rule to obtain the approximate 
effective power of a small engine, such as 
that with which we are dealing, would be : 
Multiply the speed of the piston in feet per 
minute by the total pressure on the piston, 
and the result is the power in foot-pounds 
per minute ; divide this by 4,000 and we 
get the man power; divide by 33,000 and 
we get the horse-power—the effective pres¬ 
sure on the piston to be estimated at 
from half the highest boiler pressure to two- 

It is hoped that this explanation of the 
way to obtain the power of a small engine 
will prove so simple that every amateur en¬ 
gineer will thoroughly understand what 
work is, what is power, and how to calculate 
them. It only needs to be stated that we 
have been dealing solely with actual effective 
power and not with “ nominal ” power, 
which latter is an arbitrary or commercial 
term of no interest to the amateur. 




Setting Out—Rebating—Simple Tools for Re¬ 
bating—Chamfering—Putting Together. 

Most wood workers, both professional and 
amateur, have at some period in their 
career tried their hand at Oxford frame 
making, and in most cases have found out 
that it was not as easily done as they at first 

To make a good frame requires skill and 
taste, for, like everything else, to be satis¬ 
factory it must be made well, and the plainer 
it is made the better should be the work¬ 

The object of this paper is to describe a few 
varieties of the Oxford frame and how to 
make them (or at least how I should do it) 
without going into minor details, such as 
planing and sawing, which have been dealt 
with in other articles. 

Having procured our timber we com¬ 
mence to make our frame. We will sup¬ 
pose, by way of illustration, that it is to be 
made of oak, for a picture 10 in. by 7 in. 
This will require four pieces, two being 
14 in. long, § in. by 1£ in., and two 11 in. 

long, also $ in. by l j in. I prefer Baltic to 
English oak for the purpose, as it is morn 
easily worked, and in small pieces looks 
quite as well. 

Face and edge, gauge and plane to size„ 
then set out two pieces with a 6| in., and 
the other two with a 9^ in., opening (this 
allows for a | in. rebate); mark round each 
piece with the scriber or pencil (perhaps the 
latter is best, as the scriber, if not carefully 
used, leaves a deep mark, which has to be 
planed or scraped out) and square ; put one 
on the other as shown in Fig. I and mark 
for halving, taking care that the members 
of the frame which are upright go right 
through on the face. Halve together in the 
usual manner, and we are ready for rebating. 

Now, perhaps, a few words as to the 
easiest method of doing this will not be out 
of place. The best tool for the purpose 
(supposing we have no machinery) is a fence 
router such as a coach builder would use. 
One of these would cost from 4s. 6d. to 5s. 6d., 
therefore are out of the reach of the ordinary 
reader. Some use a rebate plane or fillister, 
but in that case the rebate is carried right 
through and filled up at the end by gluing - 
a piece in after the frame is made. Unless 
the wood be very hard the rebate may be 
made with a cutting gauge. The ordinary 
cutting gauge will not be of much service 
for the purpose, but if the reader will make 
one as I am about to describe, he will find it 
useful for this and a great many other pieces 
of work where a stopped rebate is required. 
It will also be found useful for cutting off a 
number of parallel pieces of thin wood. 

Procure two pieces of ash or beech, one 
2 in. by If in. and in. long (a, Fig. 2 ), the 
other | in. by 1J in. and 6 in. long(B, Fig. 2). 
The sketch, Fig. 2, will describe the method 
of putting together ; a is mortised to receive 
B, which may be driven backwards and for¬ 
wards as in an ordinary gauge and fixed 
securely in any position by driving in the 
wedge, c. The cutter, d, is made out of a 
broken f in. chisel or piece of steel, and is 
secured by means of a wedge shown in sec¬ 
tion (Fig. 3). A recess is made at e, Fig. % 
to allow the cutter to work close for a narrow- 
rebate. It is rather an awkward-looking 
tool, but those w ho test its usefulness will 
pardon this. It is used as an ordinary 
gauge would be, but as the work is harder 
the tooth requires guiding with the finger 
and thumb of the left hand. In some cases 
you can take this piece completely out by 
gauging on both sides, but in others you 
have to use the chisel. A boxing router, or 
old woman’s tooth, will be found useful for 
clearing out the rebate. A simple one, 
made out of a piece of wood and a chisel 
blade, is shown in Fig. 4. This is another 
tool which will be found useful for a variety 
of purposes, and will soon pay for the small 
amount of labour spent in making it. Iia 
fact, the rebate may be made with this tool 
alone by screwing a piece of wood on the- 
face of it to act as a fence. 

We now come to the most important part 
of our frame—viz., chamfering. Various 
tools are used for this, such as the drawing 
knife and spokeshave, but I prefer a sharp 
paring chisel, and a bull-nose or thumb 
plane. Some w r ould use a pocket-knife and 
a bit of glass, but I hope the readers of 
Work have got beyond that stage. 

In Fig. 5 two of the commoner methods 
of chamfering are shown. Figs. 6 to 10 
show various methods of finishing. Fig. 7 
may be marked with a coin ; the others will 
require a cardboard or veneer templet. In 
the centre of the rails a diamond is some¬ 
times left (Fig. 6), or the pattern at the 

Work—March 28,1891.] 

Oxford Frames. 



Our Guide to Good Things. 

[ Work—March 28,189L 

corner may be repeated (Fig. 8). Fig. 11 
shows a method of varying the chamfer with 
a zig-zag made by notching a piece out on 
each side with the chisel. I merely give 
these as suggestions ; other methods may 
be hit on without much trouble. 

An important point in finishing is to avoid 
the use of sand-paper as much as possible, 
it takes the sharp arrises off, and makes the 
work look slovenly. 

After chamfering, the frame may be glued 
together, but if you are not used to it glue 
has a peculiar knack of getting into the 
corners and leaving an unsightly brown stain. 

For my own part I prefer putting the 
frame together, boring a £ in. hole in the 
centre of each corner, and fastening by 
means of a rosewood or black oak pin as 
shown in the sketches. This pin goes right 
through and is glued in. Fig. 12 shows the 
method of making this pin. The head is 
first made square, then the corners are taken 
off with a chisel. Occasionally a conical¬ 
headed one is employed, which may be 
turned. Different forms are shown in the 
various figures. Some finish the corners 
with a brass-headed nail, but I think this 
gives the frame a poor appearance. 

I do not think it necessary to say anything 
about the final processes of varnishing and 
putting in the picture and back—these are 
minor details; but if there is any point on 
which I am not clear, I shall be happy to 
answer any questions in “ Shop.” 


The Editor will be glad to receive commu¬ 
nications for this department of Work. 
There must be few who, in the course of 
their experience, have not picked up many 
a hint and wrinkle which they have found 
to be useful to themselves in the prosecu¬ 
tion of their respective trades or hobbies. 
Those who have thus got hold of “ something 
worth knowing” are requested to make a 
note of it and pass it on, that it may be put 
into general circulation and so prove help¬ 
ful to many. 

Reliable Cement for Lamps. 

Powdered alum forms a simple, while at 
the same time thoroughly reliable, cement 
for attaching the brass rim to either glass 
or earthenware lamps. 

The mode of procedure is as follows :— 

(1) Thoroughly clean both rim and neck 
of lamp from everything of a greasy nature. 

(2) Invert the brass rim, and fill its cavity 
with powdered alum, and place on the top 
of a hot range or stove. 

_ (3) When the alum begins to get pasty {not 
liquid) with the heat, insert the neck of the 
lamp, press firmly into place, and remove the 
whole from stove, and 'set aside to cool. In 
about five minutes the lamp will be ready 
for use. The cement is thoroughly reliable, 
the oil apparently having no effect what¬ 
ever upon it, and has the advantage over 
plaster of Paris that a lamp can be set and 
ready for use within five minutes, and if 
the vessel should meet with an accident, 
the rim can again be removed by re-heating, 
and adjusted to another vessel without all 
the trouble usually associated with such a 
job. W. H. W. 

Treeing a Buckled Circular Saw. 

The following method I have seen used 
with success :—Immediately the saw com¬ 
mences to run wild, lift the wood you are 
sawing off the bench, and take a block of 
wood some 3 in. square, and rub the “end 

grain ” against the side of the plate, moving 
it backwards and forwards with a firm 
pressure against the saw. You must do it 
while the saw is warm, so do not stop it. 


Boring Square Hole with Centre-Bit. 

This is a workshop trick, and done in the 
following way :—Get a piece of stiff paper 
and fold it once, and put the folded edge 
up between two pieces of wood, say 1 in. 
thick, 3 in. wide, and 6 in. long. Pinch 
them altogether in bench screw, then with 
a centre-bit—say 1 in. bit—bore down (put¬ 
ting the point of' bit into the paper between 
the wood) in. deep. On taking out paper 
and unfolding it, a square hole will be found 
in it. H. H. 

Trimming Flat Lamp Wicks. 

As all those who burn oil lamps must be 
aware, a lamp wick of the flat variety should 
not be cut perfectly flat across, but should 
be slightly higher in the middle. To do 
this is generally a difficult task, especially 

Trimming Flat Lamp Wicks—A, Wick ; B, Wick 
doubled before cutting; C, Wick doubled 
after cutting ; D, Wick trimmed complete. 

after the wick has been some time soaking 
in oil; but if, instead of cutting it from 
side to side, the wick is first doubled dowu 
the middle and then cut through the two 
thicknesses towards the centre, a neat job 
will be the result. W. H. W. 



*»* Patentees, manufacturers, o.nd dealers generally are re¬ 
quested to send prospectuses, bills, etc., of their speciali¬ 
ties in tools, machinery, and worlcshop appliances to the 
Editor of WoitK for notice in “ Our Guide to Good 
Things. 1 ’ It is desirable that specimens should be sent 
for examination and testing in all cases when this can be 
done without inconvenience. Specimens thus received 
will be returned at the earliest opportunity. It must be 
understood that everything which is noticed, is noticed 
on its merits only, and that, as it is in the pouter of any¬ 
one who has a useful article for sale to obtain mention 
of it in this department of WORK without charge, the 
notices given partake in no way of the nature of adver¬ 

2.—The “Frederick Crane” Chemical 
Company’s Specialities. 

Both professional and amateur brass and other 
metal workers and finishers will be glad to bear 
of some new lacquers and substitutes for laoquers 
which, while fulfilling all the requirements of 
the old form of lacquers, are easier of application 
and superior in results. Such will be found in 
the specialities manufactured and supplied by the 
“ Frederick Crane ” Chemical Company, 22, 
Newhall Hill, Birmingham. The defects of 
ordinary lacquer are well known, and also the 
difficulty of applying) it in many cases, especially 
on large surfaces, amateurs especially finding 
that alter they have completed a nice piece of 
brasswork, the lacquering of it often presents an 
insuperable difficulty. The lacquers manufactured 
by the above firm are called “ Zapon,” Brassoline, 
and Ferroline. The most important of these is 
zapon. This is a perfectly colourless, trans¬ 
parent enamel, which can he applied either by 
“ dipping” the article in it or by brushing it on 
in. the same manner as ordinary lacquer, with 
the exception that heat is not a necessity. It 
sets perfectly smooth, and is very hard and not 
easy to scratch; it also has the property of 
drawing up its own drip. From experiments 
that I have made with it, I can confidently 

recommend it, and hear out the statement of the 
manufacturers that an amateur is more likely to 
make perfect work with zapon than a skilled 
workman with lacquer. It is also claimed that 
articles coated with this lacquer or enamel will 
stand any climate, are proof against flies or other 
insects, sea air, salt water, and noxious vapours 
—qualities which certainly recommend it as 
being most valuable for export trade. The prices 
of zapon are as follows: —zapon, for dipping 
(colourless), 21s. per gallon; brush zapon (colour¬ 
less), 21s. per gallon ; diluting liquid, 15s. per 
gallon; brush zapon (gold colour), 21s. per gallon. 

Brassoline.—This is also a capital lacquer. It 
is worked like ordinary lacquer, hut is superior 
to it in many respects. For instance, it will not 
cloud, however damp the atmosphere ; it is 
perfectly waterproof; all brush-marks smooth 
out in drying ; and the loss by evaporation is 
small. No heat is required, and therefore the 
novice can use it as well as the professional. 
It is made in several varieties, the most useful 
being gold, and antique brass. Price in each case, 
12 s. per gallon; thinner, 8s. per gallon. Short 
as is the time that these lacquers have been 
in use, they have gained a good reputation, being 
used by some of our leading firms in the brass 
goods line, notably Messrs. Benham & Froud, 
Evered & Co., Tonks, Limited, and many 
others, who speak highly of it. 

Ferroline is a lacquer or preservative for iron¬ 
work and bright steel goods, useful for iron¬ 
mongers and others who keep a stock of bright 
iron and steel goods, and who will appreciate an 
article that will obviate the necessity for the 
constant care and looking after that such a stock 
involves. It can he applied with or without 
heat, with a brush or by dipping. It is clear 
and transparent, and does not change the colour 
of the articles to which it is applied. Prices as 

Ferroline, Grade KK per gall. 12s. 
„ ,, thinner „ 8s. 

,, No. 30 ,, 5s. 




,, thinner 
Grade IIH 
„ thinner 







KK is the hardest and finest; No. 30 is not so 
hard, hut has a heavier body than KK, and is 
especially designed for articles to be much 
exposed to atmospheric influences. HH is like 
No. 30, hut thinner, designed for cheaper class 

Several other articles are also manufactured 
by the firm, amongst them being a Japan termed 
Negroline, in black and brown shades; Enameloid, 
a dead black for iron, brass, tin, or zinc; and 
Protectaline,a negative varnishfor photographers. 
These I have not tried, hut if they are equal 
to the before-mentioned, they will he found use¬ 
ful for those requiring such things. I might 
say that smaller quantities can be obtained, and 
should think that ironmongers and others who 
cater for amateurs and mechanics requiring such 
tilings would do well to stock these specialities. 

3.—“ Success, and the Way into It.” 

I have received a small pamphlet hearing this 
title from the Secretary of the Y.M.C.I.S., or, to 
give the name in full, the Young Men’s Christian 
Industrial Society. Further, the address of the 
Secretary is 51, Old Bailey, London, E.C.; and 
from him all information respecting the Society 
and the establishment of branches may he 
obtained. It seems to he an attempt to bring 
about a combination of prayer-meetings and 
technical teaching as being, in the eyes of the 
promoters, the most likely arrangement to help 
our young men onwards and upwards. Surely 
there is a time for all things, and this being so, 
it seems neither desirable nor necessary to resort 
to this commingling of things sacred and secular. 
The promoters of the idea regard with suspicion 
the Volunteer Movement, Science and Art 
Classes, the Lecture Hall, the Club, the Public 
Bath, and the Gymnasium, as tending to de¬ 
teriorate rather than improve young men. Most 
people entertain a contrary opinion. 

The Editor. 

Work—March 28, 1S91.] 




A Corner for Those who Want to Talk It. 

*»* In consequence of the great pressure upon the 
“ Shop ’’ columns of Work, contributors arc 
requested to be brief and concise in all future 
questions and replies. 

In answering any of the “ Questions submitted to Corre¬ 
spondents," or in referring to anything that has appeared 
in “ Shop," writers are requested to refer to the number 
and page of number of Work in which the subject under 
consideration appeared, and to give the heading of the 
paragraph to which reference is made, and the initials 
and place of residence, or the ncrni-de-plume, of the writer 
by whom the question has been asked or to whom a reply 
has been already given. Answers cannot be given to 
questions which do not bear on subjects that fairly come 
within the scope of the Magazine 

I.— Letters from Correspondents. 

Experiments in Electricity.—H. A. H. ( Tun¬ 
bridge ) writes :—“ The following experiments were 
published, in the Electrical Review, and appeared 
originally in a foreign scientific journal(1) ‘ By 
attaching two curved wires—each supporting an 
incandescent lamp—to the terminals of the second¬ 
ary circuit of a Rhumkorff coil (Fig. 1), we observe 
an approximation of the two lamps at the moment 
of the passing of the current. The phenomena is 
particularly marked at a distance between the 
lamps of from three to five millimetres. Care must 
be taken that the supports shall be very flexible, 
and for this purpose a copper wire one millimetre 
in diameter, and insulated with gutta-percha, will 
be very suitable. It is likewise important to avoid 
direct sparks between the lamp sockets. It is 
necessary to the attraction that there should be a 
discharge traversing the lamps and compelling the 
approximation. (2) By suspending one of the lamps 
(Fig. 2) and holding the other in the hand, the 
attraction between them will he the same. (3) A 
lamp placed upon the terminals of a Rhumkorff 
coil (Fig. 3) will become luminous, and it will be 
only necessary to approximate a lamp to a terminal 
to obtain gleams of equal brilliancy (Fig. 4). (4) Sus¬ 

pend a lamp by a flexible wire to one terminal (Fig. 
5), and approximate to it any point in connection 
with the other terminal, and an attracted and sus¬ 
tained gleam will be observable.’ Knowing that 
the current from the secondary circuit of a Rhum¬ 
korff coil partakes of the nature of frictional elec¬ 
tricity, it occurred to me to try the experiments 
upon a Wimshurst influence machine, and I found 
that the experiments could be repeated upon it. 
Vacuum tubes can be shown also from a Wims- 
hurst by connecting one end to one conductor, and 
the other end to the other conductor, and discon¬ 
necting the Leyden jars if it is found they retard 
the rapidity of the discharge. If instead of using 
the conductors they are taken away with the 
combs, the lamp will glow if held close to the glass 
plate while revolving. Vacuum tubes can also be 
illuminated by holding one end to the glass plate and 
taking hold of or touching the other end ; indeed, 
the light ceases where the tube is held by the hand: 
it does not seem to make any difference to the 
illumination whether the platinum wire or the glass 
is held to the machine. I have also found that a 
momentary flash of light is obtained by rapidly 
approaching an excited glass or ebonite rod to a 
lamp or vacuum tube, and another flash by rapidly 
taking it away; in fact, a lamp or vacuum tube seems 
to act towards an excited glass or ebonite rod as a 
galvanometer does to an induced current in a closed 
circuit: upon approaching the rod there is a momen¬ 
tary flash, and all is dark; upon taking the rod 
away there is again a momentary flash and again 
all is dark. It is astonishing how little excitation a 
lamp or vacuum tube requires to make it show 
light; merely rubbing with an ebonite rod a piece 
of silk or a piece of cloth is sufficient. If you put 
either of them into an ebonite tube and rub the 
tube outside with any non-conducting material, they 
will show light, and after rubbing a minute or so, if 
the tube is tapped with the finger, they will light up 
opposite to where the finger touches. You may 
surround the vacuum tube with indiarubber, and 
place it in an ebonite tube, and the effects are the 
same as when the indiarubber is not there; the 
thickness of the diiectric does not appear to make 
any difference to the induction charges.” 

Model Electro-Motors.— Mr. George Edwin- 
son Bonney writes :—“I regret that a mistake has 

been made in the illustration, Fig. 59, page 757, Vol. 
II., showing how to wind the F.M. cores of a Man¬ 
chester dynamo. The winding on the right-hand 
core should be shown coiling round the core in the 
opposite direction to that shown in the illustration. 
I am very sorry such an oversight should have 
occurred, as I fear it will mislead some readers. 
Will you kindly publish for me an acknowledgment 
of my error?” 

Window Cleaning. — II. B. S. ( Liverpool) 
writes “ Kindly correct two mistakes in my 
answer to C. T. (Ashton-under-Lyne) on page 766, 
Vol. II. of Work. The first ;s a vital one to the ques¬ 
tion. Instead of ‘ hydrochloric,' read ‘hydrofluoric; ’ 
and instead of ‘H. B. B.,’ read ‘H. B. S.”’ 

Erratum.— In the reply to J. S. (Aberdeen), 
Work, No. 1(W, page 780, on “ Diamonds for Boring 
and Cutting Rocks," the word in brackets (carbon¬ 
ate) should have been “carbonado.” 

H.P. Formula. — W. H. T. ( London, S. W.) 
writes Puzzled (see page 718, Vol. II.) has fallen 
into an error by assuming that P. in the formula he 
quotes is the boiler or initial pressure. It refers to 
the average pressure throughout the stroke, which 
depends upon the point at which steam is cut off. 
The point of cut-off in the stroke being known, the 
average pressure can be obtained theoretically by 
formula, and practically by taking an indicator 
diagram. The engine in question no doubt cuts off 
steam very early in the stroke, and the expansion is 
very considerable.” 

II.— Questions Answered by Editor and Staff. 

Sheet-Iron Stampings for Dynamos.— A. S. K. 

(Sheerness).— Sheet-iron stampings in any quantity 
may be obtained from vendors of dynamo castings, 
who will supply laminations for the armatures of 
dynamos made by them. The names and addresses 
of vendors of small castings may be found on pages 
645, 678, and 706, Vol. II. of Work. Write to any or 
all of these, stating your requirements, and ask for 
estimates.—G. E. B. 

Banjo Hoop.— Banjo.— You might soldertheends 
of a piece of sheet metal together, making it the exact 
size of outside diameter ot wooden hoop and cutting 
it a little wider than the hoop. Slip hook inside 
metal, then hammer the metal over the edges of 
wooden hoop : this is a very primitive method. A 
properly made hoop has the edges spun over steel 
wires; the wooden lining is put in afterwards, 
making it fit tight against metal hoop by using a 
mould of wood or metal and by cramps. See the 
Nos. of Work for July 27,1889 ; November 3, 1890 ; 
Nos. 70, 75, 79, 81, and 93 for other information. I 
can supply you with a hoop. You will find my 
address m the advertisement column.—J. G. W. 

Inspectorship.— J. J. (Argoed).— The qualifica¬ 
tions necessary to pass the examinations for an 
architect as required by the Royal Institute of 
British Architects are of a very different character 
to those required by the Sanitary Institute for an 
Inspector of Nuisances. From your letter I infer 
that, to a certain extent, you think the above studies 
are analogous, and that it does not matter which 
you pass, as it were, but you will at once see from 
the short description of the requirements of both 
institutions I give below that there is a vast differ¬ 
ence between them. The examination of the Royal 
Institute of British Architects is divided into three 
stages to qualify the student as associate. Those 
for 1891 are as under:—First stage, or preliminary 
examination—to qualify for registration as pro¬ 
bationer, R.I.B.A. Fee, one guinea. Occupies two 
days of about five hours and a half each, and 
embraces the following subjects :—(1) Writing from 
dictation. (2) Short English composition. (3) Arith¬ 
metic, algebra, and elements of plane geometry. 
(4) Geography of Europe and history of the United 
Kingdom. (5) French, German, Italian, or Latin; 
one language to be selected. (6) Geometrical draw¬ 
ing, or elements of perspective: either subject to be 
selected. (7) Elementary mechanics and physics.' 
(8) Freehand drawing from the round. Second 
stage, or intermediate examination—to qualify for 
registration as student, R.I.B.A. Occupying ,wo 
days of written examination and one day of oral 
examination. Fee, two guineas, on application 
with certain testimonies of study, accompanied by 
a certificate from a member of the Royal In"Hjtute, 
or other person of recognised position. This 
examination embraces the following subjects :— 
(1) The orders of Greek and Roman architecture, 
their origin, development, and application. (2) The 
several varieties of classic ornament. (3) English 
architecture from the Conquest to a.d. 1500, and 
the successive developments of the styles. (4) The 
characteristic mouldings and ornament of each 
period. (5) The nature of ordinary budding 
materials, as stone, brick, tiles, timber, metals: 
and their qualities and defects. (6) The caleuiation 
of strengths of materials and resistance from data 
and formulas given. (7) The ele.mentary principles 
of construction (8) Elementary physics, as appli¬ 
cable to building. (9) Mensuration, land surveying, 
and levelling. (10) Plane geometry applied to 
actual work, projection of solids, and development 
of surfaces. Third stage, or the examination in 
architecture. To qualify for candidature as asso¬ 
ciate. Occupying five days. Fee, three guineas on 
application, with such probationary work as may 
be decided by the examiners. This examination 
embraces the following subjects :—History of archi¬ 
tecture (to be illustrated by sketches). The leading 
characteristics and history of the principal styles of 

architecture. The special characteristics and his¬ 
tory of any one of the following periods which the 
candidate may select, namely :— (a) Greek or Roman 
architecture; ( b) architecture of Italy or France 
from the tenth century to the end of the fourteenth 
century; (c) architecture of Italy or France from 
the beginning of the fifteenth century to the present 
time; ( d) architecture of England for some one 
century between the years 1100 and 1700 a.d. 
Mouldings, features, and ornament (to be illustrated 
by sketches):—As characteristic of architectural 
styles generally. As characteristic of the special 
style which may have been selected by the candi¬ 
date in his probationary work. In this work the 
candidate will be expected to show a thorough 
acquaintance (graphical and historical) with the 
style and period selected by him, though such 
knowledge will not exonerate him from being 
required to show acquaintance with the details of 
other styles. The words “architectural style” may 
be understood as meaning Greek, Roman, Byzan¬ 
tine, Romanesque, one period of Gothic (English, 
French, German, or Italian), Renaissance, or one of 
the transitional varieties. Sanitary science, strength 
of materials, shoring, etc.:—Drainage, sanitary 
arrangements and requirements. The application 
of formulas for calculating the strength of materials. 
Shoring and u nder-pinning, and d ealing with ruinous 
and dangerous structures. Plans, section, and eleva¬ 
tion of a building:—The detailed arrangement of a 
building for a given purpose: as, for example, a 
parsonage for a town parish; a residence for a 
surgeon or other practitioner; a set of offices—to 
be filled in upon a skeleton plan (to a scale of J in. 
to a foot); a plan of one upper floor and of the roof, 
with details of the principal constructional arrange¬ 
ments ; the section and elevation (to a scale of J in. 
to a foot), with constructional and artistic details to 
a larger scale. For the guidance of the candidate, a 
short statement of the requirements will be set 
forth. Materials, construction, etc. :—The nature 
and properties of building materials, including 
their decay, preservation, quality and strength, 
and their application in building. The principles 
of construction as applied in practice to foundations, 
walls, arches, vaults, roofs, floors, and partitions. 
Specifications and methods of estimating cost:—A 
specification of the work necessary in one or more 
trades for the building described above. Manner 
of specifying for other trades, and methods of esti¬ 
mating the cost of any building. Professional prac¬ 
tice:—The general conditions usually appended to 
a specification and contract. The fifth day is 
devoted to an oral examination. Examination for 
Inspector of Nuisances :—Occupies a portion of two 
days, the first day being a written examination of 
about three hours, and the second an oral examina¬ 
tion, with one or more questions, to he answered in 
writing if deemed necessary. Fee, three guineas if 
in London, but when the examinations are held in 
provincial towns, one guinea extra is charged. The 
examination embraces the following subjects :—The 
provisions of the Acts and Model Bye-Laws relating 
to the duties of Inspectors of Nuisances. A know¬ 
ledge of what constitues a nuisance; methods of 
inspection of dwellings, cellar dwellings, dairies, 
milk-shops, markets, slaughter-houses, cow-sheds, 
and nuisances especially connected with trades and 
manufactories. The physical characteristics of good 
drinking water—the various ways in which it may 
be polluted by damage to supply works or in houses, 
and the means of preventing pollution. Methods 
of water supply. The characteristics of good and 
bad food (such as meat, fish, milk, vegetables). 
The Sale of Food and Drugs Act. The regulations 
affecting persons suffering or recovering from 
infectious diseases. The principles of ventilation, 
and simple methods of ventilating rooms. Measure¬ 
ments of cubic space. Disinfectants and methods 
of disinfection. A knowledge of the general duties 
of the office, and methods of keeping the necessary 
books and records. Writing and spelling. The 
proper conditions of good drainage. The advan¬ 
tages and disadvantages of various sanitary appli¬ 
ances for houses. Inspection of builders’ and 
plumbers' work. Scavengering and the disposal of 
refuse.—E. D. _ 

Incubator.—W. M. (Plaistow).—The well-piece 
of incubator as shown in the drawing (see No. 89, 
page 589) is open at bottom, and it is intended that 
the water of boiler should flow in and out—that is, 
rise and fall with the changes of the temperature. 
If you take the scale of the drawing it will give 
you the dimensions of the float sufficiently near.— 
C. M. W. 

Incubator.— No. 305.—Full particulars of a simple 
and effective Incubator were given in No. 89 of 
Work.—C. M. W. 

Villas and Cottage Plans. — J. M. B. (Dum¬ 
fries).— These, together with full detailed estima¬ 
tions, will be given in Work as soon as opportunity 
offers, and some suitable writer and designer well 
up to the subject is forthcoming. 

Binding. — Ruler. — Papers on the above ap¬ 
peared in Vol. I. Look them up and read them 
over. If you write to the publishers for the Index 
to Vol. I., you will be able to find out for yourself, 
and you can order the numbers from a newsagent, 
or direct from Messrs. Cassell & Co., Limited. How¬ 
ever, I will try and give you sufficient information to 
enable you to do quarter-bound work in this column. 
I presume that it is cheap account-books you mean. 
The books are taken from the sewer, and if the end¬ 
papers have not been sewn on, the first operation is 
putting these to the book. This is done differently, 
according to the style of the book. We will suppose 



[Work—March 28, 1891. 

for the sake of lucidity that we have a 3-quire 
foolscap, ruled special, with a printed heading. This 
is plain and tradesman-like; being a ruler you will 
understand it so far. The book has been sewn on 
three tapes or slips: this is the sewer's business, and 
you as a binder need not trouble why it is so. Now 
for the end-papers. You take two sheets of the 
same paper—these are left off by the ruler from the 
job—and fold them; next you lay them down upon 
a wrapper or waste sheet, and glue one page ; you 
lift this and lay it upon the first page of the book, 
with the fold even to the back of the book, taking 
care that the slips are put back out of the way. You 
now glue the other sheet, and having turned the book, 
you put it down upon the last leaf in the same way. 
You must rub these down very carefully with the 
heel of your hand. The next operation is pasting 
down the slips. This is done by laying the book on 
the bench with the back towards you. Taking a 
little bit of paste on the forefinger of the right hand, 
placing the thumb of the left hand on the outside of 
the slip, you now rub the paste upon the inside of the 
slip, and with the thumb stick it down upon the 
book. The three on one side are treated in the same 
way; the book is turned over, and the other side 
done ditto. Now glue the back, and allow it to 
become nearly dry, taking care while gluing that 
the glue gets well in between the sheets or sections 
of the book. Now get two pieces of straw-board— 
about 21 lbs. to the board will be heavy enough—the 
size of the book. Lay them down, and glue or 
paste them, and place them evenly upon both sides 
of the book, keeping them about 1 in. from the back, 

and put the 

Bookbinding: Position of Book 
on Bench. 

the back, but do not allow it to become round. 
After the book has become sufficiently pressed, 
which will be in a few minutes, take it out 
and ask the foreman to cut out a back for it. 
He will likely give you a strip of sheep or skiver. 
You take this and pare the two long edges of it, 
paste it, and having again glued the back of the 
book, you draw the back on as tight as possible, 
allowing as much of the leather to come over on one 
side as the other. A sheet marble paper is cut in 
two, glued, and put on the sides; it is now laid 
aside to dry, after which it is cut round, and the 
book is done. This is what is called quarter-bound 
flush. Quarter-bound, cloth sides turned in, is 
not much more difficult. In this case you will want 
four sheets for end-papers, and they will likely be 
sewn on; but if they are not, glue two of them as 
before, and put them to the book as already de¬ 
scribed, and tuck the other two inside of these by 
lifting up the first leaf of each. Paste down the 
slips, and glue the back as already directed. Cut 
the fore-edge now, and round the back in this case; 
cut the ends, and sprinkle or marble the edges. Now 
cut the boards, but this time you will have to cut 
them very exact. They should be i in. longer than 
the book, and J in. less than the book in breadth. 
This will allow them to project J in. all round over 
the book; this is called the square of the board, and 
will allow J in. at the back for the joint as in the last- 
mentioned case. Put them on with paste as before, 
and press. The back that you will get to put on this 
time will be the same breadth, but about 1 in. longer. 
Pare it all round, paste it, and draw' it on, gluing 
the back. After it is drawn on, it must be turned in. 
To do this, lay the book down upon the bench in the 
position shown in sketch. Hold the fore-edge tightly 
with the left hand, and with the thumb of the right 
hand turn in the leather to the inside of the board, 
breaking the end-paper to allow the leather to go 
into the back without creasing. When the other 
side has been done, shut the book, and rub the 
leather well with the folder to make it stick to the 
back, and rub the leather well into the joint Now 
get two pieces of cloth for the sides, cut them 
evenly, glue them, and lay them up to the leather; 
rub them down with the hand, cut the corners with 
the scissors, and turn them in to the inside of the 
board. When the sides are dry, the end-papers are 
pasted up. This is easily done. Lift up one board, 
and paste the first page of the end-paper all over, 
shut the board, turn the book over and lift the other 
board, and paste the other end-paper; shut theboard, 
and put the book into the press again. When it 
is dry, it is taken out, and your work is finished. 

_Q. (J 

Shocking Coil.— A. J. S. (Edinburgh ).—Full 
illustrated descriptions of shocking coils will be 
given.—8. E. B. 

Medical Coil. —W. B. ( Manchester ).—We have 
not yet given an article in WORK on “ How to make 
a Medical Coil," but an illustrated description of one 
will be included in a series on induction coils. 
I do not know of a book giving the instructions you 
desire.—G. E. B. 

Screen.— A. O. ( Manchester). —You do not say 
what size you want to make the screen. Presuming 
the whole of the wood is to be covered, the frame¬ 
work may as well be of pine, say, lin. stuff. Set 

the wood out so that the three frames will be of 
exactly the same size. Either halve or mortice and 
tenon the joints, and if the screen is a high one it 
will be better to have a cross-rail about midway 
between the top and bottom. If you want the folds 
to move in any direction, you must use the “ double¬ 
action ” screen hinges, unless you are contented 
with canvas on webbing hinges—d la clothes-horse— 
to which I may refer you in case you do not know 
what is meant. If a simpler form of hingeing will 
suit, use ordinary butt hinges.—D. D. 

Fairy Bells to Piano Works.— Admirer.— To 
make a fairy bells is perhaps one of the simplest 
musical instruments you can make. You require 
one to accompany the piano; therefore, you must 
have it tuned in unison with the notes on the piano. 
If you will kindly glance at the sketch (Fig. 1), you 
will find that the middle C is marked thus—X. This 
is the middle or pitch C on your piano, or is the 
same note as a C tuning-fork. This is the highest 
note on your fairy bells, and is consequently the 
shortest string; the other notes follow in rotation, 
first to the right, eight notes to C, then commence 
on the next bridge at B, and tune to the left seven 
notes with the longest string, C. Over the bridges 
you will find the sizes of the wire and the number 
of notes in brackets. Fig. 2 shows the top, which 
slides in a groove; Figs. 1 and 3 show how the 
string is adjusted, and Fig. 4 shows the loop at the 
end of string. Take a large sheet of paper and make 
it like Fig. 1, and bend it at the dotted lines at 
right angles, and you will see at a glance how the 
fairy bells are made. When you are perfectly clear 
as to how it is formed, commence operations. Make 
it of f in. pine; glue the side pieces (after grooving 
for the top to slide in) to the bottom, and drive a few 
needle points in to further secure it. Now make the 
bridges of beech; these are 1 in. in height, and li in. 
wide. Glue these on after cleaning the bottom with 
glass-paper, and put three I in. screws in each bridge 

from underneath. At the bottom end there is a 
bridge made of beech, 1 in. wide and li in. thick ; 
this is rabbeted out (see Fig. 3) so that the round- 
head screws go through that the wire is looped on, 
while underneath the bottom bridge is a slip of 
beech 1 in. wide glued on ; this is a support to it, 
and prevents the liability to warp. When you have 
completed the woodwork, varnish the whole of it 
with two or three coats of white hard varnish, and 
bore holes for wrest-pins; you will need 1 oz. of 
each size wire : cost about 4d. per oz—T. E. 

Graph Composition.— A. B. C. (Wood Green).— 
Al l graph compositions are much the same in their 
ingredients, though no doubt each manufacturer 
has his own favourite receipt which he is hardly 
likely to divulge. You will therefore understand 
how it is the exact composition of the graph you 
name cannot be given. The following is, however, 
an excellent recipe, and will no doubt suit you :— 
One ounce each of crushed loaf sugar and Nelson’s 
gelatine, two ounces of sulphate of baryta, six ounces 
of glycerine, and four ounces of water. Melt the gela¬ 
tine as if it were gluein the water, and while quite hot 
add the other ingredients, taking care to mix them 
thoroughly. When this has been done, pour into a 
shallow tray. When cold, the graph is ready for 
use. The great trouble will probably be caused by 
air-bubbles in the mixture; these must be removed 
by pricking before it hardens.—D. D. 

Lantern, etc.—J. McB. (Sheffield ).— 1 That a magic 
lantern worth £30 can be made for £5 by a beginner 
is doubtful, but with care you should make one 
that will be serviceable without incurring any very 
serious outlay. A good deal, of course, will depend 
on the way in which you buy your materials, and 
the amount of assistance you require. If you get 
the assistance of a carpenter, he will naturally have 
to be paid for his time, which may or may not be an 
important item in the cost of production. As you 
do not appear to have had much experience in 
mechanical work, you will find it better to attempt 
something simpler than a biunial lantern fora com¬ 
mencement. If you are inclined for joinery, as you 
seem to be, the construction of several easily-made 
articles of furniture has been described in Work, 
and you would no doubt gain much profitable 

experience by making them. It is not easy to answer 
your second question satisfactorily, for you must 
be the best judge as to whether it is worth while to 
take lessons in carpentry to enable you to make 
things described in Work, or not. If you have 
absolutely no knowledge of your tools or their 
manipulation, you would save time in learning 
them by taking a few lessons; but most of the 
descriptions are so full and lucid, that you ought to 
experience no great difficulty in following them. 
Naturally, you must not expect your early attempts 
to result in anything very first-class. Should you 
resolve on going in for wood-working, you will find 
the articles on “Artistic Furniture" in Vol. I. well 
worthy of your study. They have been of great 
use to beginners. I am sorry to say that I do not 
know of any book on the penny whistle. For 
flageolet music, inquire of any music seller in your 
own neighbourhood.—L. I. P. 

Book on Metal Turning.— Learner.—A pply 
to Messrs. Whittaker & Co., Paternoster Square, 
London, for the book on the above subject. 

Magneto-Electric Machine.— Magtelo.—T he 
principal parts of the machine may be obtained 
from Messrs. F. C. Allsop & Co., 165, Queen Victoria 
Street, E.C.—G. E. B. 

Trap for Pigeons.— W. B. (Bridlington).— The 
commonest arrangement for your purpose is a slid¬ 
ing door, pulled by means of a string. Of course, 
this requires to be watched, which is not always 
convenient, and the arrangement shown in the 
annexed diagram may suit you better. The pigeon 
alights on the outside sill, a, and enters the cot; in 
doing so, it has to pass the flap, b, which is made of 
light wicker-work, hinged at c with a piece of tape, 

and forms no hindrance , . 

to entrance; but, once in, 
the bird cannot get out 
again, as the flap will not 
yield to pushing from the 
inside. I lately saw a 
dovecot with every hole 
fitted with this arrange¬ 
ment, which the owner 
said worked well. In this 
case there were catches Tran for Pio-oono 
by means of which the p 10 ge ' 

wicker flaps could be kept up out of the way, if 
so desired. I may advise you in trapping pigeons 
to be careful not to get hold of anyone else's birds, 
or you may get into serious trouble.—G. le B. 

Bariquand Distance Register. — Kilome- 
triques.—I cannot glean any particulars respecting 
this make of distance register, but suppose from the 
exterior appearance of the engravings that it does; 
not differ materially from others of its class. A train 
of wheels inside the instrument causes a set of discs 
to revolve before the openings in the sides or top 
of the case. These discs have numbers printed or 
stamped upon them from 1 to 0, and are speeded in 
the following manner:—The first disc records single 
revolutions of the actuating wheel up to 10. One 
revolution of this disc moves the second disc for¬ 
ward one notch, and this registers 10. When the 
second disc has made one revolution it moves a 
third forward one notch, and the three together 
then register 100. In this way any number of discs 
may be actuated. The actuating wheel is fixed in 
the nozzle shown at the side of the instrument, and 
this is moved by the wheel of the vehicle. The 
action is much like that of a gas-meter.—G. E. B. 

Current from Shunt-Wound Dynamos— 
C. N. ( London , S.E.).— Taking up your line of 
reasoning, suppose we have a shunt machine 
capable of running 200 incandescent lamps of IS 
c.p. The total output of the machine would pro¬ 
bably be 11,200 watts. The maker of the machine 
would design it to give this output at a certain 
pressure, and would wind the fields with wire 
having a resistance calculated to balance the likely 
resistance in the lamp circuit. Whilst this re¬ 
sistance is maintained, a sufficient portion of the 
current will pass through the coils of the field 
magnets to magnetise them. If the resistance fe 
lowered, an insufficient portion of thj current will 
pass through the field magnet coils. If the resistance 
is raised, as by taking off part of the lamps, a larger 
portion of the current will go around the fields, 
and this will raise the e.m.f. of the current; but 
this cannot harm the lamps, because they resist 
the passage of current quantity (as expressed in 
ampbres), and it is this more than e.m.f. that will 
destroy their filaments. Fusible cut-outs are in¬ 
serted in lamp circuits to guard the lamps from 
accidental over-rushes of current.—G. E. B. 

Wheels for Back-Gear.— R. T. (Paisley).— 
A wheel of 5i in. diameter and 60 teeth is not of tlie 
same pitch as a pinion of 2 in. diameter and 20 
teeth; therefore, the wheels will not work together. 
Test this by dividing the number of teeth in each 
by the diameter: 


f - “Pitch; f= 2 \-=^ = lU Pitch. 

These are what is called the diametral pitches of the 
wheels—that is, the number of teeth for each inch of 
diameter. If the pitch, measured round the circum¬ 
ference, be the same in both wheels (as, of course, it 
must be if the wheels are to work together), then 
there must also be the same number of teeth to each 
inch in the diameter of both ; whereas, in the case 
of the pinion there are 10, and in the wheel 11|. I find 
the detailed description of a 4 in. lathe in numbers 
1121, 1123, 1125, 1128 of the English Mechanic ; if you 

Work—March 28, 1891.] 



obtain these four, you will have just what you re¬ 
quire, including drawing and description of the nut 
for clamping the pulley to large gear wheel. I 
dislike this plan for a small lathe, and prefer to have 
a nut on the mandrel to the left of the small gear 
wheel, by means of which the pulley can be firmly 
screwed against the large gear wheel; you make a 
narrow cone fitting at the rims of both, and between 
their bosses on the mandrel you can place a spring 
washer to keep the rims apart when revolving 
separately. This requires no balancing, as the other 
does ; it allows you to turn the inside of the pulley 
to equalise the weight all round ; there is no loose¬ 
ness or rattle, and the front of the large gear wheel 
is left free to be drilled as a division-plate. The 
following wheels are suitable:—Wheels, 54 teeth, 
diameter, 5|- in. bare : pinions, 18 teeth, diameter, 
lj in. ; pitch on pitch line, & in.; distance between 
centres, 3{j in.—E. A. M. 

Dividing the Circle.— Mechanic.— You pro¬ 
pose to mark a plate off with dividers, and then 
centre-punch and drill; but remember your drill 
may “run,” and not continue exactly on the spot 
where you first placed it. Dividing the circle is a 
very interesting subject, and many dilferent plans 
have been adopted for doing the work accurately. 
If you have not already done so, I think you should 
read the papers in Work, Nos. 10 and 11 of Yol. I., 
on pages 153 and 213. In the American Machinist 
of September 25th, 1890, is an extremely accurate 
method of originating a division-plate, but it is too 
long to describe in the “ Shop ” columns of Work. 
Another plan is described in the Scientific 
American of March 8th, 1890, and of this I will 
try to give you an idea. Suppose you wish for a circle 
of 210 holes on a 10 in. circle : diameter being 10 in., 
the circumference will be 3T116 in., and the holes 
will be 0T309 of an inch apart. Take a little block 
of steel about 1 in. wide, | in. thick, and 1£ in. long, 
and file it so that its cross section will form a c 
(see Figs. 1 and 2); drill the two holes a and b 0 1309 
in. apart, and fit a steel pin, c (Fig. 1), into one of 
them. Now obtain a strip of spring brass, say 
in. thick, J in. wide, and about 30 in. long, one side 
of which must be fairly straight; lay the end of 
this in the angle of the L piece, and, running the 
drill through one of the holes', bore it through. 
Now you can pass the drilled hole over the peg, 
run the drill through the 
other hole, and drill an 
other; by keeping the 
edge of the brass close 
to the fillet on the L- 
piece, you get the holes 
parallel with the edge; 
continue drilling till you 
have made in the brass 
strip 211 holes, one more 
than the required number; thus you will have the 
holes equally spaced, and you can spring the band 
into a circle and put a peg through the first and last 
hole. To solder it in that position, we may chamfer 
the ends, and keep the peg in till the solder is set. 
Now you have probably guessed that we have only 
to turn a disc of wood so that the band of brass 
can be pushed on tight, and fixed with a few small 
screws, to get a pattern divided circle, from which 
our first row of 210 holes can be drilled. To drill 
any less number of holes for the other rows, cut 
the same band shorter, and use it again by turning 
down the wooden disc. You will, of course, have 
to mount your plate so that it will have to turn 
with the drilled band, and arrange a driller to act 
upon the plate while an index peg is dropped into 
the several holes. I say nothing about the form 
of the drill, shape of peg, size of holes, etc., 
because all that is treated at length in No. 10 of 
Work.— F. A. M. 

Dulcimer Wire.— Demented.— Yon can procure 
the wire necessary for stringing your dulcimer of 
Messrs. Cliilvers & Co., St. Stephen’s, Norwich 
(see page 615, Vol. I.). Steel wire will not do for 
the lower notes, as it is not heavy enough for the 
purpose — R. F. 

Piano Wrest-Pins.— J. H. (tVednesbury).— You 
should examine the wrest-plank or block as you 
name it, and see if it is sound and not split. If it is 
split, it will require to be renewed. If it is sound, 
you might try a little powdered resin in the hole 
where the pin is placed ; if it is not very loose, this 
sometimes makes them grip if there is any grease 
that has found its way on the pin. But you should 
look at the bottom of the piano also, and see if there 
is anything pulling away. If they are very loose, and 
the wrest-plank is sound, procure a larger pin. —T. E. 

Musical Box.— G. F. (Walsall). —In reply I shall 
be most happy to supply all additional information 
required, but I do not write to bring grist to my 
shop, assomedo in a contemporary journal-such as 
engine models (the parts), telescopes and micro¬ 
scopes, etc., then otter the parts to fit up for sale. 
Wheels you can get cut to order, also main-springs, 
fans, etc., at any watch and clock material shop--of 
Cohen, Leeds; Barton, Liverpool; or Nicholson or 
Reid, Liverpool. But for a new comb or barrel 
you will have to send number of box to maker in 
Switzerland or Germany, as the case may he, 
choosing your tunes. Cost about 30s., and carriage 
for either comb or barrel. I am glad you are pleased 
with Work— so am I. I am at present over three 
thousand miles away, hence delay in reply.—J. S. 

Praver Desk and Chair Combined. — F. U. 
{Hereford).— Your query for “a prayer desk and 
chair combined,” certainly speaks ot' a good idea 
for something truly useful for the purposes 
required of it. It is a common mistake with 

some men that the possession of an idea is the 
completion of an invention. I have discarded 
many stray ideas indeed lately, simply because in 
putting them to practical test they were found to be 
unworkable in some respects. I mention this 
because some would have inserted in their letters 
such phrases as “ this is my own idea,” “ I am sure 
the world will benefit,” which you happily have 
refrained from doing. Only lately a trade acquaint- 

Eg. 6. Eg. 7. Kg. 8. 

Prayer Desk and Chair combined. Pig. 1—Chair, 
showing Desk adjusted. Fig. 2.—Halt of Back, 
with Desk closed. Figs. 3 and 4.—Sections 
of Desk down and up respectively. Fig. 5.— 
How to unite Seat to Leg Blocks. Figs. 6 
and 7.—How to join Back and Back Feet. 
Fig. 8.—Back Edge of Seat. Letters show 
correspondence of Parts. 

ance of mine was struck with an “idea.” He com¬ 
missioned me to work it out for him. His method, 
as was satisfactorily explained to him, was com¬ 
plicated and unworkable. After a few hours’ hard 
study, I arrived at a very simple result—the sim¬ 
plest results nearly always require the hardest 
forethought—and it was acknowledged by him to 
be very useful for its purpose. A few days after¬ 
wards, however, I called upon him and found him 
very exasperated. Down in a lower corner, in very 
small letters, I had humbly inserted my name. Now, 
although his name was attached in very large 
characters as the intended manufacturer of the 
article, he was annoyed to think that he could not 
claim the whole honour of the invention, which he 
as good as told me he desired to do. He may, or 
may not, have worked the “ idea” out without my 
assistance, but he was one of many of the kind who 
are greedy of things mental as well as material. 
You say you want something “ wherein the back of 
the chair could be made to form the prayer desk 
whilst the seat would be used for kneeling upon." 
I am afraid it would be difiicult to have a chair of 
ordinary height to answer the purpose if you wish 
to kneel upon the seat. This one could be made 
use of comfortably and conveniently if you kneel 
in front of it, resting your arms upon the seat. 

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 

I presume this is what you mean ; and I 
also suppose you want something with an 
ecclesiastical appearance. You could insert the 
desk part into a bought chair. The pattern is 
optional. If, however, you wish to make it com¬ 
pletely yourself, have the seat 15 in. in front and 
14 in. at back, 15 in. long, and 18 in. from the floor. 
Join the legs and back feet together by means of a 
narrow framing. Dowel the seat to the leg blocks 
as in Fig. 5. The back might be in one piece, con¬ 
nected to the back feet as in Figs. 6 and 7, so that a 
groove is left for the insertion of the back edge of 
seat, which should be shaped as in Fig. 8. The back 
can be from 16 in. to 18 in. high. Side sections of 
desk part are shown in Figs. 3 and 4; A and B will 
not be wanted very thick. You will see how they 
are hinged. If made as shown, all will lay quite 
fiat when so desired, and can be instantly adjusted 
by drawing out the bottom end of A ; that end of B 
which is at the top part of Fig. 3 falling down as in 
Fig. 4. To close it, push b upwards. For appear¬ 
ance’ sake, have a moulding on the end of B which 
shows in front of chair. This will also be found 
very handy for keeping the leaves of the book 
down. You must have b long enough to allow it to 
project a little beyond the bottom edge of a as in 
Fig. 4. It must not fit too tightly, otherwise you 
will not be able to get it out of chair back. It is 
really a pity that correspondents will not give 
fuller particulars. I have presumed you are a 
member of some congregation ; but it may chance 
that you are a leader or preacher. In the former 
case, this will suit you ; in the latter, it will not be 
found so useful. If, however, you do not think this 
will suit, write again, stating, as all should do, 
everything that bears upon the subject.—J. S. 

Hammered Metal.— A. G. (Hanley).— Copies of 
the Milton shield are allowed to be sold in plaster, 
or in any other material, as the original is national 
property, placed in South Kensington Museum for 
the benefit of the nation at large. I have not heard 
of the antique head of Medusa being produced in 
plaster. If I were doing the job, I should purchase 

Sutherland and Campbell Crests. 

the bead, and when done with, have it gilt, and try 
to dispose of it ; you would then probably not be 
out of pocket by the transaction. • I send rough 
sketches of the “Sutherland” and “Campbell” 
crests; could you not model from these? You 
would probably find it very difficult to obtain them 
either in metal or plaster of a suitable size for your 
work.—F. R. H. 

TEalian Harp. — Aquilus. — In tuning the 
harp the notes must be in perfect xinison, not a 
shade difference either sharper or flatter. The 
exact note to which to tune it depends in a great 
measure upon the length of the string, but the best 
results are obtained from a low tension. For in¬ 
stance, if Aquilus makes his barn 32 in. in length 
over all, which is the usual length, then the 
vibrating length of the string between bridges 
would be about 26 in., and this might be tuned to 
the note C, the third C counting from the bottom of 
the piano. The higher the tension—that is to say, 
the tighter the strings are—the stronger the current 
of air necessary to set them in vibration —R. F. 

Water Delivery.— Trying.— There can be no 
reliable table, as the loss by friction varies with the 
length of pipe, but you will find it quite easy to cal¬ 
culate from the following formula 

G = number of gallons deliveied per hour. 

L = length of pipe, in yards. 

H = head of water, in feet. 

D = diameter of pipe, in inches. 

/ (15 D) 5 H 
= V ■ E 

The above is known as Hawksley’s formula, and 
you will find it most correct.—T. \V. 

Time Alarum.— A. F. S. (Stamford).— Respect¬ 
ing the simple time alarum described by H. F. S. 
on page 699, Vol. II., a small electric bell quite good 
enough for the purpose may be bought for 4s. 6d., 
and this may be rung with current from a two- 
celled No. 2 Leclanchb battery, costing from 3s. to 
4s. more. These can be obtained from any dealer in 
electrical materials. Perhaps a local ironmonger 
will get them for you. The end of the switch-bar 
may be left uncovered, or the noise may be deadened 
with a bit of leather if you object to it.—G. E. B. 

Dynamos. —J. P. (Colne). —The illustrations in 
my articles on “Model Electric Lights” are not 
drawn to scale; but in the illustrations of dynamos, 
the parts are shown proportionate. I have not 
attempted to show how the castings are made, 
because these are sold at a low rate by dealers, 
and it will not pay an amateur to make them. An 
amateur buying a set of castings need only know 
the particulars set down in the tables I give of 
their sizes. He need not know the dimensions 

Shop, etc. 

[Work—March 28, 189L 

of the pole-pieoes, nor the thickness of the web of 
the armature, as he will not have to make these 
parts. As a general rule, a dynamo will only 
give out half its designed current when driven at 
half speed. Double cotton-covered copper wire 
averages 2s. per lb. up to No. 22. Finer sizes com¬ 
mand higher prices, and these may vary with 
vendors and districts.—G. E. B. 

Battery Carbons and. Zincs.— J. P. (Colne).— 
Select the carbon plates of a size to go easily into 
the jars, with quite | in. space between the edges of 
plates and sides of jars. The plates should be i in. 
in thickness, and as long as the jars are tall. They 
may be obtained from dealers in electrical goods 
at prices varying from §d. to Id. per square inch. 
The zinc should be not less than J in. in thickness. 
The plates may be as wide as the carbon plates, but 
should be i in. shorter—that is, the bottoms of the 
carbon plates may well hang down g in. below the 
bottoms of the zinc plates. If your ^ in. zincs are 
good and well amalgamated, they may be used in a 
chromic-acid battery, but will not last so long as 
plates made of thicker zinc.—G. E. B. 

IV.— Questions Answered by Correspondents. 

Paper for Screen. — J. M. (London, S. TV.) 
writes, in answer to Screen (see page 765, Vol. II.):— 
“ I obtained a most suitable paper for the purpose at 
a much reduced rate from a wall-paper warehouse, 
the pattern of which had gone out of date, and have 
no doubt Screen would be able to do the same if he 
asked for an old paper, and gave the purpose for 
which he wanted it. Japanese paper is much too 

Pig-Scalding Tub. — Hammer and Driver 
writes, in reply to J. G. (Hull) (see page 782, 
Vol. II.):—“If J. G. is not a cooper, I would advise 
him not to try his hand on a large oval tub, for 
there are hundreds of coopers that would fail in 
the attempt. The tools required are heavy and 
expensive, and of little service, except for cooper¬ 
ing. Probably a bark or square would answer his 
purpose, and at the same time be much easier of 
construction. If so, he will find 6ft. 6in. by 2 ft. 6in., 
and 2 ft. 4 in. deep, a nice size, inside measurement. 
It can be made of best red deal, free from shakes, 
sap, and dead knots, and must be dry. The nar¬ 
rower the boards, the longer it will last, boiling 
water having a tendency to warp deal. It should be 
bolted with iron holts throughout, and the sides 
should overlap the ends about 3 in., and the ends be 
shouldered into the sides about h in. Make carcase 
first, being very particular as to joints being square 
and dead, and rush the joints from end to end. 
Rushes suitable may be had from any cooperage. 
They should be opened by inserting thumb-nail 
and drawing rush along, and spread out as flat as 
possible, but he must not grease them, as stated in 
a back number of Work. Screw each part well 
together, levelling the joints with a piece of wood 
and heavy hammer as he proceeds. When carcase 
is together, he must be sure and true the bottom 
edges, for herein lies the making a good job. He 
should next make the bottom, allowing 1 in. over 
outer measurements; firmly bolt together, and true 
the side—that will be inside of bark; rush the 
bottom edges of carcase, and bolt bottom on to it; 
three pieces of scantling crosswise on bottom will 
lift bark of ground, and lend to its stability. A plug 
should be fitted as near to bottom as possible to 
empty, and his job will be complete. Being no 
draughtsman, I hope the above is sufficiently clear 
to J. G. without sketch, f in. bolts will be strong 
enough if a square does not suit him, and if he 
feels disposed to try and make an oak tub, and will 
repeat his question, I will endeavour to describe the 
making of an oak oval tub or kinmel.” 

Hand-Power Circular Saw.— W. G. (Southport) 
writes, in reply to S. P. ( Penarth))(see page 782, Vol. 
II. :— “ As a regular user of a circular saw, I would 
advise S. p. to abandon the idea of being able to cut 
5 in. stuff on a circular saw bench, driven simply by 
manual power. My saw bench is driven by a £ h.p. 
gas-engine, but even with the saw in the best of 
trim, it is very slow tedious work, cutting stuff 
3 in. thick. If neither steam, gas, or water-power 
is available, S. P. would find a bench such as he 
wishes to make a disappointment.” 

Soldering.—B. T. W. (Leeds) writes, in reply to 
Northerner (see page 734, Vol. H.):— “North¬ 
erner should make his hard solder of two parts 
sterling silver, one part pin-brass or brass wire, 
taking care to keep his brass under weight. Melt 
on a piece of charcoal, drop on his work-board 
whilst hot, and flatten with iron stake. To make 
it thin for using in small pieces, I have found from 
experience that solders should not be rolled. 
Northerner is trying rather a particular job when 
he goes in for soldering Geneva bezels, as most of 
them are little better than 9-carat, and as thin as 
tissue-paper. The best way is to spring the broken 
parts together—not bind it at all. Use borax iu 
lump, rubbed on a bit of slate wetted with water, 
and use sparingly on part to be soldered only. The 
secret of hard soldering is knowing what heat the 
article will stand before melting, and that can only 
be qome at by experience.” 

Curing Skins. —W. N. (Tottington) writes, in 
reply to Idem Sonantia (see page 634, Vol. II.) 
“First see that the skin is fresh; put it into cold 
water for twenty-four hours; and if it is full of 
blood, put i pint of salt in. Then take out and 
flesh it—that means, take the inside skin oft' 
altogether—not fat, altogether, for there is a second 
ekin to all skins which must come off, or you cannot 

cure it to be soft. When this is done, for rabbit or 
hare or cat skins, take J lb. alum and 4 lb. salt, and 
boil in one quart of water; then let it cool down 
until lukewarm. Into this put your skin—for a 
small skin six hours is long enough—then take out 
and hang up to dry, and as it dries take it down 
and keep ratching it all round, and you will come 
at it iu time.” 

H.P. Formula. — Brass writes, in reply to 
Puzzled (see page 718, Vol. II.)“I do not see 
how you get vour formula to work out to about 
200 h.p. I make it come over 1,000 h.p. ; but this 
is due to an error in your formula. You have 
omitted, in your formula, to take into account, that 
the stroke should be calculated in feet, not in 
inches. Units of work are calculated in feet, and 
to do this in your formula '75 would have to be 
substituted for the 9 in. in the numerator, or T2 
have to be multiplied into the denominator, thus :— 

2 x 78'54 x 9 x 80 x 350 ... ,, 

-—-3 3 0 U0 x ~ i2 -= 99 96, bringing the h.p. 

down to 99'96. There is still a great difference 
between the brake h.p. and the h.p. as above. 
How this is to be accounted for is hard to say, but 
is the 80 lb. pressure the pressure in the boiler or 
the mean pressure in the cylinders'? If it is the 
pressure in the boiler, then the mean pressure in 
the cylinders would probably not be more than 
50 lbs.; but it is useless guessing at it. The only 
way to get the correct mean pressure is to have the 
engine indicated (the process of which a very good 
description was given in ‘ Shop’ a few months ago). 
If 80 lbs. is the mean pressure, then, as the song says, 
‘ there’s something gone wrong with the works,’ or 
the brake test is not correct. The indicated h.p. 
will always be greater than the brake h.p., and the 
ratio between the two is called the ‘modulus,’ or 
the efficiency of the machine. The one may be 
termed the gross power and the other the net 
power, the difference between them being due to 
friction, leakage, or other causes.” 

Paint for Tickets.— J. H. (Monkwearmouth) 
writes, in reply to A. J. S. (Moseley) (see page 601, 
Vol. 11.):—“ If A. J. S. intends going in for tin ticket 
writing, he will do well to try the following plan :— 
After getting the tins ready, give them a coat of 
‘medal brand ’ or ‘Foochow’ enamel. I have not 
tried the latter, but the ‘medal’ I always use 
myself for white tickets; they require two or more 
coats of enamel. A white ticket, black figure, and 
French grey shading, with a black line round outside 
edge, is the best. A dark ticket with white enamel 
figures never looks ■well. The best job is always the 
white ticket and black figures. Tin tickets, as a 
rule, do not pay, as tradesmen will not give a proper 
price for them. We do as few as possible of them. 
If A. J. S. wants any more information, I will tell 
him to the best of my ability. I send a specimen 
ticket to the Editor done with the enamels. The 
above makes a better job of them than dipping 
them in varnish colour, and letting them drain. 
Will any of the numerous readers oblige me with 
instructions for making a machine for cutting card¬ 
board? as cutting it on a table hacks the table top 
all to pieces.” 

Transparleum.— L. E. (London, E.C.) writes, 
re inquiry by C. E. H. (Horwich) (see page 734, 
Vol. II.) in Work about “Photography”:—“Your 
correspondent probably means ‘ Transparleum.’ 
The method is as follows :—Paste the photo (un¬ 
mounted) on the concave side of a crystoleum 
glass: rub it down with sand-paper on the back 
till all the paper is removed, but without scratch¬ 
ing the film that bears the photo; cover this film 
remaining on the glass with spermaceti wax, 
evenly rubbed on, and then paint with oil-colours. 
The background, flesh tint, hair, etc., should be 
painted on another glass, which is then placed over 
the first, and the two joined together at the edges 
by strips of paper. Do not forget that all the work 
is done on the concave side of the glasses.” 

Plate Rack.—C. B. ( Tonbridge) writes “ On 
seeing your answer to J. N. ( Erith ), No. 102, page 
812, regarding rods for plate rack, I venture to 
think a plan of mine may prove acceptable to some 
of your correspondents. Instead of using wood 
rods, which are apt to rot, I tried bamboo canes, 
usually sold for flower stakes; they are about 4 ft. 
long, and cost about 2s. 6d. per hundred, and I have 
found the plan most successful.” 

Violin Materials.—M. (Bishop Auckland) writes, ! 
in reply to J. E. ( Chatham ) (see page 814, Vol. II.):— J 
“You can obtain violin materials and tools from j 
Mr. Hill, 72, Wardour Street, W. I believe there is 
a book on the subject, published by Messrs. Ward ! 
and Lock.” 

V.—Brief Acknowledgments. 

Questions have been received from the following correspon- 
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is great pressure:— A. K. (Edinburgh ); An Ardent Reader ; 
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(Glasomc); Ambidextf.r; J. M. (Manchester); Hoop-Bender ; 
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(Rath); E. D. S. (Rye ); J. W. M (Halifax); J. D. (Holyhead); 
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Price 3d.; post free, 4Ui. 

“ ~V\T ORK ” 


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Working Model of Steam Fire Engine. 

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Protected Exhibits under Certificate of Board of 

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Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P. : His Services to 
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Our Exhibits and Exhibitors. 

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Twelve Full- Size Fretwork Designs, 7d. and 
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Work—March 28, 1891.] 

Ad vertisements. 

3 i 

1,200 2s. 6 cL Books oi 

at 6d. each. These Books, 


J H SKINNER & Co having Dissolved Far *'» my, offering their Enormous Stock, including 250,000 FRETWORK 

• PATTERNS and 100,000 ft. of -«=ci:U and Three-Ply FRET WOOD, Veneers, &c.; 1,000 Gross of FRETSAWS, besides 
an immense quantity of TOOLS, OUTFITS, &c., as a special inducement to their customers to order at once. 

4,500 Is. Books Of Fretwork Patterns, each containing Twelve Large Sheets, beautifully lithographed, none of which would be sold 
retail at less than 2d., and many at 3d. and 4d. each ; also 

~ Fretwork Patterns, containing Twenty Sheets, 19 in. x 12 in., of new designs, many of which would retail 

JS375 in Value, will be GIVEN AWAY. 

Amateur customers ordering 5s. worth of designs from Catalogue will be presented with one of the above is. Eooks. Those ordering 10s. worth 
will receive a 2s. 6d. Book. 

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to ios., and 15 per Cent, on orders amounting to 20s. and upwards. Note. — 'This reduction does not apply to Treadle Machines. * 


Complete Fretwork: Outfit, comprising 12-inch Steel Frame, Forty-eight Saws, Awl, File, Four Designs (with sufficient Planed Wood and is. Handbook on 
Fretwork). A.u Archimedian Drill, with brass handle and Three Bits, will be SENT GRATIS with each Set. Post free for 3s. 6d. Outfits on Card, is. 6d. anci 
is. 9T, post free. 6 ft. 2nd quality assorted planed Fretwood, is. 9d. ; post free, 2s. 6d. 12 ft. ditto, ditto. 3s. ; post free, 4s. 3d. 

SKATES !!!—EVERY PAIR WARRANTED.—Sizes, 74 in. to 12 in. No. 1, Unpolished Beech, rod. per pair. No. 2, Polished Beech, is. 6d. per pair. No. 5, 
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with strap complete, is. gd. per pair ; postage, sd.per pair. These are not rubbish ; we warrant every pair. 

NEW CATALOGUES of Machines, Designs, Wood, Tools, etc., with 600 Illustrations and full instructions for Fret-cutting, Polishing, and Varnishing, price 4±, 
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a few minutes a delicious Tera- 
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For one day per week, one guinea ; two days, two guineas ; 
three days, two and a half guineas. 

Evening Classes— Mondays and Wednesdays from 7 till 
p o’clock. Instructor—-G. J. Bull, Member of the British 
Institute of Wood Carvers. Fees for the term—one even¬ 
ing per week, ios. 6d.; two, i8s„ 6d. 

Easter Term begins Friday, April 17, for Day Classes, 
and Monday, April 20, for Evening Classes, the Term- 
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the day students, and the same repeated for evening 

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["Work—March 2S, 1891. 


Are universally admitted to be worth a Guinea a Box for Bilious and 
Nervous Disorders, such as Wind and Pain in the Stomach, Sick 
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ness of Breath, Costiveness, Scurvy and Blotches on the Skin, Disturbed 
Sleep, and all Nervous and Trembling Sensations, &c. &c. The first 
dose will give relief in twenty minutes. This is no fiction, for they 
have done it in countless cases. Every sufferer is earnestly invited to 
try one Box of these Pills, and they will be acknowledged to be 

Worth a Chim©& a* Bgz. 


“A priceless boon, a treasure more than wealth; the banisher of pain, the key to health.” 

These are FACTS testified continually by members of all classes of society, and one of the best guarantees to the nervous and debilitated is, 

BEECIIA3PS PILLS have the Largest Sale of any Patent Medicine 

in the World, 

Prepared only by the Proprietor, T. Beech am, St. Helen’s, Lancashire, in Boxes g^d., is. i|d., and 2s. gd. each. Sold by all Druggists and Patent Medicine 

Dealers everywhere. N.B.—Full Directions are given with each Box. 


Marvellous Purifier — Matchless Preserver — Pure Antiseptic. 


“The Household Treasure” Borax, 

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Packets, Gd., 3d., and Id. each. 

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PATE1T BORAX CO., Sole Makers. Works: 



Invaluable as a 
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Indispensable for Enriching Gravies, 
preparing Soups, Entrees, &c. 

Pure, Palatable, 
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London Warehouse: 124, NEWGATE STREET. 

Carving and Fret Sawing for Pleasure or Profit, 


The enormous sale and general satisfaction 

which our goods have given to Fretworkers, &c., in all pans 
of the world enables us for the present season to offer goods 

Our Stocks of Patterns, &c., probably being much the 
largest in this country, we are able to suit all tastes, and to 
send by return of post, 


At 1/3, 2/6, 3/6, and 5/6 each, post free. 

Parcels of Assorted Fretwork, io feet . 4s. free. 

12 Finely Lithographed full-sized Patterns ... is. ,, 
Sets of 12 Carving Tools ... ... ••• ••• 10s. ,, 

None should buy elsewhere before seeing our New 
Catalogue of all Requisites, with instructions. Acknow¬ 
ledged the most Complete and Cheapest List of Fret 
Goods published. Free for 6 Stamps. 

Catalogue of Tools for Picture Framing, Brass, and 
Leather Work, FREE. 

HAUGER BUGS., Settle, Yorks. 


■pRETWORKERS who appreciate First-class 
Designs should write tor our Catalogue of 
nearly 400 Patterns, admitted to be the 
best m the Trade. Catalogue sent post free 
on receipt of 4 d., stamps. List of Tools and 
Materials is also enclosed. 



Prevents and relieves INDI¬ 

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PURIFIES the BODY, imparting 
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exhausted vitality. 


LTEUT.-COL. HUGH BAMBER, 40 , Hanley Square, Margate, says:— “I have now used 
the SALT REGAL tor two years. I have much pleasure in stating that I have found it the most 
agreeable in taste of all Salines, and a certain cure for bilious headache and furred tongue, from what¬ 
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2 s. 9 d., of all Chemists and Stores, or by Post from the MANAGER, SALT REGAL WORKS, LIVERPOOL 

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Printed and Published by Cassell & Company, Limited, La Belle Sauvage, London, E.C. 


fAn 3llustratei) illagagine of practice aniJ ®l)eorD 


[All Rights reserved .] 

Vol. III.—No. 107.] SATURDAY, APRIL 4, 1891. [Price One Penny. 

A. A. Wheels, 30 in. diameter 

B. Main Backbone Tube. 

C. Upper Strut Tube. 

D. Central or Seat Tube. 

E. Tubes from Rear Hub to Bottom 


F. Tubes fiom Rear Hub to Seat Tube. 

G. Steering Post. 

J. Steering BarreL 

H. Handle Bar T-Piece. 

I. Handle Bar. 

M. Brake Work. 

N. Lamp Bracket. 

O. Seat L-Pin. 

P. Saddle and Spring. 

Q. Mud-Guards. 

R. Mud-Guard Stays. 

S. Bottom Bracket. 

T. Foot-Rests. 

Fig. 1.— Diamond Frame Safety Bicycle. (One-tenth full size.) 


BY A. S. P. 

Introduction—Design and Parts—Materials— 
Wheel Hubs—Spokes, etc.—Solid Parts— 
Parts that may be Purchased—Speed- 
Rule for Gear-up — Necessary Tools — 
— Screwing Tackle — Ratchet Brace — 
Smaller Tools—Home-made Tools—Lathe 
Chucks, Gauges, etc. 

Introduction. —It is proposed in a series of 
papers to describe the practical construction 
of the pedo-motive machine now well known 
as the “ Safety Bicycle.” 

It may be inquired in the outset, Whence 
the name safety bicycle 1 for there is no 
bicycle—or tricycle either, for that matter— 
absolutely safe. The bicycle so called is 
only safe by comparison with that known as 
the “ ordinary,” and in that comparison it is 
certainly very much safer; but an absolute 
safety bicycle is not yet in existence, nor is 
it ever likely to appear. However, the name 
has become conventional, and we must stick 
to it in describing what we call the “ Dia¬ 
mond Frame Safety Bicycle.” 

It is a curious fact that the original 
bicycle, with its wooden wheels and iron 
tyres, bore a striking resemblance to the 
modern safety : it had nearly equal wheels, 
from 30 in. to 36 in., connected by a back¬ 
bone and fork similar to the modern cross 
frame; it was driven with cranks on the 
front wheel, and was not geared up; whereas 
the modern safety is usually driven by cranks 
and chain from the rear wheel, and may be 
geared up to any extent. 

Design and Parts. —I propose describing 
a machine of my own design and make, and 
while the frame bears a general resemblance 
to many, it is different from any known to 
me. A reference to the accompanying 
drawing of the complete machine will show 
this, and that the frame exactly as it is 
shown is “not to be found in any of the 
books.” There are several details which I 
claim as good things, and which will be 
described in due course. The drawing of 
the machine here shown—which I may say, 
for convenience of illustration, is one-tenth 
full size, or on a scale of li in., or 1'2 in. 
to 1 ft.—will be frequently referred to in 
future papers. The reader, therefore, who 
essays to construct his bicycle from the 

instructions given in this series would do 
well to keep the part of Work containing 
the drawing at hand, or make an enlarged 
drawing from it, or, better still, a full-size 
working drawing on a board about 4 ft. 6 in. 
by 3 ft. 6 in., and lettered or figured for 
reference. In the drawing Fig. 1 the various 
parts of the diamond frame safety are as 
follows :— a, a, two wheels : in this case 
30 in. diameter; b, main backbone tube; 
c, upper strut tube; d, central or seat 
tube; e, two tubes, one on either side, 
from rear hub to bottom bracket; F, two 
tubes, one on either side from rear hub, 
joining seat tube d at junction of upper 
tube c; G, steering post joined to the crown 
of the front fork h ; j, steering barrel, either 
fitted plain on to the steering post g or 
having balls at both ends—in this machine 
it will be shown in detail fitted u'ith cone 
surfaces; to this barrel are attached the 
two tubes B and c ; K, handle bar T-piece, 
made to adjust by sliding freely in the 
steering tube G ; L, handle bar, with horn 
handles ; M, brake work, consisting of lever 
under handle bar, spoon immediately over 
the wheel tyre, and connecting tube and 
rod; N, lamp bracket; o, seat L-pin ; p, 


The Safety Bicycle: its Practtcal Construction, etc . [work—A P ni 4 ,issi. 

saddle and spring; q, mud-guards ; r, mud¬ 
guard stays; s, bottom bracket, which carries 
the driving shaft, chain wheel, and cranks ; 
to this bracket is attached the tube b, and 
also the two tubes e ; t, foot-rests, one on 
either side of the front fork. 

Materials. —Having named the principal 
parts of our machine—for it will hardly be 
credited that in a machine of this sort there 
are over 320 parts, counting the chain as 
one part—we may now turn our attention 
to the materials of which these parts are 

Wheel Hubs. —The wheel hubs are gun- 
metal, having steel caps fitted in the ends 
where the balls run. The pins, or axles 
passing through these hubs, are steel, and 
are fitted with hollow cones. These cones 
and the caps, together with the balls, are all 
made very hard, so as to stand wear. 

Spokes , etc. —The spokes are of best steel 
wire, specially made for this purpose. The 
wheel rims are crescent steel or hollow 
steel, as the case may be. Rubbers best 
red or grey. 

Solid Parts. —The solid parts, such as 
bottom bracket s, steering barrel j, and c, 
are steel stampings or malleable castings. 
The L-pin o is a bit of round steel bar f in. 
thick. AH the tubes are weldless steel, 
18 Birmingham wire gauge. The mud-guards 
are made from light sheet steel rolled to size 
of wheels, and hollow in section. The mud¬ 
guard stays are light rods, either round or 
Sat, as may be preferred. The front fork 
is hollow weldless steel tapered and curved 
at lower ends, and joined to a crown piece 
at their upper ends. 

Parts that may be purchased. — The 
following parts are usually purchased ready 
made from makers or dealers:—Hubs, to 
be bought bored, tapped for spokes, and 
plated; cranks and pedals, finished and 
plated ; chain in lengths ; saddle and spring, 
or both in combination; horn handles; 
rubbers for tyres, pedals, and foot-rests. 
Then the accessories are lamp, tool-bag, 
spanners, oil-can, etc. 

It may be mentioned that hubs can be 
bought in the rough, and fitted up by the 
mechanic himself ; and the same with bot¬ 
tom brackets, pedals, cranks, etc. 

Speed. —It is a puzzle to many non-me¬ 
chanical minds how the safety bicycle, with 
its small wheels, usually 30 inches, can be so 
speedy as the large-wheeled ordinary, for it 
is a fact that many people cannot be made to 
understand how the chain in combination 
with two different size wheels has the pro¬ 
perty of gearing up the small wheel to equal 
its big brother of the ordinary. Of course, 
anyone with but a small modicum of 
mechanical brain can see it. It is also a 
fact that thousands of riders of the safety 
can tell you what their own machine is geared 
up to, because the agent or maker told them, 
but they cannot by rule of arithmetic demon¬ 
strate for themselves the gear-up of their 
machine. The rule is a very simple one, 
as will be seen presently, and I insert it 
here for the benefit of those to whom it 
may be useful. 

Rule for Gear-up — The rule is to multi¬ 
ply diameter of driving wheel by number 
of teeth on chain wheel (that is, the wheel 
that is mounted on the bottom bracket 
shaft), and divide result by number of teeth 
on chain wheel of rear hub. Say the 
driving wheel is 30 in.; teeth on large 
chain wheel, 18. Multiply 30 by 18—result, 
540. Divide 540 by 9—answer, 60. Nine is 
the usual number of teeth on the hub chain 
wheel, and in the following three examples 
9 is used as the divisor :— 

(1) Driving wheel.30 in. 

Large chain wheel.18 teeth 

Hub chain wheel . 9 „ 

Then 30 x 18 9= 510 9 = 60 in. 

The machine is geared up to 60 in., or double that 
of the 30 in. wheel. 

(2) Driving wheel.30 in. 

Large chain wheel.16 teeth 

Hub chain wheel . 9 ,, 

Then 30 x 16 -4- 9 = 180 4- 9 = 53i in. 

In this case the machine is geared up to 531 in. 

(3) Driving wheel.30 in. 

Large chain wheel.14 teeth 

Hub chain wheel .9 „ 

Then 30 x 14 4- 9 = 420 -4- 9 = 46| in. 

In this case the machine is geared up to 463 in. 

If you continue reducing the number ot 
teeth in the lower or forward chain wheel, 
keeping the hub chain wheel the same 
—namely, 9—you are gradually lowering 
the gear. Bring down the number of teeth 
till Doth wheels have the same number, 9, 
and of course the machine is not geared up 
at all, and is what is called geared level. 
Multiplying a sum by 9, and dividing the 
result by 9, leaves the sum just as it was— 
thus, 30 in. X 9 = 270, and 270 4- 9 = 30. 

The above rule is easily carried in the 
memory or in a note-book, and anyone can 
easily tell the speed of a machine by tak¬ 
ing the diameter of the driving or rear 
wheel, counting the teeth on both chain 
wheels, and then multiplying and dividing 
as above. 

Necessary Tools. —Before commencing the 
construction of our bicycle, some mention 
must be made of the tools required. The 
proper place to conduct such a piece of work 
is the mechanic’s shop, whether the regular 
business mechanic or the amateur, as these 
papers are intended for both. It cannot be 
expected that the trained mechanic—say, a 
machinist—who has never made a bicycle 
or looked into its mechanism can know all 
about it without a little instruction, any more 
than the amateur mechanic who may have 
confined his efforts to the making of model 
engines, electric machines, and such like. 
The working mechanic may have to his 
hand most of the tools required for bicycle 
construction, and, having possibly more 
practice in their use, may make better pro¬ 
gress with his machine than the average 
amateur. Unless he is what is called a 
gentleman amateur, his stock of tools is, as 
a rule, very limited, and many of them only 
a makeshift for the purposes they are put 
to. So for the benefit of the amateur with 
limited means I will name the tools ha 
cannot well do without, unless he means to 
bother outsiders to do this and that opera¬ 
tion for him. The indispensable tools are :— 

Lathe. —A turning lathe, back speed, with 
slide rest. The back speed is for turning 
iron, and the quick speed for brass and 
wood turning. The slow speed is also used 
for heavy drilling, and quick speed for 
small drilling. 

Forge. —A small forge for brazing and light 
forgings, sharpening, and tempering drills, 

Anvil. —A small anvil fixed to a bench ; 
or, better still, a small-sized smith’s anvil 
on a block. 

Vices. —A large strong leg vice attached 
to a substantial vice board, bolted through 
the wall for firmness. A good parallel bench 
vice, 3 in. or 3| in. jaws; also one or two 
hand vices, different sizes. 

Grindstone. —A grindstone, not less than 
14 or 15 in., in a metal trough, is a most 
useful tool for setting up turning tools, 
drills, etc. 

Screwing Tackle. —As to this, I use two 
die stocks, one having pairs of dies f in. fine 

thread, | in. and § in. Whitworth thread; the 
other ha ving dies, Whitworth standard, -J in., 
descending by i n - t° * in.; and these I 
find serve in the trade. 
For nipple screwing I use a small die stock, 
with five pairs of dies from -g- in., rising 
by 35 in. to I in. Then for spokes I use 
the ordinary small size five-hole screw plate, 
and the one-hole plate supplied by makers- 
and dealers, usually with two taps, for each 
size of spoke. Common spokes, not butted, 
have heads on them when bought, and con¬ 
sequently no spoke heading machine is 
needed ; but butted spokes have the butt 
larger than the holes in the rim, con¬ 
sequently they must be passed through the 
rim from the inside before a head is riveted 
on. For this purpose a heading machine is 
used : it is a ponderous affair, costing four 
or five pounds, and buying it, except for 
makers and repairers, is out of the question. 
I have not one of these, but use as a sub¬ 
stitute (a makeshift, if you like) an instru¬ 
ment that does the work fairly well. It 
consists of two steel plates which clamp the 
spoke, and, being held firmly in the vice, 
the head is hammered into shape. I will 
give an illustration of this instrument in its 
proper place. 

Ratchet Brace. — A ratchet brace, for 
boring out broken spoke stumps and for 
many other purposes, is necessary. I use 
one of these with a small three-jaw cheek 
that holds drills from 0 in. to A in. I in¬ 
variably use twist drills for this tool. I 
use also twist drills, from f in. downwards, 
for the various borings in the lathe. 

Smaller Tools. —As to these, they are such 
as are to be found in any mechanic’s kit— 
callipers, pliers, wire-cutting nippers, centre 
and other punches, an assortment of files, 
wrenches, spoke grips, nipple keys, and 
numerous other little things that suggest 
themselves to the tidy workman. 

Home-Made Tools. —One of the qualifi¬ 
cations of a mechanic is the making of 
many of his own tools. In this many 
clever mechanics are nothing short of 
inventors. I have several machines I never 
should have possessed but in this way. 
One of these is a small vertical driven 
by foot. It has a bracket and division plate, 
for drilling hubs from four holes to forty. I 
have another machine which screws spokes 
with three turns of a small wheel, and does 
the work more rapidly and more accurately 
than anything I know of. Another machine 
of my own construction is used for grinding 
and polishing with emery-wheels ; another 
for bending tubes. I may have occasion in 
the course of these papers to describe at 
length some of these machines. 

Lathe Chucks , Gauges, etc. —Of course, 
much work may be done without these 
machines: thus, hubs may be drilled in the 
lathe, spokes may be screwed by simply 
gripping them in the vice, and fixing the 
screw plate to the end of the ratchet 
brace, filing up and polishing by hand with¬ 
out the grinding machine. Every mechanic, 
however, who can possibly afford it should 
provide himself with a couple of chucks 
for his lathe—one a four independent jaw 
chuck, and the other a two-jaw chuck, to 
hold small pieces of work, such as pins, 
and to hold the twist drills from 0 in. up to 
f in. or so. Either of the chucks referred to 
can be bought for about 55s. About the 
most useful article I have is the Birmingham 
wire gauge plate. For sizing wire, drills, 
pins, and other purposes, it saves a large 
amount of time. ' Stubbs’ letter gauge is 
also used for sizing twist drills, etc., but 
being costly, its use may be dispensed with. 

Work—April 4,1891,] 

Electro-Gilding Brooches, Chains, Rings, etc. 




Introduction — Tools Required — Batteries : 
Daniell’s Battery, Wollaston’s Battery, 
Smee’s Battery, Gassner Dry Battery— 
The Vats — Ths Gilding Solution — In¬ 
ferior Gilding Solution. 

Introduction— Jewellers in a small way of 
business in country towns and other out-of- 
the-way places, have little trinkets handed 
to them to be repaired and electro-gilt or 
electro-plated. As it is not always conve¬ 
nient to send these little jobs to London or 
to Birmingham, there may be some who 
will be glad to know how they may be done 
at home in their own workshops. There 
may also be a few amateur metal workers 
who may be glad to know how to gild or 
silver a few little trinkets and other knick- 
knacks for their lady friends and relatives. 
To meet the possible wants and wishes of 
such readers as these, I have written a short 
series of articles, showing how such little 
jobs may be done at home with a few tools, 
many of which can be made by the working 
jeweller or the amateur metal worker. 

Tools required. —In the catalogue issued 
by Messrs. Canning and Co., Great Hamp¬ 
ton Street, Birmingham, the following list is 
given, under the head of “ Watchmakers’ 
and Jewellers’ Gilding and Silver-Plating 
Outfit ” -Two 6 in. Daniell batteries in 
box, I lb. sulphate copper, 1 pint sulphuric 
acid, 1 pint gold solution, I porcelain gild¬ 
ing vessel, 1 Bunsen burner, 1 pint rich 
silver solution, 1 porcelain vessel, 1 pint 
copper solution, 1 duplicate vessel, 3 stands 
for holding vessels, 8 oz. cyanide potassium. 
The whole, packed in box, with book of in¬ 
structions, for £6. 

This will give some idea of the tools re¬ 
quired • but this is not all. In addition to 
the articles above mentioned, there will have 
to be such things as brushes to clean the 
goods before being plated, and polish them 
afterwards; wires to suspend the goods in 
the plating solution, various cleaning solu¬ 
tions, and vessels to hold these ; and last, 
but not least, a plate of each of the metals 
mentioned, to form an anode in each of the 
solutions. Therefore, although I give the 
above list as a sample of those submitted to 
the intending plater, I beg leave to prepare 
one myself, and give a detailed account of 
each article required. 

Battery. —As we shall electro-deposit a 
coat of silver on a piece of metal from a 
solution of silver, we must have a. generator 
of electricity--that is, something in which 
the electricity can be made as wanted for 
the work. The cheapest and most simple 
method of doing this, for the purpose now 
under consideration, is to make up an elec¬ 
tric battery, or a voltaic generator of elec¬ 
tricity. There are quite a host of different 
electric batteries in the market, but there 
are only a few suitable to this work. 
Daniell’s battery is mentioned in the above 
list. This is made up of a stoneware pot in 
which stands a cylinder or a plate of copper, 
and a pot of porous earthenware inside this, 
containing either a bolt or a plate of zinc. 
The outer containing pot is charged with a 
saturated solution of copper sulphate, and 
some crystals of this are suspended in the 
pot to keep the solution in a saturated con¬ 
dition. The porous pot is charged with 
water made acid with sulphuric acid, in the 
proportion of one part acid to fifteen parts of 
water. The zinc must be kept coated with 
mercury, and must not touch the sides or 
bottom of the porous pot. The porous pots 

or cells, 6 in. in height, will cost about 
4d. each. The outer jars may be salt-jars, 
or even wide-mouthed pickle bottles. Any 
sheet copper, however thin, will do for the 
cylinder. The zinc may be also in the form 
of a cylindrical roll of sheet zinc, but this 
should be at least in. in thickness. The 
Daniell battery is very constant. Whilst 
the sulphate of copper solution is kept 
saturated and the zinc kept in working 
order, the current will not flag at all during 
the day; it is therefore most suitable for 
silver-plating and gilding, but it is very 
troublesome to keep in working order, unless 
kept well at work and employed every day. 
As a jeweller or an amateur may not have 
daily jobs to do, a troublesome battery is an 
inconvenience, for time can badly be spared 
in cleaning up the parts and getting them 
in working order whenever a little job 
comes in. 

The Wollaston battery is the least costly 
and least troublesome, but it is also most 
inconstant, as its current is apt to rapidly 
fall off after being set to work. However, 
as it recovers its strength after a few 
minutes’ rest, it is a handy battery for such 
short jobs as generally fall to the lot of the 
country jeweller. It may be made at home 
as follows :—Get some three or four open- 
mouthed jars of glass, stoneware, or porcelain, 
of any size from one quart to one gallon, the 
larger size being preferable. These jars 
will serve as battery cells, no porous pots 
being required. Next get some three or four 
plates of rolled zinc, just large enough and 
long enough to go in the selected jars. 
Clean the plates well in hot water contain¬ 
ing some washing soda, then rinse them in 
clean water. Pour some water in an earthen¬ 
ware baking-dish, about enough to cover a 
zinc plate ; then pour in carefully about 
one-tenth quantity of oil of vitriol. In this 
mixture immerse the zinc plates, one at a 
time, and pour on each a small quantity of 
quicksilver. Spread the quicksilver over 
both sides of each plate with a mop made of 
tow containing a few brass wires, and then 
coat them perfectly. This is termed “ amal¬ 
gamating the zincs.” The acid mixture 
may be used with some more to work the 
battery, and the excess quicksilver can be 
used over again. 

These zinc plates will be suspended to a 
cross-head, of wood (each plate between two 
plates of copper in each .cell); so we must 
now prepare the wood supports. These 
should be cut out of hard wood to the shape 
shown at Fig. 1, so as to enclose each zinc 
late between two pieces of wood, the plates 
tting in the recesses cut for them. The 
wood should now be well varnished, or, 
better still, well soaked in melted paraffin 
wax. Each zinc plate can then be enclosed 
between two wooden supports, these secured 
to each other by long brass screws passing 
through both, and the plate held up by a bind¬ 
ing screw on the top, as shown at Fig. 2. 

We must now get a pair of copper plates 
to each zinc plate, and these should be of 
the same size as the zincs, or they may be a 
little larger than the zinc plates with advan¬ 
tage. They may be of any thickness. If 
they can be cross-scored with a file, or have 
a rough coat of electrotype copper deposited 
on them, they will work all the better 
for the treatment. It will be better still 
if they can be coated with platinum, but 
this will necessitate the use of a battery and 
a platinum solution, which is costly. The 
copper plates may be secured to the cross¬ 
heads on each side of the zincs by very short 
brass screws, care being taken not to let any 
of them touch the zinc plates ; or they may 

be clamped with brass clamps sold for the 
purpose, as shown at Fig. 3. This method 
of connecting the battery plates has the 
advantage over others of portability, since 
it is always quite easy to unclamp the plates 
to clean them, and reverse the zinc plates so 
as to wear both ends equally. 

The battery jars are charged with an acid 
mixture, made by pouring one part by 
volume of sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) into 
twelve parts of water, and allowing it to cool, 
before using. The plates are suspended by 
the wooden cross-heads in this mixture. 
When it is wished to increase the pushing- 
force of the current, the copper plates of one 
cell are connected by a length of No. 1C 
copper wire to the zinc plate of the next 
cell, and so on through the whole series of 
cells, taking in as many as may he wanted. 
When a low-tension current of large volume 
is desired, all the copper plates of the cells are 
connected together by one set of wires, and all 
the zinc plates by another set of wires. The 
cells may be placed in a wooden tray or in a. 
shallow box, and all the cross-heads may be 
secured to a long bar of wood, which may 
be suspended to a support above, or to an 
arrangement for lifting all the plates out of 
the cells when the battery is not wanted. 
This arrangement will also be found to be 
most convenient for controlling the current, 
as its volume can be lessened at any time 
by exposing a less surface of the plates to 
the action of the battery acid. When the 
battery is not required for use, the plates 
should be lifted out of the cells, and if they 
are not likely to be wanted for a few days, 
they should be well rinsed in an abundance 
of water, to free them from acid. It will be 
necessary to take out the zinc plates occa¬ 
sionally, clean them, and freshly amalgamate 
their surfaces. This must be done at any 
time if the plates give off a hissing noise, 
and appear to be blackened by the acid. 

The Smee battery is employed by small 
electro-platers and gilders. This battery is 
made up in a similar manner to that just 
mentioned. Platinised silver foil, soldered to 
copper frames, is used instead of copper plates 
for the negative elements, but in all other 
respects the battery may be made like the. 
Wollaston just described, and will give 
similar results, with this exception—its- 
action is longer sustained after being con¬ 
nected to the work, because it does not so 
soon polarise. 

When a jeweller wants a battery to just 
do a few gilding jobs or to merely flash on a 
thin coat of silver to hide defects or dis¬ 
coloured patches, and is only likely to use 
the battery for a few minutes at a time 
during the day, I strongly recommend the 
Gassner dry battery. This battery needs no 
attention in the way of setting up or clean¬ 
ing, as it is always ready for work, and will 
furnish current sufficient to gild a brooch, 
scarf pin, or even a bracelet, or to silver- 
plate such an article with a thin coat of 
silver. The large double-carbon square cells, 
should be selected for this purpose, and 
the battery should be made up of two of 
these cells in series. They cost about 4s. 6‘d. 
each cell, and will last about two years, 
without renewal, on such intermittent work 
as I have just described. If used for big- 
jobs, taking more than ten minutes in the 
doing, the battery will soon be exhausted. 
If the Gassner battery is selected, it 'will 
not be necessary to provide a sulphuric acid 
solution, since no solution of any kind will 
be required to work this battery. 

The Vats .—These are the vessels to hold 
the depositing solutions of gold, of silver, or 
of copper. Gilding solutions are worked 


An Easily-Made Receptacle for “ IVork 

[Work—April 4,1891. 

hot, at a temperature varying between 140° 
and 180° Fahr. ; we must therefore provide 
a vat that will bear being heated up to this 
point. “ Well,” the tyro might say, “ why 
not use an iron or a tin vessel, such as a 
saucepan ? ” Because the gilding solution 
will eat away iron or tin, and become spoiled 
with these metals, and because the gold will 
be deposited on the sides of the vat, and thus 
cause a loss of this precious metal. But the 
homely saucepan is not to be despised, for it 
is a useful article, and may be easily pressed 
into service. If we put the gold solution 
into a stoneware or porcelain jar, and place 
this in a saucepan, together with some hot 
Avater, Ave may heat the solution in the 
saucepan by placing it over a gas stove or 
over a fire, or any other source of heat. If 
the saucepan is lined Avith porcelain, or 
vitrified, or enamelled, Ave may heat the 
solution in the saucepan without using a 
porcelain or a stoneware jar, and the sauce¬ 
pan Avill then serve the purpose of a vat. 

The silver solution will be Avorked cold, 
so we shall not require a vessel to stand the 
heat as a vat for this solution ; but it must 
not be of metal, because the cyanide of 
potassium in a silver solution will dissolve 
a metal vat, and the silver is liable to be 
deposited on its sides. It does not act 
quickly on lead; and this is sometimes used 
to line vats employed to hold plating solu¬ 
tions, but a lead-lined Avooden vat Avould be 
too cumbersome for our purpose. If only a 
quart or two of silver solution is employed, 
avb may find a stoneware vessel large enough 
to hold the solution. A large stoneware 
battery jar Avill serve the purpose very well, 
but either the stoneware or the glass troughs 
used for the cells of accumulators will make 
the best of vats for silvering solutions. If 
these cannot be easily obtained, and a bell 
glass can be got—that is, a glass vessel 
shaped like a bell, and employed by gar¬ 
deners to cover their plants, and by fish 
fanciers as aquariums for gold fish—this can 
be easily improvised as a plating vat. Carve 
out a Avooden pedestal to hold the knob of 
the glass, and cement this into the wood 
base. Do not use a common earthemvare 
vessel, Avhether glazed inside and out or 
not, as these are snares, ever liable to be 
destroyed by the cyanide and to break Avhen 
least expected. 

The coppering solution I shall recommend 
can be worked cold or hot, and may there¬ 
fore be held in a vat similar to that em¬ 
ployed for the silver solution. The vats 
may be stood on any bench or on a shelf. 
They will not need any other stand, but, for 
the sake of cleanliness, it is advisable to 
place each in a lead-lined tray, to catch any 
accidental drops of the solution, as this Avill 
penetrate Avood and leave a disagreeable 
odour about the shop, even after all the 
plating things have been put arvay. 

The Gilding Solution. —After several 
years’ experience, I find the following the 
cheapest and best for the amateur gilder 
and the jeAveller in a small Avay of business. 
Get one pint of distilled Avater from a drug¬ 
gist’s shop, and also half a pound of best 95 
per cent, cyanide of potassium. Please under¬ 
stand that this latter-named article is a 
deadly poison, and Avill injure health if 
handled Avith the naked hand. There will, 
therefore, be some difficulty in getting it, 
and Avhen got, great care must be exercised 
in using it, and in keeping it in a safe place 
when not in use. It should be kept in a 
Avide-mouthed glass-stoppered bottle, under 
lock and key. Dissolve two ounces of the 
potassium cyanide in one pint of hot dis¬ 
tilled water, and place it in the vessel 

intended to serve for a vat. Get tAvo strips 
or plates of pure gold, weighing from 7 to 10 
dwts. each; punch a small hole in the 
upper edge of each, and hang each strip on 
a hook made of No. 20 platinum Avire. 
Hang one strip in the vat connected to the 
wire leading from one pole of the battery 
(say, the zinc plate), and the Other strip of 
gold to the wire leading from the other 
pole of the battery. See that the gold only 

Fig - . 1.—One half of Wood Support for Battery 

Fig. 2.—Zinc Plate of Battery held in Wood 

Fig. 3.—Battery Plates mounted on Wood Sup¬ 
port and clamped together, ready for use in 

dips deep enough in the cyanide solution to 
just touch the platinum hooks, but do not 
alloAv the copper wires to hang in the solu¬ 
tion. Copper and gold Avill dissolve in 
cyanide solutions, but platinum Avill not 
dissolve in them. We want to dissolve the 
gold, and so make up a gilding solution, but 
Ave do not want any copper in the solution, 
as this Avill make the gold of a dark colour. 
If all has been done right, an electric current 
will pass from the zinc plates in the battery 
to the copper plates, and from these along 

the Avire to the gold strip in the cyanide 
solution, through this, and back to the 
battery by way of the other gold strip and 
the Avire leading to the zinc plate, thus 
completing the electrical circuit. Whilst 
current is passing in this way, gold will be 
dissolved off from the strip of gold hanging 
to the wire leading from the copper of the 
battery, and will be taken up by the cyanide 
of potassium to form the double cyanide of 
gold and potassium solution. Keep the 
solution heated up to 160° Fahr., and keep 
the battery connected to it for one or two 
hours. At the end of this time hang a 
German silver wire for a moment or two in 
the vat, connected to the wire leading from 
the zinc of the battery. If the wire takes 
on a coat of a satisfactory character, hang 
both strips of gold to the opposite wire, and 
call them gold anodes, and connect the 
work to be gilded to the cathode wire—that 
is, the Avire from the zinc of the battery. 
The action of the battery may be carried on 
until 5 dAvts. of gold have been dissolved 
into the solution, or we may commence 
gilding Avith only 1 dwt. of gold to the pint 
of solution. The quantity of gold in the 
solution can always be augmented if the 
surface of the things to be gilded is less than 
the surface of the anodes, and there is an 
excess of cyanide in the solution. The con¬ 
trary condition will result, of course, in an 
impoverishment of the solution. A solution 
rich in gold deposits a rich-looking coat of 
gold in a short time, whilst one poor in 
gold works slowly, and deposits a poor¬ 
looking coat. 

A full battery of at least three Wollaston, 
Smee, or Daniell cells, or two Bunsen cells, 
should be used in making the gilding solu¬ 
tion, but it can be worked afterwards with 
a battery of one cell. The Gassner or the 
Leclanche are both unsuitable to use in 
making up the solution, but may be used in 
working it after it has been made up. 

An inferior gilding solution may be made 
up by stirring into the cyanide solution 
enough chloride of gold to turn the solution 
green, then adding enough cyanide to take 
away the green tint. This Avill deposit a 
coat of gold of a fairly good colour, but the 
gold coat is apt to strip off whilst being 
polished or burnished. The best depositing 
solution is that of the double cyanide of 
gold and potassium made up by the chemical 
method, but the process for doing this re¬ 
quires more than an amateur’s skill, and 
results in a great loss of gold Avhen attempted 
by unskilled persons. 

In another paper I hope to show how to 
prepare the articles for gilding, to work the 
gilding solution, and finish the goods after 
they have been gilded. 




“ Alas ! things are not as they seem.” This 
trite quotation has been so often used to 
express disappointment and disgust at 
expensive purchases which had been re¬ 
garded as valuable in an equal degree, until 
suddenly discovered to be just the reverse, 
that it is quite a pleasure to be able to em¬ 
ploy it (without its dispiriting prefix) in 
connection Avith a perfectly honest article. 

As such Ave may fairly consider, I think, 
the book about to be described, and which is 
shoAvn in the annexed illustration. This 
sketch, as the reader will no doubt observe, 
portrays apparently a neatly bound copy of 

Work—April 4,1891.] 

Promiscuous Exercises in Chemical Analysis. 


Work ; but the uninitiated searcher who 
may peer under its cover in natural expecta¬ 
tion of help, in place of receiving any use¬ 
ful assistance from this volume, will find 
that the so-called book has resolved itself 
into a mere box; which, however, in its 
very singularity, may, let us hope, com¬ 
pensate somewhat for the absence of the 
anticipated assistance. 

To its would-be maker, at any rate, this 
book-box will offer many inducements apart 
from that of novelty. For one thing, it is 
decidedly most useful for a variety of pur¬ 
poses. It is, moreover, easier by far to con¬ 
struct than the binding of a volume of printed 
sheets ; which may, indeed, be so spoiled 
either by the sewing or the cutting of the 
edges as to be beyond the power of anyone, 
professional or amateur, to repair. Indeed, 
the greatest incentive of all, to one who has 
ever endeavoured to satisfactorily smooth 
the edges of books by the ordinary methods 
of the amateur, will be, I think, the fact 
that here, at all events, he will be spared 
that trial. 

To those readers who do not possess 
the bookbinder’s usually most used appli¬ 
ance, it will doubtless be an additional 
relief to learn that for our present purpose 
a press is quite unnecessary ; the only tools 
required being a knife (known to dealers in 
cutlery as a French one), a folding stick or 
thick bone paper-knife, a glue-pot, and a 

Any ordinary binding material may be 
used in covering this box, but I should 
recommend, as being the most suitable, the 
leather denominated roan (which may be 
had of any colour) as protection for the 
back and the corners, bookbinder’s cloth of 
a similar shade being placed on the sides. 
For lining the interior of the box, paper of a 
drab or grey shade is to be preferred, whilst 
the seeming edges should be covered with 
marble paper. 

The boards needed will be one No. 3, and 
two No. 6 black ones, the former measuring 
18 in. by 16 in., and the latter 12) in- by 9j in. 
each. About a quarter of a yard only of 
cloth will be necessary, whilst the piece of 
leather should measure 20)- in. by 6 in. 
You will need no more than a sheet each of 
the lining and marbled papers. 

Having obtained these essentials from any 
bookbinder, you may cover the thinner mill- 
board on one side with the drab paper and cut 
it to the shape shown in Fig. 2. It should 
then be scored or cut half through its thick¬ 
ness with a sharp knife along the dotted 
lines on the uncovered side. 

This will enable you to bend up the out¬ 
standing portions without cracking the 
board, after which, in order to secure them 
in place, you should glue strips of cloth 
along each angle on the outside of the box. 
About ~ in. of each of these four pieces 
should be turned in over the upper edges, 
whilst their lower ends to the extent of half 
an inch should be attached to the founda¬ 
tion. One side of the board you will of 
course have arranged to fit the curve of the 
two end-pieces, so that a properly shaped 
back may be formed. The finishing touch 
to this portion of the volume is given by 
affixing a strip, 32 in. by 3) in., of marble 
paper around the three straight sides. 

I may here perhaps be allowed to mention 
a difficulty with which you will doubtless 
have noticed I have to contend in describing 
this book as a box, and vice versd. For you 
must not forget that the sides of the box 
form the edges of the book, whilst the two 
sides of the latter are spoken of as top and 
bottom respectively in the case of the former. 

■ However, we may now leave the box 
proper for the present, and turn to the con¬ 
sideration of its surroundings. For these 
you must cut the piece of leather as shown 
by the lines in Fig. 3, the portion a being 
required for the back, and the offcuts B for 
the corners; the remaining small square 
may be regarded as useless save for the 
purposes of experiment. 

Now make your knife as sharp as possible, 
and employ it in cutting or paring down 
the edges of the five pieces of roan, using a 
slab of glass or porcelain to support the 
leather against the pressure of the blade. 
The four similar portions should then be 

Fig. 1—Book-Box as Receptacle for Parts or 
Numbers of “Work.” 

Fig. 3.—Mode of cutting Leather for Back and 
Corners of Case. 

parted and placed on two corners of each 
board, their oblique edges being turned 
over their borders. After pasting the larger 
piece thoroughly over, lay at a distance of 
1) in. from each of the longer edges the 
uncornered margin of one of the boards. A 
short piece of thick cord should then be 
placed across each end of the leather, reach¬ 
ing from corner to corner of the boards, in 
order to strengthen the roan somewhat; the 
overhanging portions being then turned 
tightly over in the same style as the smaller 

Two pieces of cloth, each 14 in. by 9 in., 
should now be cut, and after just so much 
of their corners has been removed as will 
allow their leather substitutes to fully appear, 

affixed to the boards with thin glue, their 
extreme edges being turned in as before. 

The inner and outer divisions of the 
volume will now be quite ready for amal¬ 
gamation. This must be clone by attaching 
the rounded side of the box to the leather¬ 
back of the case with rather thick glue. 
After well rubbing these two together with 
the folding stick, you may then fasten 
the bottom of the box to the corresponding- 
side of the cover. 

To give finish to the upper portion of the 
receptacle, a strip of cloth 1 in. wide and 
12 in. long should now be neatly glued along- 
the inner joint of the board—or lid if you 
choose—where fastened to the curved side 
of the box, a piece of marble paper 12 in. by 
8f in. being then evenly applied to the 
inside of that upper cover. 

A box, however it may be enclosed, is 
scarcely a fit subject on which a ’prentice 
hand may successfully practice gold lettering; 
therefore, if you have not already had some 
experience in that branch, I should advise 
you to either employ the painter’s method, 
or give instructions to the binder for its 

If the former plan is adopted, the back 
must first be divided into seven portions or 
panels, the five inner ones being made quite 
equal whilst the upper one should be about 
) in. longer, and the lowermost one only- 
half that length. A line of, say, W in- 
should then be drawn between each of these 
divisions with a fine brush charged with 
gold size, additional ones being also placed 
parallel to the head and tail of the back, 
and also against the verge of the sides of 

These lines must be left until they are 
very nearly dry, when you may lay over 
them the gold leaf or bronze powder in the 
same manner you have no doubt often 
observed painters adopt when using these 

If you succeed in doing this portion satis¬ 
factorily, you may then write the word 
Work or other title with the same liquid on 
the second panel of the back, afterwards 
attaching the gold as before. 

This plan, although perhaps somewhat of 
an innovation, will nevertheless give the 
book quite a legitimate appearance ; and 
will look as well, if not better than many 
far more elaborate attempts with the or¬ 
dinary tools of a book-finisher. 



As examples, let us take “The detectioir 
and estimation of lead in potable waters,”’ 
“The analysis of solder,” “The determina¬ 
tion of added water in milk,” “ The analysis 
of white lead,” and “ The estimation of 
moisture, ash, and sulphur in coal.” 

Detection and Estimation of Lead in 
Potable Waters. 

The presence of lead in potable waiters 
may be readily detected by adding two 
cubic centimetres of a saturated, freshly 
prepared solution of sulphuretted hydrogen 
to fifty cubic centimetres of the water, 
acidified with ten drops of acetic acid, 
contained in a Nessler’s cylinder. Should 
the water hold solid matter in suspension, 
or be turbid, it is filtered previous to apply¬ 
ing the test. This applies also to the 
bichromate method of detection described 
hereunder. If the metal be present the 


Promiscuous Exercises in Chemical Analysis. 

[Work—April 4, 1801. 

water upon standing some little time will 
acquire a brown colour, varying in depth 
of tint in proportion to the amount con¬ 
tained in the sample. For comparison, fifty 
cubic centimetres of lead free water, con¬ 
tained in a Kessler's cylinder, are treated 
in a precisely similar manner. Should the 
fifty cubic centimetres yield negative results, 
half a litre of the water is taken, the volume 
reduced by evaporation to fifty cubic centi¬ 
metres, filtered if necessary, cooled, and 
the above test applied. If this portion also 
gives negative results, the water is free 
from lead. 

It is claimed by the author, Mr. Sidney 
Harvey, that the presence of one-fiftieth of a 
grain of lead per gallon may be readily 
detected by the method described hereafter. 
And further, that no other metal likely to 
be contained in the water gives the same 
reaction with the reagent employed—viz., 
bichromate of potash. The principle of the 
method is, that lead salts form with bichro¬ 
mate of potash insoluble precipitates of 
chromate of lead. 

In applying the test, 0T3 grammes of 
powdered bichromate of potash is added to 
lalf a litre of the water contained in a glass 
conical, the liquid well stirred and allowed 
to stand at rest, alongside, for comparison, 
of a similar conical containing half a litre 
of lead free water, to which the same 
■quantity of bichromate of potash has been 
ndded. During the course of fifteen to 
twenty minutes a decided turbidity will 
he formed, should lead be present, while at 
the expiration of about twenty-four hours 
a precipitate will have settled at the bottom 
■of the containing vessel, so that the super¬ 
natant liquid can be drained off almost to 
the last drop. 

Lead being a very serious contamination 
■of potable waters, since, when taken into 
the system, it accumulates and does not 
pass through, we give the following simple 
method for its detection, so that those 
of our readers who do not possess a know¬ 
ledge of chemistry—and undoubtedly they 
•are many—may determine for themselves 
whether this injurious and poisonous metal 
be present or not in their water supply. 
For the carrying out of the process, the 
Apparatus required consists of an ordinary 
glass tumbler, and two bright and per¬ 
fectly clean knitting needles; while the 
■only chemical employed is acetic acid, 
■or, if this is not at hand or procurable, 
vinegar. The modus operandi of the 
method is as follows: Fill the tumbler at 
least three parts full with the water to be 
examined, and add a dozen drops of acetic 
acid, or a teaspoonful of vinegar. Should 
the water be turbid, treble these quantities 
are added. Thoroughly mix the contents 
•of the tumbler by carefully stirring with 
the needles, immerse the needles in the 
water, and allow them thus to remain in 
contact with the water, with occasional 
stirring, for some considerable time. From 
time to time withdraw one of the needles, 
always the same one, and examine its 
surface for dark or brown spots ; or if the 
amount of lead is considerable, a grey 
coating, varying in depth of colour in pro- 
ortion to the quantity present, which will 
e formed should lead be contained in the 
water. If, after immersion in the water for 
some eight to ten hours, the needles remain 
free from any spots or coating, even when 
examined with the aid of a magnifying 
glass, as will be the case when only small 
quantities of lead are present, withdraw 
the needles and allow to dry, precautions 
being taken to exclude dust, for twenty-four 

hours. If at the end of this time the 
needles have acquired no yellow, or reddish- 
yellow colour, the water is free from lead. 

For the quantitative determination of the 
lead, fifty cubic centimetres of the water 
are carefully measured out into a Nessler’s 
cylinder, four drops of acetic acid, together 
with two cubic centimetres of a saturated, 
freshly prepared solution of sulphuretted 
hydrogen, added, and the whole mixed. The 
colour of this solution is now compared with 
that of fifty cubic centimetres of pure dis¬ 
tilled water, contained in a Nessler’s cylin¬ 
der, to which four drops of acetic acid, and 
two cubic centimetres of the sulphuretted 
hydrogen, as also one cubic centimetre of 
a standard solution of lead containing in 
every cubic centimetre ’0001 grammes of 
lead, have been added. To compare the 
colours of the two solutions, {dace the 
containing vessels side by side on a sheet 
of white unglazed paper, or a porcelain slab, 
and look down through them. 

Should the colours of the two liquids 
differ, various quantities, larger or smaller 
as required, of the standard lead solution 
are added to fresh portions of fifty cubic 
centimetres of pure water, acetic acid and sul¬ 
phuretted hydrogen added as before, until 
the quantity of the standard lead solution 
necessary to produce equality of tints in 
the two solutions is arrived at. Since each 
cubic centimetre of the standard lead solu¬ 
tion contains "0001 gramme of lead, the 
quantity of lead, in grammes, contained in 
fifty cubic centimetres of the water under 
examination will equal the number of 
cubic centimetres of the standard solution 
required to produce equality of tints multi¬ 
plied by '0001, and therefore a litre (1,000 
cubic centimetres) will equal this quantity 
multiplied by 20. By multiplying grammes 
per litre by 70 we obtain grains per gallon. 

Example :—50 cubic centimetres of the 
water taken for analysis. Number of cubic 
centimetres of standard lead solution re¬ 
quired to produce equality of tints=6 cubic 

/. 50 cubic centimetres of the water 
contains '0001 X 6 = ’0006 grammes of lead. 

1,000 cubic centimetres (a litre) of the 
water contains '0006 X 20 = ’012 grammes 
of lead. 

.’. Grains of lead per gallon of water = 
‘012 X 70 = '84 grains of lead per gallon. 

If the qualitative analysis has revealed 
the presence of only a small quantity of 
lead, a litre of the water is evaporated 
down to a volume measuring fifty cubic 
centimetres, filtered if necessary, cooled, 
and the lead determined as above. 

The standard solution of lead is prepared 
by dissolving T831 grammes of crystallised 
acetate of lead in a litre of distilled water. 


For the analysis the sample is cut up 
into small pieces, the smaller the better. 

Weigh out into a conical one gramme of 
the solder, add fifty cubic centimetres of a 
mixture of equal parts strong nitric acid 
and water, and heat gently. When solution 
is effected, add 250 cubic centimetres of 
dilute nitric acid—one acid to six water— 
and carefully evaporate the solution down 
until it becomes pasty. When cool add 250 
cubic centimetres of the dilute nitric acid, 
boil until the volume is considerably re¬ 
duced, dilute the liquid with water, and 
allow to stand until the resulting meta- 
stannic acid has completely subsided to the 
bottom of the containing vessel. Collect 
the precipitate on a double Swedish filter, 
and wash until free from acid. Dry the 

filter paper with contents, remove the dry 
precipitate as completely as possible to a 
tared crucible, ignite the filter paper 
separately, add the ash to contents of 
crucible, ignite the whole at a strong red 
heat, and when cool re-weigh to determine 
the oxide of tin, Sn0 2 , which contains 78'67 
per cent, of metallic tin. 

Concentrate the filtrate remaining from 
the determination of the tin if the volume 
occupied is at all considerable, cool, add 
pure sulphuric acid in slight excess, and 
then twice the volume occupied by the solu¬ 
tion of methylated spirits. Allow the solu¬ 
tion to stand for some considerable time, 
collect the resulting precipitate of lead 
sulphate, PbS0 4 , on a filter, wash with water 
acidulated with sulphuric acid, and sub¬ 
sequently with methylated spirits. Dry 
filter paper with contents, remove the dry 
precipitate to a tared crucible, and ignite 
the filter paper in the manner described in 
the article on “Brass: Its Analysis”(VoL II., 
page [367). Add the filter paper, ash, etc., 
to the contents of the crucible, ignite the 
whole, and weigh the PbS0 4 , which contains 
68'32 per cent, of lead. 

Determination of the “Added” 
Water in Milk. 

To arrive at the extent to which milk 
has been adulterated by the addition of 
water, it is necessary to make a determina¬ 
tion of the “ Solids not Fats,” which is con¬ 
ducted as follows :—Carefully tare a per¬ 
fectly clean platinum dish and in it place 
about ten cubic centimetres of the milk. 
Be-weigh the dish to determine the exact 
weight of the milk taken, and then submit 
to the action of the water-oven until evapora¬ 
tion to complete dryness has taken place. 
This beng effected, the dish and contents 
are allowed to cool, the dry residue covered 
with 100 cubic centimetres of benzoline, 
and heated in the water-oven until one-half 
of the benzoline has evaporated off, when 
the dish is withdrawn, allowed to stand 
until the solid particles have completely 
settled to the bottom, and the liquid then 
carefully decanted off. Repeat this treat¬ 
ment with benzoline some half dozen times, 
and after the final treatment, decant off as 
completely as possible the liquid, dry the 
residue in the water-oven for an hour, 
allow to cool, and weigh. Replace in the 
oven, heat for a further period of half 
an hour, and again weigh. If the second 
weight does not agree with the first, the 
dish and contents are again subjected 
to the action of the water-oven until a 
constant weight is obtained. The residue 
thus obtained is the solids not fats con¬ 
tained in the weight of the sample operated 
upon; it is calculated onlOO parts by weight. 
In genuine milk the percentage of solids not 
fats is 9 per cent., and should it be under, 
the sample may be considered as watered. 

The percentage of added water in milk is 
the difference between amount of pure 
milk in which percentage amount of solids 
not fats found are contained, and 100. 

To determine the amount of pure milk in 
which the amount of solids not fats found. 
is contained, it is assumed that 9 parts of 
solids not fats are contained in every 100 
parts of genuine milk. Example :— 

A sample of milk upon analysis is found 
to contain 8'00 per cent, of solids not fats. 
If, therefore, 9 per cent, of solids not fats are 
contained in 100 parts of genuine milk , 8 
per cent, of solids not fats are contained in 
8—100 -4- 9 = 88'88 parts of genuine milk. 

The amount of added water is, therefore, 
100—88'88=11T2 per cent. 

Work —April 4, 1891.] 

Furniture and its Grass. 


White Lead. 

The chief adulterations of the white lead 
■of commerce are barium sulphate, calcium 
carbonate (chalk), and oxide of zinc. Barium 
sulphate, however, cannot be considered an’ 
adulteration unless it be present in quan¬ 
tities exceeding 5 per cent., since it serves 
to protect the lead from the blackening 
action of sulphuretted hydrogen. 

The following is the method of analysis :— 
Weigh out one gramme of the sample, 
spread in a thin layer over the bottom of a 
small porcelain dish, and burn off the oil at 
a low temperature, continuing the ignition 
until no black carbonaceous matter remains. 
•Cover the residue while hot with dilute 
nitric acid, digest at a gentle heat, dilute 
the solution and filter. Wash the insoluble 
residue on the filter free from acid, dry, 
ignite and weigh. 

The residue thus obtained should be 
qualitatively tested for barium sulphate in 
the following manner:—Place a small por¬ 
tion of the residue on the end of a platinum 
wire, moisten with hydrochloric acid, and 
hold in the flame of the blowpipe, when if 
barium be present the flame will acquire 
a green colour. If no coloration be pro¬ 
duced, the residue consists of silicates. It 
is not usual to separate the barium sulphate 
nnd silicates should both be present. 

The filtrate remaining from the above 
determination is evaporated to near dryness 
to expel the excess of acid, diluted, heated 
to near boiling, and a current of sulphuretted 
hydrogen conducted through to saturation. 
>(The solution must be distinctly acid, other¬ 
wise zinc sulphide will be precipitated.) 
The liquid is then allowed to stand at rest 
for some time, and the resulting precipitate 
-of sulphide of lead collected on a filter and 
washed with sulphuretted hydrogen water. 
The filter paper with contents is then placed 
in a tared porcelain crucible, covered with 
strong nitric acid, gently heated until the 
acid is driven off, when the temperature is 
increased to redness, and the crucible, after 
cooling, re-weighed to determine the lead 
sulphate, .PbS0 4 . Every 100 parts of lead 
sulphate is equivalent to 88118 parts of lead 
carbonate, PbC0 3 . 

To the filtrate from the sulphide of lead, 
add ammonia and ammonium sulphide in 
excess, close the mouth of the containing 
vessel, and allow to stand at rest in a warm 
place for some hours. Collect the result¬ 
ing precipitate of sulphide of zinc on a 
Swedish filter, wash, dissolve in hot dilute 
hydrochloric acid, dilute the resulting solu¬ 
tion, heat to boiling, and re-precipitate the 
zinc in the same, as carbonate, by the 
.addition of sodium carbonate in excess. 
Heat to boiling, filter off the carbonate of 
zinc, ZnC0 3) wash thoroughly with hot 
water, ignite in a porcelain crucible, and 
weigh the resulting oxide of zinc, ZnO. 

The ammonium sulphide filtrate remain¬ 
ing from the above determination, after the 
addition of hydrochloric acid, is evaporated 
to dryness, the residue brought into solu¬ 
tion by digestion with dilute hydrochloric 
acid and filtered if necessary. The solution 
is then made strongly ammoniacal, ammo¬ 
nium oxalate—prepared by dissolving one 
part of the crystals in ten of water—added 
and heated to boiling for some time. The 
resulting precipitate of calcium oxalate col¬ 
lected on a Swedish filter., washed with 
water, converted into lime, CaO, by ignition 
at a strong heat, and weighed as such. 
Every 100 parts of CaO is equivalent to 
242-857 of CaS0 4 . 

As regards the arrangements of the results, 

the residue insoluble in nitric acid is 
returned as barium sulphate and silicates; 
the lead as lead carbonate; the zinc as zinc 
oxide ; and the lime as calcium sulphate. 

The Determination of Moisture, Ash, 
and Sulphur in Coal. 

Moisture. — Carefully weigh out five 
grammes of the coal, which has been 
reduced to a fine powder, spread in a thin 
layer over the bottom of an iron dish or the 
surface of a clock glass, and submit to the 
action of the water-oven for an hour. At 
the expiration of this period, re-weigh the 
coal to determine the loss in weight which 
it has suffered, which loss represents the 
moisture on the quantity taken for analysis. 

The portion thus deprived of moisture is 
preserved in a well-stoppered bottle, from 
which the various portions required for de¬ 
termination of ash and sulphur are taken. 

Ash. —Weigh out into a large, shallow, 
tared platinum, or porcelain dish, one 
gramme of the moisture freed sample and 
gently ignite, with a free excess of air, over 
a Bunsen burner until the volatile matter is 
expelled and the coal is thoroughly coked. 
When this is effected, increase the heat to 
bright redness, and maintain at this tem¬ 
perature until the residual ash is free from 
black carbonaceous matter. This being 
attained, allow to cool, and re-weigh the 
crucible to determine the ash. 

To ascertain whether combustion is com¬ 
plete, ignite the crucible with contents for a 
further period of ten minutes, allow to cool 
and re-weigh. The second weight should 
agree, within experimental error, with the 
first; if it does not the ignition is repeated 
until a constant weight is obtained. 

Sulphur. —Intimately mix one gramme of 
the dry powdered coal with twice its weight 
of pure calcium oxide (lime), place the 
mixture in a platinum crucible and gently 
ignite over a spirit lamp , or, as is prefer¬ 
able, in the muffle, for half an hour. When 
this period has expired, increase the heat to 
bright redness and maintain at this tempera¬ 
ture for about an hour, upon the expiration 
of which time remove the crucible from the 
source of heat and allow to cool. Cover the 
contents of the crucible with a small quan¬ 
tity of a saturated solution of ammonium 
nitrate, and apply a gentle heat until the 
liquid is driven off. By thus treating with 
ammonium nitrate, the calcium sulphide, 
formed by the combination of the sulphur 
of the coal with the calcium of the lime, is 
oxidised into calcium sulphate. Oxidation 
having been effected, place the crucible, 
when cool, in a beaker, cover with pure hydro¬ 
chloric acid, and digest at a gentle heat until 
the mass has dissolved out. Withdraw the 
crucible after washing, dilute the solution, 
filter through a Swedish filter paper and 
wash. Dilute the filtrate, which now con¬ 
tains as sulphuric acid the whole of the 
sulphur present in the coal, to 250 cubic 
centimetres (the solution must be distinctly 
acid, but free from a large excess), add ten 
cubic centimetres of barium chloride solu¬ 
tion, and allow to stand in a moderately 
warm place for twelve hours. Decant off as 
much as possible of the clear supernatant 
liquid, collect the resulting precipitate of 
barium sulphate on a Swedish filter, wash 
twice with dilute hydrochloric acid and 
thoroughly with water, ignite and weigh. 
Barium sulphate, BaS0 4 , contains 13'37 per 
cent, of sulphur. 

It is advisable to form a blank experiment 
with the re-agents employed, taking the 
actual quantities of each as employed in the 

analysis of the coal. 



Subject of Design : “ Music.” 

This design, if executed in a good hard 
wood, vulcanite, or brass, either as fretwork 
on another ground or in inlay, would make 
a very artistic article, either for gloves for a 
lady or any other articles for which it might 
be used. 

The drawings are worked out full size, 
the top (Fig. 1) and end view (Fig. 2) com¬ 
plete, the side view (Fig. 3) repeating from 
centre, c c. The accompanying small sketch 

Fig. 4.—Sketch of Glove Box complete. 

(Fig. 4) will serve to show the work com¬ 
plete, and could be either hinged or as a 
lid at the option of the workman. Figs. 
1, 2, 3 will be found in page 41. 

Having designed it to suit brass inlay 
work, for which it is more suited in the 
delicate portions, the workman must slightly 
thicken those parts if intended for wood 

It would also make a good subject for a 
music stand, either for a piano front, table 
stand, or upright, the top piece forming 
centre, with the side view repeated top and 
bottom, and mounted on coloured satin, 
silk, or velvet. 

For the box, also, coloured material might 
be used as lining, or, if preferred, gilt card¬ 
board mount or thin sheet brass would make 
a more suitable background to a dark wood 
like ebony or vulcanite, the inside being 
mounted in plush or velvet. 




Glass as a Decorative Feature—Plate Glass 
— Silvering — Preparation of Frame — 
Measurement of Giass and Bevels—Pur¬ 
chasing Glass. 

After wood, there is no material which 
forms such an important part in cabinet 
furniture as glass. Of course, the appear¬ 
ance is referred to more than the actual con¬ 
struction when it is said that glass is so 
important a feature ; for glue, nails, and 
other odds and ends are, so far as joinery is 
concerned, of infinitely greater use than 
glass. They, however, are not supposed to 
be visible, and in good work are not more 
so than is absolutely unavoidable. Glass, 
on the contrary, is introduced into furni¬ 
ture almost entirely owing to the decorative 
effect which it gives when judiciously used. 
There are, of course, those who object to the 
use of glass in furniture except to the 
smallest extent, and from their point of 
view the reasons they give for doing so are 
not trivial. It is, however, not so much my 
intention to discuss the use of glass from an 
artistic basis as to offer a few hints of a 
practical kind to those who will have 
glass in their rooms. As one who has paid 
some attention to the subject, perhaps I may 
be allowed to make a few remarks about the 
general employment of glass. So far as I 
can understand the objections to its use, 
they are mainly because glass is seldom 
found in old furniture, and then only in 


Furniture and its Glass. 

[Work—April 4, 1891. 

small pieces. It was never employed in 
large sheets; therefore, to do so now is an 
evidence of want of good taste, as the glitter 
is apt to destroy the repose which should 
characterise the interior of our dwellings. 
That is what has been said by the “ utterly 
too too ” artistic section of the community. 
Now, let us just look at the subject from a 
popular or common-sense point of view. 

It is quite true that till a comparatively 
recent period glass was not used in large 
pieces in furniture, but its absence is not to 
be taken in any way as a proof of its use 
having been purposely avoided. Probably 
the real reason is to be found in the fact 
that glass has not always been obtainable 
in large sheets or plates. What is not made 
cannot be used, so that large mirrors never 
being found in old furniture merely shows 
that the old cabinet-makers had not got it 
to use. It is nothing but nonsense to urge 
that their superior artistic instinct induced 
them to use glass in great moderation, and 
only in small pieces. Whether or not glass 
is ornamental in furniture is to a great ex¬ 
tent a matter of personal opinion on which 
everyone has the right to decide for himself 
—unless, indeed,he has a better half, for then 
he may possibly find his rights restricted. 
Those who do not like glass may have wood 
or some other material instead, while those 
who wish for plenty of it can have their 
wishes gratified to almost any extent without 
being thought peculiar or addicted to vulgar 
decoration. At the same time, it must not 
be understood that I am advising the ex¬ 
cessive use of glass, for, personally, I am 
decidedly of opinion that it should be em¬ 
ployed judiciously and in moderation—or, 
rather, I should say, with discretion. 

The advantages of glass as a decorative 
material in furniture construction are so 
manifest that it may seem almost unneces¬ 
sary to say anything about them. It must 
suffice just to remind decorators that they 
have a most useful material to deal with, 
and that they can combine utility with orna¬ 
ment. After all, if everything that might 
be said both for and against glass as a deco¬ 
rative part of furniture were to be urged, it 
merely resolves itself into this—glass is 
fashionable and popular. We find it largely 
used in overmantels, sideboards, cabinets, 
and all kinds of fancy furniture, principally 
in a silvered state—be., as looking-glass or 
mirror. In furniture, transparent glass is 
comparatively little used, and when it is its 
object is principally to allow of the contents 
of the cupboard, or whatever it may be, to 
be seen. An ordinary bookcase with glazed 
doors will occur to most people as a familiar 

Undoubtedly, a great stimulus to the use 
of glass as a purely decorative detail of 
furniture has been given by the greatly de¬ 
creased cost of bevelling the edges. As is 
well known, the bevelled edges to all 
mirrors greatly improve their appearance, 
and when the small extra cost is taken 
into account it seems hardly worth while 
to economise by having plain edges. As so 
many amateurs wish to do everything for 
themselves—and doubtless it is a creditable 
wish—this may be an opportune place to say 
that neither glass bevelling nor glass silver¬ 
ing are suitable occupations for them. On a 
small scale they cannot be practised success¬ 
fully. It will be found much more economi¬ 
cal to get the glass ready silvered and 
bevelled from a dealer. With proper plant 
and appliances, both bevelling and silvering 
can be done at a very reasonable figure. I 
mention these matters, as several inquirers 
have desired to be informed in the “ Shop ” 

columns how they can do silvering. When 
they know, any efforts they may make 
are almost sure to end in disappointment. 
Of course, I do not wish to discourage any, 
but it is better for them to know that the 
“game is not worth the candle” in the 
opinion of those who are best able to judge. 

No doubt most readers are aware that the 
kind of glass ordinarily used for mirror pur¬ 
poses is known as “ plate.” It is more suit¬ 
able than the commoner and cheaper sheet 
glass, from the fact of its having a more 
even surface, and other good qualifications. 
It is also fairly thick, so that the edges can 
be suitably bevelled. Another kind of glass, 
the thin or “patent plate,” is only used 
when the ordinary kind is too thick for the 
purpose. For bookcase doors and trans¬ 
parent panels both plate and sheet glass 
are used. For ordinary furniture the 
latter is quite suitable, and is much cheaper 
than the former, which is, however, prefer¬ 
able when first-class quality is necessary. 
The silvering is now generally done by what 
is known as the “ patent process,” to distin¬ 
guish it from the older one, in which mer¬ 
cury and tinfoil were used. In the patent 

Fancy Shapes for Glass Bevelling'. 

process pure silver is chemically deposited 
on the glass. 

Having said enough about the actual 
material, it will be well after this preliminary 
chat to say something about the work of fit¬ 
ting and fixing the glass into the furniture 
—taking up the subject, in fact, from a prac¬ 
tical or workshop point of view, so far as it 
concerns the cabinet-maker. Of course, it 
goes without saying that the more he knows 
about the material the better for himself, 
but this knowledge is not so necessary 
to him as an acquaintance with the ordi¬ 
nary workshop methods of actually using 
the glass, and combining it with wood in con¬ 
structing furniture. 

It may seem almost unnecessary to say 
that the edges of glass used in furniture are 
laid within a rabbet, but a few remarks 
about the rabbet itself are not uncalled for. 
Perhaps the chief point that the maker of 
any frame which it is intended to fit glass to 
should attend to is the absolute necessity of 
having it “out of winding.” If it is “in 
winding,” it stands to reason that a perfectly 
flat, even sheet of glass cannot be close to 
the wood which should support it. The con¬ 
sequence is, that as a space between the 
wood and the surface is unsightly, the 
workman may be tempted to try and force 
the glass into its proper position—be., so far 

as appearance is concerned—for the proper 
position is naturally that in which the glass 
lies close, without any coaxing or straining. 
It may, when speaking of glass, seem strange 
to those who are not accustomed to working 
it to refer to its being forced to lie against a 
frame in which it does not bed naturally. 

Glass is usually regarded as so absolutely 
rigid that any attempt to cause it to bend 
would be useless. Now, although for ordi¬ 
nary purposes glass may be considered inflex¬ 
ible, it is not perfectly unyielding, but any 
curve that may be imparted to it in order 
to get it to lie close against an imperfect 
frame is got at the risk of fracture, not 
only at the time, but even afterwards, espe¬ 
cially if it is moved. It will easily be under¬ 
stood that the larger the glass the more 
readily it can be forced to fit a faulty frame ; 
but the fact that the larger the glass the 
greater will be the cost of replacing it in the 
event of a fracture should not be overlooked. 
It will be found better not to try and adapt 
glass to a frame, but to make the frame 
as it should be for the reception of the 

From what has been said, it does not 
require great perceptive faculties to under¬ 
stand that the flat, or portion of the rabbet 
on which the glass lies, must be on the same 
level all round. In other w’ords, the rabbet 
on each of the sides of the framing must be 
cut to exactly the same depth. To make 
the matter perfectly clear, let us suppose 
that on three sides of a rectangular frame 
the rabbet has been cut to a depth of f in., 
wffiile on the remaining one it is -j in. 
deeper. It is evident that a piece of glass 
of proper size being let into the frame 
will lie on the wood of the sides first men¬ 
tioned without touching the fourth, as its 
would have done had all four been properly 
prepared to the same depth. But it may be 
said that such a discrepancy as that just 
named could not occur in practice; and this 
I am ready to admit, for the measurements 
have been purposely exaggerated in order 
that there may be no possibility of a mis¬ 
take in even the greatest novice understand¬ 
ing what is meant. Although a difference 
of \ in. has been mentioned, one of even 
half that might be equally prejudicial As 
a further exemplification of the same prin¬ 
ciple of faulty w r ork, let us assume that 
instead of the whole of the rabbet of one 
side of the frame having been cut wrongly, 
it is only irregular in depth at one part—for 
example, that at the angle one of the pieces 
is not quite on the same level as the other— 
and it will be evident that in this case also 
the glass cannot bed properly. This defect 
is in practice much more likely to occur than 
the other. The remedy, of course, is to pare 
away with the chisel the superfluous wood, 
but it will be much better to avoid the 
necessity for doing this by taking proper 
precautions to have the work right in the 
first place. It only needs a reasonable 
amount of care and skill to do so. In the 
event of one or more sides of the frame 
having rabbets too deeply cut, it may be 
better to level them up by gluing veneer 
instead of cutting down the side or sides 
which are too high. The necessity of clean¬ 
ing away any glue which may have exuded 
at the mitres, and become hard, must also be 
insisted on, for nothing is more apt to cause 
the glass to be fractured, perhaps because 
a careless worker might not notice its 
presence till the mischief has been done. 
Hardened drops of glue which have acci¬ 
dentally got within the rabbet must also be 
carefully removed. Their presence can 
(Continued on page 42.) 

Work—April 4 , 1891. ] 

Design for Glove Box in Fretwork. 


Fig. 2.—Half of Front of Glove Box : reverse at line c c to complete. C Fig. 3.—End or Side of Glove Box. 


Some Rules for Contributors and Correspondents. 

[V.'ork—April 4, lS'JL 

easily be ascertained by running the edge of 
an old chisel or similar tool along the inside 
of the rabbet. 

Nothing further need be said about the 
rabbet, unless that its width is not important, 
provided it be sufficient to give an adequate 
margin to the glass. This, in the case of 
plain edges, may be taken as not less 
than £ in. Less would hardly do, though 
it may be, and often is, chanced, while more 
may be regarded as a waste of material, 
though, as will be seen later on, when treat¬ 
ing of measuring glass, this does not neces¬ 
sarily follow. Plain-edged glass may or 
may not fill the entire space within the 
rabbet, as it is of little consequence whether 
it does or not. The same, however, can 
hardly be said of bevelled-edged plates, for 
in such cases the width of the rabbet most 
suitable may be stated as about \ in. The 
reason will be given later on ; and in the 
meantime it may be well to state that as it is, 
from various causes, not always practicable 
or convenient to get a rabbet of this 
width, the difficulty of a wider one may easily 
be overcome. Whenever practicable, the 
■depth of the rabbet should be such that the 
back of the glass is below the surface of 
the surrounding woodwork. Sometimes 
this cannot be managed, but with a little 
forethought it generally can be—except, 
perhaps, in very small thin fancy frames, 
when the thin patent glass comes in handy. 

The measurement of glass for furniture 
is by no means an unimportant item for the 
cabinet-maker to observe, not only in get¬ 
ting the actual measurement for the glass- 
cutter, but in setting out the work. A very 
short space will show the reasons for this. 
As is well known, glass is sold by the foot 
superficial. It is not, however, sold at one 
uniform rate per foot, irrespective of size, 
as the rate increases very considerably per 
foot as the plate increases in size. Thus 
the price mignt be, let us say, 2s. per foot 
super, for plates not over 2 ft., while a 
plate measuring 15 ft. might be charged 
for at the rate of 3s. 6d. per foot. It is, 
further, the custom to reckon a fraction of 
an inch as a full inch. Thus, a plate 
measuring 1 ft. on each edge would of 
course be charged at its actual superficial 
measurement of 1 ft., but if the dimensions 
of the plate are, say, 12^ in. by 12| in., it 
would be reckoned as a 13 in. by 13 in. plate, 
containing 1 ft. 2 in. super. Now, suppos¬ 
ing that there is a rise of a few pence 
between the rate for under one foot and that 
for under two feet, it will be seen that for 
the sake of the two small fractions of an 
inch (which it is quite conceivable to sup¬ 
pose might have been dispensed with had 
a little ingenuity been exercised when set¬ 
ting out the working drawing) a consider¬ 
ably greater cost has been incurred, with only 
a very slight advantage in the size of the 
glass. In such a small size as has been 
named for the sake of illustration, the actual 
difference is neither here nor there, but it 
must not be forgotten that the same rule 
holds good whatever the size of the plate ; 
and if this is a large one the difference in 
cost may be considerable. The cost of 
plate glass, whether transparent or silvered, 
is always by the foot superficial, but when it 
has bevelled edges an additional calculation 
must be taken into account. The cost of 
the bevelling depends on the width of the 
bevel, reckoned by Jths of an inch ; thus, 
when ordering or asking for quotations, it is 
necessary to specify ^ in., ■§■ in., or | in., or 
whatever the desired width of bevel may be. 
This is reckoned at so much per foot-run, 
taking the edges of the plate all round, 

so that on a plate measuring 1 ft. on each 
edge there are 4 ft. of bevelling, which must be 
reckoned separately, and added to the cost of 
the glass otherwise. The custom of charging 
for fractions of an inch in the bevelling varies, 
but perhaps the usual plan is not to reckon 
anything under half an inch, and to charge 
anything above that as a full inch. Some 
dealers, however, charge all parts as a com¬ 
plete inch. The difference, in any case, is 
very trifling. For ordinary articles of furni¬ 
ture, and for moderate-sized plates of, say, 
anything under 2 ft. square, a f in. bevel 
is suitable, though, if the extra cost be not 
objected to, it may be very well a -| in. or 
1 in. bevel. A great deal depends on cir¬ 
cumstances, for there is absolutely no rule 
to go by, unless it be that the cheaper class 
of furnishing houses always, for very ob¬ 
vious reasons, have very narrow bevels on 
their glasses. When the rates for bevelling 
are quoted by a beveller or dealer, it must 
always be understood that the figures apply 
only to rectangular or round shapes, for 
fancy shapes, with inward curves or corners, 
are always charged considerably higher. 
Thus, it must not be expected that the ordi¬ 
nary rate would apply to such shapes as 
those shown in the diagrams that are given 
in page 40. The reason of this is on 
account of the increased risk of breakage 
during the process of bevelling. It not un- 
frequently happens that the beveller objects 
to give any quotation for such work, but 
charges for it correspondingly to the amount 
of breakage which has happened. In other 
words, the bevelling of irregular shapes 
must be done at the customer’s risk. When 
a quotation is given, the customer may be 
pretty well sure that it is sufficiently high to 
cover the beveller’s risks. Circular or oval 
plates are generally calculated for as if they 
were square-cornered, the longest measure¬ 
ments in each direction being taken. 

In case the word “rate,” which has been 
several times mentioned, might mislead any 
readers by inducing them to believe that a 
uniform tariff is adopted by all bevellers, 
silverers, and glass-dealers or merchants, let 
it be said that there is no uniform standard 
of prices, especially for bevelling and silver¬ 
ing. For the glass itself, there is a kind of 
standard or agreement among some, if not 
all, of the leading plate glass houses ; it is, 
however, not rigidly adhered to, and the 
occasional or amateur buyer can hardly ex¬ 
pect to be put on the same terms as the 
constant buyer for trade purposes. Occasion¬ 
ally a wholesale house may be found who 
will execute a retail or amateur’s order, but 
the prices will naturally be more than for 
extensive or regular trade orders. It will 
therefore seldom or ever be to the advantage 
of the amateur to take much trouble to get 
in communication with the firm who actu¬ 
ally supplies the glass and does the bevelling 
and silvering, for he will probably save 
nothing by so doing. Glass bevellers and 
silverers do not exist in every town of even a 
large size, but there are few without a good 
cabinet-making shop to which glass is sup¬ 
plied wholesale, either from London or else¬ 
where. Mind, when I say cabinet-makers, 
I do not mean mere house-furnishing 
dealers, because there are plenty of so-called 
cabinet-makers who manufacture little or 
nothing of what they sell, and they can 
seldom supply the amateur with glass at a 
reasonable price. Let him, however, go to 
an actual manufacturing firm of cabinet¬ 
makers who are in direct connection with a 
glass house, and he will probably find that he 
can do better than by buying direct himself. 
This applies especially to those who may be 

living in a place to which the prepared 
plates have to be conveyed by rail or other 
carrier: for the simple reason that perhaps 
the retailer gets several plates sent down at 
once, and by that means considerably re¬ 
duces the cost of carriage on each. A single 
plate sent in a case by itself would cost 
nearly as much for carriage as if several 
more were packed in the same case. As 
plates are generally silvered and bevelled 
after they have been ordered— i.e, they are 
not kept in stock—it is necessary to give the 
order several days before the plates are re¬ 
quired for use. From a week to a fortnight 
may be considered a fair time to allow. I 
have purposely refrained from giving any 
scale of prices, because these, on account of 
difference in quality and the various rates 
of carriage between the nearest wholesale 
dealer and wherever the purchaser may re¬ 
side, could only tend to mislead. Any would- 
be buyer can easily ascertain the price at 
which he can be supplied in his own neigh¬ 
bourhood. It will be sufficient for him to 
name the size of the plates he requires, with 
the width of bevel, without troubling him¬ 
self to know the rate per foot. 

Having now given a few hints about glass 
as applied to furniture, the next thing will 
be to describe the actual fixing within the 
frames of the various kinds which are likely 
to find their way into the workshop. This, 
however, must be deferred to a future occa¬ 

- ♦♦♦ - 


To save trouble all round, Contributors and 
Correspondents, present and future, are earnestly 
requested to note and observe the following Rules, 
laid down for their guidance, and to adhere to 
them strictly. Compliance in every particular 
will save much unnecessary loss of time and 
waste of material and money in sending back 
through the post letters, articles, and drawings, 
to have such things done to them as have been 
left undone by the writers. 

And first let me address Contributors,who from 
time to time have been sending, or intend to 
send, papers for publication in Work ; pointing 
out to them that the first paper on “ The Violin: 
How to Make It,” which appeared in No. 105, is, 
in every way, as far as arrangement goes, a model 
paper , showing throughout the proper way in 
which to write articles for Work. To this 
paper contributors are, and will be, referred, 
should occasion require me to do. 

1. Syllabus of Contents. —The title of each and 
every paper must be followed, first by the name 
or nnm de plume of the writer, as preferred by him 
or her; and secondly, by a brief synopsis or 
syllabus of the contents of the paper, comprising 
the sectional divisions of the subject matter of 
the article, and the subdivisions into which each 
sectional division is further divided. The title 
of the sectional division should form a side heading 
to the first paragraph of the section, to be set in 
a black letter as the side heading to this para¬ 
graph. Each subsequent paragraph of the section 
commencing a new subdivision should have its 
title, as a sub-heading, to be set in italics. It is 
desirable that sections should be broken up into 
paragraphs as much as possible. This mode of 
treatment will be found to facilitate reference, 
and, in a great measure, to cause each article to 
carry its index with it. Articles for printers 
should be written on one side only of the paper. 

2. Illustrations. —Illustrations in every case 
must be drawn on separate paper, and not mixed 
up with the text in the manuscript, for the manu¬ 
script, if accepted, is sent to the printer, and the 
illustrations to the engraver. Every illustration 
must have its inscription written clearly beneath 
it, setting forth its number, as Fig. 1, Eig. 2, etc., 
and showing what it is intended to represent. 

Work—April 4,1891.] 



3. Length of Articles. —For the sake of variety 
of subjects and to interest as many readers as 
possible in each, number, ceteris paribus, preference 
•will always be given to short articles. Papers 
should range from one column as a minimum, to 
five or six columns as a maximum; and illustra¬ 
tions from one-eighth of a column as a minimum, 
to one page as a maximum, where the cuts are nu¬ 
merous or necessarily large. Contributors, how¬ 
ever, should seek to attain a happy medium, and, 
whenever possible, to avoid reaching the maxi¬ 
mum, either in subject matter or illustrations. 

*** In future, all Papers and Drawings in which 
these Rules have not been complied with will be 
returned to the senders for the insertion of omitted 
matter. The writers of accepted articles now in the 
Editor's hands must do what is requisite in the slip 
proofs of such articles, when sent to them for 

A few words may now he addressed to Corre¬ 
spondents who write letters to appear in “ Shop,” 
or put questions therein, and to those who write 
answers to such questions. 

1. Letters. —Let all letters be" brief, and kept 
as closely to the point as possible. No personal¬ 
ities of any kind can he admitted. 

2. Questions. —These should be put in as few 
words as possible, and every question should be 
written on a separate piece of paper, because 
questions on different subjects are, as a rule, 
sent to different persons for reply. 

3. Replies to Questions. —In answering ques¬ 
tions, the replies must be made as brief as possible. 
In replies running to considerable length, all 
redundant matter will be struck out, or the 
answer will be returned to the writer for reduction 
in length. When an answer cannot conveniently 
be compressed into a small compass, it is better 
to obtain permission from the Editor to treat it 
in the form of a short paper. 

4. Illustrations. —These must be avoided in 
“ Shop ” as much as possible. In future, only 
such illustrations as may be positively necessary 
will be accepted. 

*** It must be understood that the preceding 
Regulations for Correspondence in “ Shop ” are 
necessary in order to lighten the pressure on that 
department of Work, and to enable Replies to 
Questions to be given far more quickly than at 
present. The Editor. 


A Corner for Those who Want to Talk It. 

In consequence of the great pressure upon the 
“ Shop " columns of Work, contributors are 
requested to be brief and concise in all future 
questions and replies. 

I.—Letters from Correspondents. 

A Useful Candlestick. —W. J. F .(Cork) writes 
“The article here described does not claim to be 
ornamental, but I think there are few tradesmen 
or amateurs who w r ould not at one time or other 
find it useful. We often hear the request from a 
worker for ‘somebody to hold 
the candle.’ This article, with¬ 
out altogether doing away with 
the necessity for ‘somebody,’ 
will do so in some cases, and 
that is an advantage. Its con¬ 
struction is simplicity itself. It 
consists of a base and two sides. 
The base may be any piece of 
waste wood, say, 10 in. by 4 \ in. 
by 1J in.; and the sides, say, 
3 in. by 2in. by 1 in. Of course, 
the sides may be as long as 
desired, and of any proportions; 
a higher candlestick would re¬ 
quire a larger base. The long 
edges of the base will be 
bevelled slightly towards the 
top; a i in. of bevel will be 
enough for the measurements 
given. The sides are then 
nailed on to the base, and left 
loose at the top. It will then 
be found that they have a 
spring at the top strong enough 
to hold a candle. The inner 
parts that grasp the candle 
should be hollowed slightly 
with a gouge. The candle can 
be pushed up or down easily, 
and will remain in position. 
Thus you can make a candle¬ 
stick of any height—8 in. or 9 
feet if you wish. A smaller size, about 11 in.high, 
is very handy for bench use, and a great improve- 

Useful Candle¬ 

ment on the ‘piece of wood and four nails,' an 
arrangement which does duty in so many places.” 

II.— Questions Answered by Editor and Staff. 

Relief Stamping. — J oint. — The specimens 
which you send are all very good. In the larger 
ones, where the line and a few of the letters are 
broken, the fault is but trifling ; it may arise from 
several causes. First, the die may not have been 
properly filled up with colour. Use a good stiff 
brush, and daub well into the die. Secondly, your 
method of “ wiping ” or cleaning may be at fault. 
Try the old-fashioned style of “ wiping ” on paper, 
and, if possible, use hard paper—waste of cream- 
laid paper. Avoid thin “ printing." Be sure that 
your “ matrix” is sharp. The die itself might want 
“picking out" or touching up. I am inclined to 
think that your matrix has not been sharp enough. 
You will find this out by looking at the reverse side 
of the stamped sheet. Tbe impression will appear 
lighter at the faulty parts.—G. C. 

Venetian Blinds.— Benedict.— The rollers for 
the action may be obtained of any ironmonger, or 
at an upholsterer’s warehouse. The article promised 
will soon appear.—B. A. B. 

Work Index and “ Shop.” — There is pub¬ 
lished a complete Index to Vols. I. and II. The 
“Shop" supplements are already paged. 

Speaking Machine.— H. M. W. (Blackpool).—You 
want to know how to make a “speaking machine” 
in the simplest manner. Perhaps the article on the 
“ Phonograph." which is to appear shortly, will take 
your fancy.—W. D. 

Glass Writing. —A. H. ( Stratford . A.). — The 
following matter on writing on glass is to be found 
in “The Art and Craft of Sign Writing,” by Mr. 
Wm. Sutherland :—Chap.VII., Decorating on Glass; 
Chap. VIII., Gilding on Glass; Chap. IX., Gilding 
on Glass ( continued ); Chap. X., Gilding on Ground 
Glass, etc.; Chap. XI., Gilding and Ornamenting on 
Glass (the application of printing processes) : Chap. 
XII., Embossed and Figured Glass; Chap. XIII., Em¬ 
bossing and Etching on Glass with Acids; Chap. 
XIV., Embossing Flushed Glass; Chap. XV.,White 
Acid Method ; Chap. XVI., Another Method of Em¬ 
bossing on Glass. If you require a copy of this work, 
you must hurry up, as there are only about forty 
copies left, and the book will not be reprinted. 
Queries cannot be answered by post.—H. L. B. 

Lacquering.— C. B. (Huddersfield).— There must 
be something radically wrong somewhere if, as you 
say, jmu invariably get your lacquering streaky. 
This is often due to tbe separation of the brush— 
that is, the hair of the brush, etc., instead of keeping 
in one broad surface, spreads out in two or three 
portions pointed at the ends; the parts between 
the points thus do not get their share of lacquer. 
You can easily see if this is the cause in your case ; 
if so, get better brushes, with a good body of hair in. 
The best “wrinkle” I can give you is to go in for 
the new American substitute for lacquer, which is 
now used by most of our leading brass manufac¬ 
turers. It is called “Zapon," and is sold by the 
Fredk. Crane Chemical Co., 22, Newhall Hill, Bir¬ 
mingham ; and Short Hills, New Jersey, U.S.A. 
I find it far superior to ordinary lacquer, both in 
ease of application and also in appearance, which 
is the chief thing after all; for, as you say, it is 
annoying after getting an article up to perfection, 
to spoil it in the lacquering, but with zapon there is 
very little fear of this, and the article looks just as 
handsome after lacquering (or zaponning, as it is 
termed) as it did before. For figured work especially 
it is suitable, as it preserves the finest hair-lines in 
all their metallic sharpness. It does not “ set ” so 
quickly as lacquer, which is an advantage on plain, 
highly polished surfaces, such as you speak about. 
I have no doubt that, from the reading of this, many 
will try a sample, as lacquering seems a “crux” for 
many; and, therefore, I append a few instructions 
for its use, trusting they will prove of service to you 
and others who may read them. In the first place, 
it is very important that as much care should be 
taken in cleaning the work, and freeing it from all 
grease, polishing material, etc., as in ordinary 
lacquering; and the zaponning should be done in 
a room which is free from dust and draughts, and 
the articles should not be handled, as the fingers 
leave marks on the polished surface, and grease as 
well. Articles to be zaponned do not require to be 
heated, another great advantage, but it is best 
applied in a warm room, and the articles should not 
be quite chilly. There are two ways of applying 
zapon—viz., by “dipping” and by “brushing.” It 
i3 recommended to dip all articles that will admit 
of so doing, but in cases where, from consideration 
of expense or from the size of the article this i3 not 
practicable, brushing may be resorted to. In this 
case, the zapon should be flowed on with a full 
brush, care being taken not to brush over any part 
a second time until it has become dry, when any 
part that has been missed maybe touched up again. 
Wave marks or brush marks will entirely disappear 
when dry. Should the articles peel after coating, 
the cause is grease. The foregoing remarks apply 
to “ Dip Zapon.” “ Brush Zapon ” should be applied 
as thin as possible ; therefore, wipe the brush free 
from all excess, the same as in ordinary lacquering. 
Brush once only over the surface to be covered, and 
allow it to dry; a second coat may then be given if 
desirable, but it is not necessary if tbe work is 
covered. It can be had colourless, and in various 
colours, gold, green, etc., etc.—R. A. 

Bird Cages and Wire Baskets.— Kent Coast. 
—Consult the Index to Work, Vol. II., for Bird 

Cages. Wire-working in all its branches is treated 
in this volume, and commenced in No. 105 of Work. 

Speaking Tube. — J. McD. (Glasgow).— You 
need have little fear of your speaking tube not 
acting, provided you take care to fit it up properly. 
Use good tubing, about f in. internal diameter. Be 
sure that the joints are quite sound and air-tight, 
and that the interior surface is quite smooth. You 
could, of course, use telephones, but they would be 
much more costly. A complete installation, in¬ 
cluding bells, switches, etc., would cost £5 or £6. 
Messrs. Cox & Co., 11, Fetter Lane, would supply 
you with all requirements for the above sum : you 
could easily fit them from their instructions.—W. D. 

Paper Cap. — Caradoc. — It is extremely easy 
to make these caps, but extremely difficult to ex- 
pla ; n clearly how it is to be done. However, 
with the help of diagrams, I hope to be fully 
understood. First, make the paper exactly square, 
three times the size of the crown—thus for 7 in. 
square cap, the paper must be 21 in. by 21 in.; for 
Gt in. cap, 194 in. by 194 in. ; for 6 in. cap, 18 in. 
by 18 in. Now spread your paper flat out before 
you as in Fig. 1, and on the diagonal line A B 
fold the point c on d, crease it, and again spread 
out the paper flat; and in like manner on c D 
fold the point b over a, crease it, and flatten out 
again. Secondly, fold the square into thirds, first 
on the line e e, and next on f f (see Fig. 2); then 
fold the strip again into thirds on gg, hh (see 
Fig. 3). Now spread the paper out flat. It will then 
be seen that the square go,hu will form the future 

G H 

Jig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 4. 

' Z - 


Paper Cap. 

crown, whilst ef,gg, and hh, ef will form two plain 
sides when the said sides are folded at right angles 
to the crown. In Fig. 1 all the outward creases are 
drawn in full line, whilst the inward creases are only 
dotted. Now to form the other two sides of the cap, 
and at the same time to maintain the plain sides 
in their proper position. Fold down and pinch 
together on the respective lines ag,hd,hb, and g c, 
the small squares a e i g, jhde, hlfb, fcgk into 
triangles, and fold them against the two sides 
ig jh, gkhl, with d upon i and a upon j on one 
side, and B upon k and c upon L on the other side 
(see Fig. 4). Now fold up all round about 1 in. of 
your four sides (see Fig. 5), and proceed then to 
turn up a second time all round at x x and z z, thus 
forming a band which will firmly hold the cap 
together.—J. W. H. 

Scene Painting.— Fretworker.— Articles upon 
this subject have already appeared in Vol. II. The 
other subject you refer to will be treated in due 



[Work—April 4, 1891. 

Poles of Magnetic Needle.— Amateur.— You 
«.re quite right. The north pole end of the compass 
needle is, strictly speaking, the north-seeking end 
of the needle, and is therefore the south pole of the 
magnetic needle employed in the compass. But 
this end, by common consent, is regarded as the 
north pole of the needle, and the relation of other 
magnets to this is determined accordingly. In con¬ 
verting a steel bar into a bar magnet by enclosing it 
in an electrical solenoid, we regard the end to the 
left of the course of the electric current as the north 
pole end of the magnet.—G. E. B. 

Charge for a Voltaic Battery.— R. L. (No 

Address). — If the battery is intended to be a 
Bunsen, charge the cell containing the zinc with 
one part sulphuric acid in from eight to twelve 
parts of water. Allow the mixture to cool before 
placing it in the cell. Charge the cell containing 
the carbon with strong nitric acid—no water in 
this. The acids must not be mixed together. The 
carbon plates should go in the porous pots with the 
nitric acid, leaving the outer and larger pots for 
the zinc cylinders and the mixture of sulphuric acid 
and water.—G. E. B. 

Rendering Parchment Transparent and 
Waterproof.— Bannerman.— So far as I under¬ 
stand his requirements, I imagine that Bannerman 
might get what he wants by following the process 
sometimes resorted to for making imitation oil 
paintings from old mezzo-tinto engravings. To do 
this, the back of the print is covered with repeated 
coats of mastic varnish till it becomes transparent; 
oil colours, chiefly in flat tints, are then laid on the 
back. The best advice I can give to Bannerman 
is to try the mastic varnish in this way. As X do 
not know his purpose, I cannot say positively that 
this will give as much transparency as he requires, 
but I presume that it will; and it will certainly 
make the parchment waterproof, without impairing 
its strength, which are points upon which he insists. 
Of course he must take care that his parchment is 
of uniform thickness, or it will not appear equally 
transparent in all parts.—S. W. 

Alarum Clock.— C. Iv. ( Mildmay Park, IV.).— 
Take out the movement, and on the arbor that 
carries the alarm hand (that is, if a lever; you do 
not say if a lever or pendulum) between the plates 
is generally a spring to hold the arbor tight. This 
spring may have got loose by the pins coming out; 
if so, pin it up tight. Or perhaps the wheel that 
rides loose on the arbor, and has a notch cut in the 
edge of the collet or sleeve, and is pressed against a 
pin going through the arbor, gets fixed in rising up 
the slope. Smooth the slope up nicely, also the pin, 
and put a little oil, then try. Or perhaps the arm on 
the hammer is bent down out of the way of the 
hook or up too hard against it. I think you will find 
one of above faults with it.—A. B. C. 

Enamelling Metal.— J. P. (Bethnal Green).— 
The so-called enamel, such as is applied to bicycles 
and tricycles, is simply a fine japan, but enamel 
has somehow a better sound, or is considered a 
more taking name, so I suppose that is why the 
vendors of such articles so term it. Such being the 
case, we naturally arrive at the conclusion that it is 
applied in the same way. And as to the question 
whether it is too difficult for an amateur, that 
depends upon whether the amateur is prepared to 
go to the expense of erecting an oven large enough 
to stove the parts in, for this is the secret of good 
enamelling, or japanning, whichever you like to 
call it. If, as is most likely the case, you are not 
prepared to do this, there are for your choice the 
various articles advertised for this purpose, such as 
Foochow, Guest’s, Aspinall's, etc.: you will find their 
prices and addresses in any issue of the cycling 
papers. They answer their purpose fairly well, but 
are not to be compared with stoved work. I am a 
bit of a cyclist myself, and when my "steed” re¬ 
quires a fresh “coat,” I purchase a little best black 
japan (not Brunswick black) and a little of the best 
carriage varnish that I can get for money. Two 
coats of the black and one of varnish, and I have 
a nice-looking machine again, and the renovation 
costs not more than Is. 6d., and lasts a whole season, 
which is as long as I care for. Moral—Go and do 
likewise.—R. A. 

Lamp for Box Battery. — A Subscriber. — 
I infer your lamp to be a 10-volt 8 c.p. incandescent 
electric lamp. As you cannot light such a lamp with 
current from a small 4-celled box battery, the fault 
lies more in the selection of lamp than in the con¬ 
struction of the battery. The lamp should only 
require from 6 to 8 volts—six, rather than eight- but 
not higher than the latter figure, or you will get no 
light at all. Mix the bichromate of potash solution 
with the sulphuric acid in a stoneware jar, and 
allow the liquid to cool before placing it in the 
cells. The brass tang may be soldered to the zinc 
if the joint is well made, and the lead heads for 
the carbons may be square instead of round, 
without in any way interfering with the working 
of the battery. Add another cell or two to your 
battery if you are going to use the same lamp, and 
you will then get a light from it.—G. E. B. 

Drilling China. — H. P. (Brighton).—The best 
and easiest way is to drill with a chip of diamond 
set in a tube, and used with a special drill, such as 
is illustrated in the article upon “China and Glass 
Riveting ” in No. 53 of Work. Read this article, 
and if it is such work you wish to undertake, you 
will, I think, gather some useful hints from it. 
—W. E. D. 

Stuffed Bird-Case.— F. M. (A'o Address).— I 
send a sketch of bird-case. To make it, pro¬ 
ceed as follows :—Procure a piece of pine 3 ft. 
4 in. long, 2 in. wide, and II in. thick, and plane 
it up, then run a rabbet 4 in. wide and $ in. deep 
(as per sketch a. Fig. 3) for the bottom board to 
rest in ; then run the rabbets and mould as Fig. 3, 

b, then procure a piece of pine 1-1 in. square, 
7 ft. 6 in. long; cut off a piece 3 ft. 7 in. long, and after 
planing up square, run a rabbet 1 in. by | in. down 
each side as per sketch (Fig. 4', then take the other 
piece and rabbet it 1 in. by J in. down one side only, 
and down the other a rabbet 4 in. each way; this is 
for the back to rest in (Fig. 5). Get another piece 3 
ft. long, and plane up as Fig. 6; this is for the top 
frame. We will now make the framework. Take the 
piece of base framing and cut a piece off 1 ft. 71 in. 
long with a mitre at each end, then cut two more 
pieces 71 in. long with a mitre at one end only, and 
proceed to glue and nail them together like Fig. 
7, with the large rabbet inside. Now' take two 
pieces like Fig. 4, 1 ft. 91 in. long, and cut a bit out at 
one end from corner to corner of each rabbet as 
per dotted i te, and Jin. deep; this will allow' the 
iront pillars to rest on the base frame at the points 

c, c. Now, if you place the front pillars on the base 
frame, you will find that the rabbets are exactly in 

Pillars. Fig. 5.—Plan of Back Pillars. Fig. 6. 

—Top Frame. Fig. 7 .—Mitred End. 

one place, and by cutting the corner of the base 
frame down to c (Fig. 3) as per line g (Fig. 7), until 
the front pillars are on a line with F (Fig. 3), you 
will be able to glue and nail them in position as 
shown in Figs. land2(D, d). Now take the piece that 
you have rabbeted (Fig. 5) and cut two pieces off 
1 ft. 9) in. long each, and then cut them as per dotted 
line (Fig. 5), and J in. deep, care being taken that 
you do not cut the wrong end, as all the rabbets that 
are \ in. by i in. must come together for the glass to 
fit in. Now, if you put the piece on Fig. 7 with the 
rabbets in place, you will see that you can cut a 
piece out of the end of the base frame end 1 in. 
long and } in. deep, which will let the ends of the 
back pillars rest on o, c (Fig. 3), the same as the 
front pillars. Now take the piece of top frame 
and cut a piece 1 ft. 4 in. long, and cut a piece 
out of each end 1 in. long and I in. wide from 
the back; this will allow it to fit into the rabbet 
of the front pillars and also the back of the same 
at h (Fig. 4). Now cut two more 5 in. long for 
the ends; cut them the same as the front, and glue 
and nail all firmly together. Now take a piece of £ 
in. pine, X ft. 71 in. long and 71 in. wide, plane it up, 
and round the edge off on three sides, leaving the 
back square. Now proceed to glue and nail it on the 
top, letting it project 1 in. on the front and sides 
only, and you will have frame like Figs, land 2. Now 
take a piece of board and fit it in the rabbets of the 
base frame in the inside for the bottom of the case, 
then procure sufficient board to make the back, and 
let it just drop inside the rabbets of the back pillars, 
so that, it will come flush with them at o (Fig. 2). 
You can now use your own taste in blacking or 
gilding the frame, but if the front pillars are stop- 

chamfered and picked out in gold, with the other 
parts ebonised, you will be quite satisfied with the 
looks of the case. Now put in the glass, or you can 
fasten in the back, covering it with calico stretched 
tight to paste the paper on, and after pasting the 
paper on and distempering the back and top and 
the inside of the front pillars, you may make your 
rockwork or tree on a separate board and. slip it 
inside the case, fastening it down with screws. You 
can now bead in your glass and black the back of 
the case with glue and lampblack. Of course, you 
can use your own taste for the front pillars, but I 
do not like turned ones ; they are not as neat as one 
that is stop-chamfered and beaded like the moulding 
you buy in black and gold.—J. A. W. 

Stain.— S. S. (Salford). —To stain birch a mahogany 
colour is not difficult. As good a stain as any for the 
purpose is a decoction of logwood chips in water. 
Test the strength on a piece of waste wood before 
using it on anything of value. Your question about 
matching up teak is one that cannot be answered 
satisfactorily, for in this class of work no definite 
directions can be given. One might just as well 
ask how an artist gets effects in a picture, and then 
expect to do the same when one gets to know the 
paints he uses, without having any knowledge of the 
art of painting. Matching-up is an art which may to» 
a certain extent be learned under a good teacher, but 
hardly at all from verbal instruction. I should ex¬ 
periment with those pigments which seem most 
likely to give the tints you want, and carefully note 
the results. The various shades of brown are most 
likely to be useful to you.—D. D. 

Ebonite. W. A. N. ( Forest Hill).—I do not know 
of any material by this name, but from your de¬ 
scription it is probably the same as vulcanite. If 
so, it can be got from any shop where indiarubher 
goods are sold. It can be cut with a saw and other 
tools. I presu me you want it for fret-cutting. It is not 
very pleasant to work with—at least, not so much so 
as xylonite, with which there is not the slightest, 
tendency to chip. However, your best plan will be 
to get a small piece of each, and, by trial, ascertain 
which of them suits you best.— X). A. 

Varnishing and Polishing.—T. B. ( Dodworth ). 
—What you ask for are apparently full directions, 
for both polishing and varnishing, as well as 
staining—in fact, a complete guide to the work. 
To give this is, of course, out of the question in 
“ Shop.” As you say you are quite unacquainted 
with the art of polishing, I am afraid I musk ask 
you to wait a bit before your wishes can be gratified; 
but in the meantime, you will do well to read over 
the numerous hints on the subject which have 
already appeared in these columns. Perhaps it may 
be of assistance to you to recommend you to buy 
stains ready made, and to varnish with a brush 
instead of polishing with a rubber. Copal or any 
hard clear varnish will do for the purpose. I hope 
these hints will be of service to you. If you find any 
difficulty, let us know, and we will do what we can 
to help you, but it is impossible to give a novice full 
instructions for the practice of a difficult art in all 
its phases in “ Shop,” or even in any one number of 
Work.— L). D. 

Safety Cycles.— J. W. H. S. ( Sharow )—A series 
of articles on this subject will appear in this volume 
of Work. 

Silvering by Nitrate.— G. O. M. (London).— 
There are several recipes given for this, but 
perhaps the two following will be as easy for you 
as any :— (a) Dissolve ten grains of pure nitrate of 
silver in 1 oz. of water; stir with a glass rod, and 
drop strong ammonia in until the brown precipitate 
is redissolved. Make separately a solution of ten 
grains of Rochelle salt in 1 oz. of water. Clean the 
glass well, and warm by the fire or in the sun; 
make a wall of putty, beeswax, or other suitable 
substance round the edges to prevent the liquid 
flowing off. When ready, pour on sufficient of the 
two solutions to cover the glass to a depth of about 
i in., using two parts of the nitrate to one part of 
Rochelle salt. Let it stand, if possible, in the 
sunshine for an hour or two, until the silver is 
deposited; then pour off what remains, and wash 
four or five times with soft water; let it dry, and 
finish by varnishing either with equal parts of bees¬ 
wax and tallow, or one composed of gum dammar, 
twenty parts; asphalte, five parts; gutta-percha, 
five parts; and benzine, seventy-five parts. This 
latter sets very hard. ( b ) Dissolve 1 oz. of nitrate of 
silver, A oz. of spirits of hartshorn, and 2 oz. of water; 
filter; then add 3 oz. of spirits of wine or naphtha, 
and about twenty-five drops of oil of cassia ; let it 
remain a few hours, when it will be ready for use. 
Prepare the glass in the same way, and pour on the 
solution; then drop into it, in different places, a few 
drops of oil of cloves and spirits of wine (one part 
of oil of cloves to three parts of spirits of wine). 
The more oil of cloves the quicker the deposit, but 
too much should not be used. Finish off in the same 
way as in the first recipe.—W. E. D. 

Mould for Lead Heads.— H. F. F. (Hackney).— 
The mould for the lead castings on the heads of 
carbon plates used in Leclanche cells may be made 
of any moulding material, such as sand, loam, or 
plaster of Paris. Get an old carbon, and use the 
head of this for a pattern. The carbon plates have 
the heads cast on them head end downward, resting 
on the tang of the binding screw thrust into the 
bottom of the mould. An iron mould, cast to the 
shape of the lead head, will turn out the sharpest 
and best finished castings, and can also be worked 
at a faster rate than moulds made in sand or in 
plaster of Paris.—G. E. B. 

Work—April 4, 1891.] 



Carbon Plates.— F. W. (Addlestone).— If the gas 
retort carbon is dense, close-grained, and hard, the 
plates cut from it will do equally well with those 
bought elsewhere. Use an old saw or one im¬ 
provised from hoop iron, plenty of wet sand, and 
elbow grease without stint. It is a dirty and a 
laborious job.—G. E. B. 

> Slides of Brass Wind Instruments.— Yorkio. 
—Heat the outside of the slides over a gas jet, tak¬ 
ing care not to fuse the solder. Pour a little oil (not 
paraffin, which is not a good lubricant) on the junc¬ 
tion of interior and exterior slides. When the oil 
has been drawn in through the action of the heat, 
pass a narrow slip of stout linen or canvas through 
the bow of slide, and fix the ends in a vice, or tie them 
round some fixed object; then pull the instrument 
steady and firmly. If the slide cannot be now 
■drawn, the bow must be unsoldered, and each side 
be attacked separately. For this purpose a small 
mandrel (which can be made in wood), to fit tightly 
the bore of slide, is required. When inserted in the 
slide, it should project sufficiently to give you good 
purchase. Then, after again heating and oiling, try 
and turn the slide, drawing it at the same time firmly 
toward you. Should this fail, there is probably a 
bruise in the slides, and it is a case beyond amateur 
curing. Send the instrument to the maker. If the 
bruise cannot be taken out by acting upon the 
suggestions given on page 780 in No. 100, you had 
better send it to a maker. Any attempt to straighten 
the bow of bell would almost certainly result in 
cracking the tubes; and even if you succeeded in 
escaping this danger, you could not bend it back 
to its original shape again.—G. 

Tobacco. — N. M. (Norwich).— Tobacco plants 
are raised from seed, which, in this country, is 
commonly sown in heat (in a frame, pit, etc.) in 
the month of March, the seedlings being pricked 
out into small pots, and not placed in the open air 
till the mild weather of June has set in. Or, in the 
open air, the seed is sown in sunny borders early in 
May. The tobacco plant loves a warm, sheltered 
spot, with a southern aspect. It is very susceptible 
to cold east winds. It requires a rich soil—to plant 
it in any other is indeed seed and trouble thrown 
away. It should have a deep, free loam, or ground 
deeply trenched with well-rotted manure. In dry 
weather it needs an abundance of water. For the 
purposes of commerce, the plants are cut when the 
leaves begin to change to a yellowish-green. They 
are first laid upon the ground to dry, the thicker 
stems being slit through to facilitate drying. After¬ 
wards they are hung on poles, so that the air may 
have free access to them. If, as is often the case in 
this country, artificial heat is needed to assist, it 
must be of a very gentle kind. When just suffi¬ 
ciently dry (not so dry as to break), the tobacco 
is heaped together on wooden platforms to ferment 
or “sweat." The drying and sweating are very 
delicate operations, and much care and skill in 
them are required to produce a high class article. 
—A. Y. 

Silvering Mirrors.— E. T. {Blackburn).— Several 
replies have been published upon this subject during 
the last few months in Work. The process is as 
follows A piece of tinfoil is covered with mercury 
fquicksilver); a sheet of paper is laid upon it, and 
the glass upon the paper, which is then withdrawn, 
leaving the glass resting upon the foil and quick¬ 
silver ; it is then weighted down until dry. Although 
this sounds rather easy, in practice it is the reverse, 
and the larger the glass the more difficult it becomes 
for an amateur.—W. E. D. 

Hydrofluoric Acid.— Etcher writes“ Can you 
tell me how the white acid used in glass-etching 
is made?’’ — By white acid, I suppose you mean 
hydrofluoric acid (H 2 F 2 ), or fluoric acid, as it is 
sometimes called. It is made as follows:—Powdered 
fluoride of calcium is placed in a leaden retort, and 
twice its weight of sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) 
poured upon it, and by means of a stick is made into 
a paste; it is now gently heated, when gas is freely 
given off; this must be collected in another leaden 
vessel containing water. The water absorbs the gas, 
and it is continued until it will take up no more. 
The water is thus highly charged with acid, and is 
the liquid hydrofluoric acid used in etching glass. 
Great care must be used in making it: the operation 
ought to be conducted in the open air, as it acts 
injuriously upon the organs of respiration. The 
vapours produce pain at the finger-ends, and drops 
on the skin act like a red-hot iron, producing painful 
sores; it must also be stored in indiarubber bottles, 
as it corrodes and dissolves glass. Should you only 
need a small quantity, it i3 far better to buy it than 
to make it, on account of the difficulty and danger. 
You ask “ how the designs are put on.” The glass 
is coated with Brunswick black, beeswax, or some 
other substance that will resist the acid, and the 
design is cut through that down to the wax. Designs 
are cut with wheels of different diameters, mounted 
in a lathe, and wetted with emery and oil.—W. E. D. 

Coloured Views.— A. E. S. (Glasgow).—I cannot 
decide to what class of articles you refer when you 
ask for the process of producing “ coloured view 
articles,” such as are sold at “coast fancy goods 
stores.” Now there are several kinds—some being 
coloured photographs, and mounted in optical 
contact with glass. Some small articles are simply 
coloured prints in optical contact with glass; others 
again may be printed in inks, such as common 
earthenware is done with. Perhaps this is what you 
mean as you mention ink. How did you make your 
ink ? Did you use metallic colours? None other are 
of any use with glass or pottery. This probably was 
the cause of your failing.—W. E. D. 

Engine Power.— G. D. (Sheffield).—It there is no 
expansive working—that is, if the initial pressure 
of 60 lb. is continued to the end of the stroke—you 
would get, allowing for friction, about a i h.p. 
from your engine, rather under than over perhaps. 
By calculation, it would come out f h.p.: thus, 
pressure x area of piston x vel ocity in feet per second 


60 lb. x3T416xI33 feet . 

— = '7o h.p.- 



Camera.— H. W. (Gateshead ).—The shutter most 
generally approved for studio work is Cadett’s 
Patent Shutter, which is simply a flap shutter 
attached to the back of the lens mount and worked 
by the expansion of a small bellows working be¬ 
tween the sides of a case with a movable lid, to 
which the shutter is connected. The pneumatic 
principle of action is, of course, the same in all 
shutters, being the expansion in a small air-tight 
bag at one end of a tube by the compression of a 
larger one at the other. A variety is made by the 
propulsion of a small sealed tube from another open 
one, in which it slides, the sealed tube pressing 
upon a lever or trigger as the case may be, as in Fig. 
1. The dotted lines show the indiarubber tube 
connected with a ball, from which the air is forced 
by pressure with the hand; a represents the short 
sliding tube with stops. The advantage of having 
the shutter work at the back of the lens inside the 
camera is that it can be used without attracting the 
attention of the sitter, an important matter where 
children are concerned The shutter itself is made 
of a frame of bent wire, over which black velvet or 
cloth is stretched, and of a size sufficiently large to 
cover, and a little to spare, the lens to be used. The 
attachment consists of a ring of wood covered with 
cloth, with a loose piece that can be pressed 
against the lens mount by means of a thumbscrew, 
as in Fig. 2. The manner in which the flap is raised 
and lowered is that the wire framework, which 

Fig. 2. 

Camera Parts. 

Fig. 1. 

works on a bar above the 
lens, is brought down on one 
side in the form of a short 
lever, against which the pneu¬ 
matic arrangement presses, 
thus raising the flap. A piece 
of elastic is stretched across 
the flap a little below its point 
of suspension, that immedi¬ 
ately on the removal of the 
pressure brings it (the flap) 
back to its original position 
over the lens. There is a 
great variety of methods of utilising the air 
pressure and forms of shutters, but up to the present 
time for studio work the simple flap is preferred. 
With regard to the other questions, the use of 
hinges in sliding frame is that a longer extension of 
the camera may be had than if it were only the size 
of the solid unhinged part of the baseboard. In the 
diagram shown, it will be seen that without hinges 
the frame would prevent the closing of the base¬ 
board, which, although not perhaps clearly shown, 
does fold up, the shorter piece being of the width 
of the front woodwork of the camera. The bent 
wire acts as a spring when either one or both 
of the shutters are in place, and the use of it is to 
stop out the light by pressing one of the strips of 
wood to cover the opening on the withdrawal of 
the shutter, and the spring is got by the pressure 
of the wire against the shutter that remains in 
place. If the division between the plates is too 
thick for the plates used, there is no objection to 
making it of thin zinc or other metal blackened. 
The buttons that keep the plates in position are sunk 
level with the framing. The less play between the 
division and plates the better, so long as there is 
room, making allowance for the varying thickness 
of the glass in general use. If metal is used, a 
weak spring fixed on each side is an advantage. 
Some prefer a piece of blackened cardboard, slightly 
buckled. The idea is to keep the plates in proper 
register by pressing them gently against the but¬ 
tons in front, whatever may be the plan used to 
effect it.—D. 

Engine, etc.— C. S. W. (Settle).—It will be quite 
sufficient to add the names of the towns only in 
which the firms you name carry on business, pro¬ 
vided you put on the envelopes the nature of the 
business. If you want a model, you cannot do better 
than advertise in Work. There will probably be an 
horizontal engine described in Work shortly.—J. 

Paper-Making Machinery. —H. W. C. (Lee, 
S.E.).—We do not see why the idea should not 
succeed, and it appears to be novel. If it does the 
work proposed, it would probably be worth patent¬ 
ing.-C. E. 

Electrotyping— Electro.—(1) The wires leading 
from the dynamo to the vat get hot, because they 
are not large enough to carry the current required 
in the vat. The sulphate coating has nothing what¬ 
ever to do with the heating. (2) If the wire from 
the negative pole of the machine is connected to a 
stout metal bar on which the slinging wires or clips 
of the moulds rest, and the wire from the positive 
pole of the machine is connected to a similar stout 
metal bar supporting the anodes, there should be no 

necessity to connect the wires at both ends. The 
resistance is not at these points, but in the leading 
wires themselves. (3) Electrotypes for the press are 
mounted on wood blocks, the whole being made 
“type-high." Electros on metal are employed for 
ornamental purposes. The prices charged for these 
are variable.—G. E. B. 

Nickel Bath.— B. J. (Dorking).— To make up 
twenty-five gallons of nickel solution for plating, 
procure J cwt. of double sulphate of nickel and 
ammonia. This will cost about 23s. from such firms 
as Messrs. J. E. Hartley & Co., 13, St. Paul’s Square, 
Birmingham. Dissolve the nickel salt in hot rain¬ 
water, and filter it through calico into the vat; then 
fill up with filtered rain-water. The solution should 
be neutral to blue litmus paper, and have a specific 
gravity of 1520, as tested by a direct reading specific 
gravity hydrometer. If it is acid, the acidity must 
be corrected by adding sufficient liquid ammonia. 
If the solution is too dense, withdraw some of the 
liquid into another vessel, and fill up the vat with 
rain-water. As a rule, use 1 lb. of nickel salts to 
each gallon of water. Work with a large surface of 
pure nickel anode, obtainable where the salts are to 
be obtained.—G. E. B. 

Pencil-Holder.— Pen.— We have examined the 
description and sketch sent us, and it appears 
to be a useful and practical idea, but whether it is a 
novelty we could not say without a search to ascer¬ 
tain if prior rights have been established by any¬ 
one. There is not the least doubt but that many less 
promising inventions are patented daily; but before 
taking any steps in regard to patenting, you should 
make, or have made by a competent person, such a 
search as would decide this important point, and 
then you will be in the proper position to consider 
what you had better do in the matter.—C. E. 

Work Volumes. — Faiero.— You should ad¬ 
dress the publishers—Messrs. Cassell & Company, 
Limited, London, E.C.—but the price of a Work 
volume (7s. 6d.) is so small that it will be hardly 
worth your while to write about the cost of ex¬ 
changing numbers for a volume. 

Model Electric Lights.— F. E. O. (No Address). 
—Articles on the above subject appeared in Work, 
Nos. 76, 82,89, 92,94, 97, 99, 100, and 104. They can be 
had through your bookseller, or from the publishers, 
Messrs. Cassell & Company, Limited, London, E.C. 

Harmonium Reeds.— It is useless to place har¬ 
monium reeds on pipe organs, as the reeds will not 
keep in tune with the pipes. Change of tempera¬ 
ture, which wifi lower the pitch of the pipes, will 
heighten that of the reeds, so that the resulting dif¬ 
ference is considerable. The only thing practicable 
is to add a set of reed pipes, a small trumpet for 
loud stops, and an oboe or clarionet for softer tones. 
You do not say what stops your organ is to contain, 
so I am unable to advise as regards any additional 
flue pipes. As regards a black stain for wood, I do 
not think you can get anything to sink deep into the 
wood unless it is put on boiling hot ; but perhaps 
some other contributor may be able to assist you in 
this matter.—M. W. 

Marbling Colours. —W. J. J. ( Southwick).— 
Marbling colours ready ground, in air-tight tubes, 
which I mentioned in my articles on “ Book¬ 
binding,” may be obtained in large or small quan¬ 
tities from Messrs. Berry & Roberts, St. Bride 
Street, London, E.C. They vary greatly in price. 
-G. C. 

Stitching in Binding.— Nil Desperandum.— 
I have not the slightest idea of what you want. 
Here is your query: “Is there no other way of 
stitching other than stitching through the cardboard 
and buckram in bookbinding; and if so, will you 
kindly let me know?” Write again, and try and 
explain your difficulty a little more definitely. 
—G. C. 

Stamping.— J. S. (Amsterdam,).— You have used 
Dutch metal instead of gold-leaf, which is really the 
cause of your failure. But if you follow carefully 
the instructions given on the page you quote, use 
real gold, and use the powder supplied by Mr. W. 
Valters, 1, Pembroke Terrace, The Park, Salisbury, 
Wiltshire, you will have the best stamped silk, satin, 
or velvet in Europe. Do not use bronze powder 
or Dutch metal, which, although cheaper in the 
first cost, turns out the most expensive in the end. 
When you have tried the powder, you might report, 
as I would like to know if you succeed to your own 
satisfaction.—G. C. 

Index to Vol. I. — L. K. ( London , S.E.). — An 
Index to Vol. I. of Work has been ready since the 
volume ended, and has been advertised many times 
in Work. The price is Id., or post free for l£d., 
from the publishers, Messrs. Cassell 8c Company, 
Limited, London, E.C. The Index to VoL II. is now 
ready, price Id.; post free, lid. 

Gutta-Percha Soles.— Weekly Reaper.— An 
article on the above subject appeared in Work, 
No. 102. It was entitled “An Easy Method of Re¬ 
soling Boots.” This will suit you, probably. 

“Patent.”— D. K. (Dumfries).— Provisional pro¬ 
tection gives no legal right to the use of the word 
“ Patent.” The legal right to do so is only ac¬ 
quired when the patent has actually been granted. 
—C. C. C. 

Violin Papers. -J. B. (Broomhead).— These will 
be given in Vol. III. of Work, now commencing. 

Book on Practical Blacksmithing.— Wasse, 
—The name and address of the publishers of the 
above work, noticed in “ Our Guide to Good 
Things,” No. 89 of Work, is given at the end of the 
notice. Write to the publishers for the price of the 


Shop, etc. 

[Work—April 4, 1891. 

IIL—Questions Submitted to Correspondents. 

Pendulum.— Hora writes : —“ Will anyone give 
me the dimensions for a half-seconds compensated 
zinc and iron pendulum —viz., length of suspension 
spring, length of steel or iron centre rod, length of 
zmc tube, and length of external iron tube, the bob 
to be centrally supported? What thickness of the 
above tubes is required _for a bob weighing, say, 
seven pounds?” 

Enamelling Slates.— J. D. ( Holyhead ) writes 
“I should feel obliged if any reader would give me 
information of any book or treatise upon enamelling, 
especially slates; or, possibly someone can give me 
information as to how to do this work.” 

Coppering.—A. K. (Edinburgh) writes :—“ Can 
anyone give me a recipe for a solution for coppering 
lead or tin ? ” 

Hair-Sieve Bottoms.— Hoopbender writes 
“ Can any reader oblige with the addresses of two 
or three makers or dealers of hair-sieve bottoms ? ” 

Doll’s House.— W. L. ( Penge, S.E.) would feel 
obliged if any reader could tell him where he could 
buy such fittings as small door-handles, knockers, 
and fire stoves. 

Coopering and Chairmaking.—J. S .(Longsight) 
writes‘‘I should be glad to know the opinion of 
an expert as to what advantage there is to coopers 
and cnairmakers in the wooden brace, etc., over the 
iron one used by joiners and others.” 

IV,— Questions Answered by Correspondents. 

Scrap Leather.— J. M. (Manchester) writes, in 
reply to A. F. W. (Oldham) (see page 829, Vol. II.):— 
“ You ought to experience no difficulty in disposing 
of any reasonable quantity of scrap leather. Try 
Platt's or Asa Lee’s in your town, who use it for case- 
hardening purposes. Another market for it, or any 
other animal membranous refuse, is the manufac¬ 
turing chemist, who makes ferricyanide of potas¬ 
sium, or ‘ prussiate,’ as it is often called.” 

Iron Lasts.— F. M. (Ebbw Vale) writes, in answer 
to W. S. (Highbury) (see page 830, Vol. II.), re 
Iron Lasts :— ,r He could get them from J. & H. 
Cooper, 35 and 37, Caledonian Road, and 1 a and 2 a, 
Albion Street, King’s Cross, London, N.; or from 
W. Beaney, London. I forget the latter’s full ad¬ 
dress, but he could get it from the Shoe and Leather 
Record, price 2d. They are sold both by the pair and 
by weight, according to the kind he wants. The 
former range from lid. per pair for children to 3s. 
for men; and the latter, from 9s. 6d. to 15s. per cwt. 
Full information can be got by applying to either of 
the above for price list." 

Hair Cloth.— H. E. (London, N. W.) replies to 

G. J. W. (Ballymena) (see page 830, Vol. II.):— 
“You can get hair cloth of Tubbs’, upholsterer’s 
warehouseman, Goodge Street, London, W. Price 
about Is. 6d. per yard for 18 in. wide, to about Is. 6d. 
for 36 in.” 

Circular-Saw Bench. — E. H. H. ( Chatham) 
writes, in reply to S. P. (Penarth) (see page 782, 
Vol. II.):—“Let him ^et some 4 in. by 3 in. fir, and 
set out four rails in pairs, for three uprights—one in 
middle, and others about 9 in. from ends ; then brace 
from top of middle stile to bottom of end stiles; then 
mortice and tenon a piece across top and bottom of 
ends, and your framing is complete, although for 
heavy work the ends should be braced. Use 1 by 
2 for braces; for top, get some 1£ by 9 fir, 
and screw down to framing, and then cover with 
stout sheet iron, screwed down. If S. P. gets a list 
from Reynolds & Co., Britannia Co., or any of the 
leading machine makers, he will get all the inform¬ 
ation he desires, and get better ideas from their 
illustrations than can be given in writing.” 

Draw-Knife. — London Stair Builder writes, 
in reply to W. W. M. (Glasgow) (see page 830, Vol 
II.):— “ You should write to Melhuish, tool dealer. 
Fetter Lane, London, E.C. I think they could 
supply you with the draw-knife and chamfer gauge. 
I fancy the latter is a Yankee invention, and 
costs 60 cents in the United States of America.” 

Plate Rack Rods.— J. B. F. (Eastboume'^w rites: 
—“ Re your answer to J. N. (Erith) (see page 812, 
VoL II.), what he wants is supplied by the Cheap 
Wood Co., 72, Bishopsgate Street Within, E.C., under 
‘ Sash-Bars and Rounds,’ No. 289, and costs 2s. Id. 
per 100 feet.” 

Impressions.— Dubliniensis writes, in reply to 

H. M. (Leeds) (see page 781, Vol. II.):—“Some years 
ago I wanted to do a similar job, to send the impres¬ 
sion abroad for purpose of recognition by a supposed 
owner of the book. I managed it very fairly thus 
(I must first say the impression was in intaglio) :— 
I placed the book in a box, the edges of which were 
about an inch higher than the book, first covering the 
gilt edges with brown paper, lapping the edges insid e 
the covers; then I got some nice tissue-paper, and 
damped it on both sides with hot olive oil with a 
flat camel-hair brush, laid it evenly on cover, and 
covering this with hot very fine silver sand to about 
4 in. thick, smoothed it, and then laid over that an 
even-surfaced board, which was weighted down 
with two half-hundred weights, and let it remain a 
couple of days, when I removed all, and found I had 
an excellent cameo impression.” 

Band-Saw Machine.— Teak writes, in reply to 
J. H. (Sheffield) (see page 765, Vol. II,):—“He will 
find suitable machine by sending 6!d. for catalogue 
(of six hundred engravings) to M. Tiersot, 10, Rue 
dee Gravilliers, Paris.” 

Castings.— Partick writes (see page 782, Vol. 
IT.):—“If J. D. ( Glasgow ) will communicate with 

. Munro, 1, Ewing Place, Partick, he will get the 
desired information.” 

Screen to Fold Both Ways- W. S. (Rugby) 
writes, in reply to F. C. (Swanley) (see page 780, 
Vol. II.):—“ Perhaps this may suit you. The edges 
of side-rails are rounded, and must be 4 in. longer 
than screen—2 in. at top and 2 in. at bottom. These 
ends are reduced to form a nice dowel, the use of 
which will be presently seen. Now take a round 
rod same thickness as frame, and the same length, 
on opposite sides; make a nice hollow all its length, 
so that the rounded edges of frame will fit in nicely. 
You now want four round pieces each 2 in. long, and 
same thickness, with a hole bored right through to 
fit nicely on the dowels of frame. Fix two of these 
at bottom of centre rod in the hollows, one on each 
side; take the leaves of your screen, and drop the 
dowels into the holes; now take the other pieces 
with holes in them, and drop them over dowels at 
top: glue, and fix in hollows; and there you are 
with a hinge that will fold both ways, and show no 
opening. I may say that it is not necessary to have 
the sides of frame round, provided the edges are 
made so, and a piece of bamboo will do well for the 

Window-Cleaning Chemicals.— H. B. S. writes, 
in reply to O. T. ( Ashton-under-Lyne) (see page 634, 
Vol. II.):—“The composition of window-cleaning 
liquid is dilute hydrofluoric acid. The cleaner 
mixes a little of the strong acid with water in a 
pail, rubs it on the windows, and quickly washes it 
off again ; if left on the windows, it quickly etches 
them— i.e., renders them dull and opaque. It cannot 
be kept in a glass bottle, as it dissolves glass, but is 
sold in gutta-percha bottles. It must be carefully 
used, as it causes very bad sores if spilt on the 
hands; it rapidly clears away grease and dirt from 
factory windows, and that is what it is used for. 
I believe there is a Window Cleaning Co. in Leeds 
who hold a patent for the use of it for that purpose, 
but I may be mistaken.” 

Rods for Plate Rack.— F. S. (Highbury) writes, 
in reply to J. N. (Erith) (see page 812, Vol. II.):— 
“ Rods from £ in. up to 1| in. may be bought at 
any timber yard that stock Swedish mouldings. 
Stuarts’, Drayton Park, Holloway, supply them at 
2s. 6d. per 100 feet, £ in. thick.” 

Violin Book and Tools. — J. H. W. (Leeds) 
writes, in reply to J. E. (Chatham)(see page 814, Vol. 
II.):—“I can, as the result of practical experience, 
recommend * The Violin as it was and is,' published 
by Ward & Lock. With regard to tools, I shall in a 
few weeks be in a position to supply the same at 
a reasonable rate, and shall then advertise them in 

Window Steaming.— J. (Portsmouth) writes, in 
reply to the inquiry by J. B. (Colchester) (see page 
670, Vol. II.):—“ Nothing will cure this like ventila¬ 
tion, and I would suggest J. B.’s carrying a flue, if 
possible, directly from over gas jets, as in the im¬ 
proved sun-burnera, into a chimney flue—not directly 
outside, as in this latter case it is almost certain to 
produce an in-draught. There is generally a spare 
chimney flue over most shops, the precaution being 
first taken that there is an up-draught in the chim¬ 
ney. If this does not quite cure it, a few holes in 
addition may be cut in bottom of window, and 
covered with fine gauze to keep out dust, thus 
forming a current of cool air across inside of glass. 
Will H. Hinge allow me to thank him for his very 
clear description of Ottoman couch ? so plain, that I 
think the most of us amateurs can understand it. 
My better-half intends me to have a good try at 
it, as soon as I have time to spare. Can he suggest 
any style of hinge, to enable it to be opened from 
either side? A strong pin firmly screwed on to each 
corner, and dropping into a,metal V bearing, or 
something of that sort.” 

Rods for Plate Rack.— F. H. (Streatham) 
writes, in reply to J. N. (Erith) (see page 812, 
Vol. II.):—“ Joseph Sandell & Co., 101, Waterloo 
Bridge Road, or any moulding merchant will 
supply J. N. with J in., £ in., f in., and J in. round 
moulding for plate racks. They are made in lengths 
from 6 feet to 20 feet. J. N. will find, by getting the 
rods from a moulding merchant, that he will save 
himself a lot of trouble.” 

V.—Brief Acknowledgments. 

Questions have been received from the following correspon¬ 
dents. and answers only await space in SHor. upon which there 
is great pressureF. C. P. (Lambeth); T. S. (Kendal); G. S.; 

I, . K.: Esqkavkr ; W. S. (Cambridge) ; H. W. ( Rochester >; E. C. 
(Bristol); W.;G. iLondon , W); W. F. M. (Paddington, IF.); 
Electrical ; G. G. (Abergavenny ); W. H. B. (Birmingham); 

J. 0 .; Inquirer ; L. S. L. ( Kirkcaldy ): Aladdis ; S. D. ( Wigan); 
W. J. T. (Aston); H. L. (London); Pkiicy; B. F. E .(Carlisle); 
,T.M .(Midhurst); Amateur; Dewdiiop; St.Crispin; T. R. 
( Belford ); T. J. ( Handsicorth ); C. S. ( Nottingham ); W. H.; J. H. 
( Manchester ): Old Clock : H. P. ( London, W.); Darkey; 
T. H. (Staffs.); J. B .(Derby); Auckland; Barra; Lenses ; 
F. H. (Newington ); J. A . (Ot isthorpe); Bertie; W. W. (East¬ 
bourne) ; E. M. J. (Wrexham); B. A. B. (Hampstead, N. II. : : 
J. S. (London, N.); R. J. S. (Wolverhampton); Loto; W. H. C. 
t London, S.E.); W. T. H. (Somerset); Chemicus ; E. A. and 
w. G. (Bristol); R. C. M. (Bristol); A. L. (London, S.E.) ; A 
Plumber : F. S. ( Kidderminster ); M. A. H. (Richmond) ; J. M. 
(Sunderland ); A. N. F. C. (Christchurch ); R. W. (Radnor ); F. A. 
(Portsmouth); Topper: Silicato ; J. K. (Birmingham); 
Carpenter; J. T. (London, S.W.); E. L. M. (Finsbury, E.C.); 
W, R. S. (Nottingham); E. R. D. ; Painter ; .A Constant 
Reader op “ Work ’; V. S. (Kensington); A. D. (Newcadlemn- 
Time); A Reader from No. 1 op''Work"; G. J. R. (Waltham- 
stow); Snob; L. A. (tiampstead, N.W. ); A Subscriber; 
Jobber ; J. Z. (Somerset ); Pen and Ink ; Snip. 

Price 3d.; post free, 4d. 

cc -woirik: ” 


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Protected Exhibits under Certificate of Board of 

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“Work”: Its Utility and Importance to all Work¬ 
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New Serial Issue, in MONTHLY PARTS, price 3d., of 

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[Work—April 4, 189L 


J H. SKINNER <fc Co. having Dissolved Partnership, are offering their Enormous Stock, including 250,000 FRETWORK 
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an immense quantity of TOOLS, OUTFITS, &c., as a special inducement to their customers to order at once. 

4,500 Is. Books of Fretwork Patterns, each containing Twelve Large Sheets, beautifully lithographed, none of which would be sold 
retail at less than 2d., and many at 3d. and 4d. each ; also 

1,200 2s. 6<L Books Of Fretwork Patterns, containing Twenty Sheets, 19 in. x 12 in., of new designs, many of which would retail 

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Amateur customers ordering 5s. worth of designs from Catalogue will be presented with one of the above is. Eooks. Those ordering 10s. worth 
will receive a 2s. 6d. Book. 

An Allowance of 16 per Cent, in goods will be made on all mixed orders for Wood, small Tools, Saw Blades, and Designs, amounting 
to 10s., and 15 per Cent, on orders amounting to 20s. and upwards. Note.— This reduction does not apply to Treadle Machines. 


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<31 n 3llnstrated Jltagazine of practice ani> ®l)corg 


[All Rights reserved.] 

Vol. III. — No. 108.] SATURDAY, APRIL 11, 1891. [Price One Penny. 

Fig. 1.—Hall Stand : Front Elevation. 

Fig. 2.—Side Elevation. 

5 ° 

My Hall Stand , and How it ls Made . 

[Work—April 11, 189L 



Introduction—Measurements—Construction — 
Working Drawing—Materials—Uprights 
— Cross Rails — Beadings — Turning and 
Moulding on Columns—Moulding under 
Drawer—Drawer Box—Base—Pans for 
Umbrellas—Panels—Brass Woek. 

As the entrance hall of a house is the first 
part of the interior which is seen on opening 
the door, it is only natural that anyone who 
takes a pride in his surroundings should 
wish for a favourable impression to be 
created in the mind of the visitor by its 
contents. Unless the hall is of unusually 
large dimensions, the amount 
of furniture which can be 
placed in it is naturally very 
limited, and for all practical 
purposes may be said to be 
confined to the hat and um¬ 
brella stand, or, as it is often 
called, the hall stand. The 
hat stand may be separate 
from the umbrella stand, but 
when space allows, a much 
more important-looking piece 
of furniture results if the two 
are combined. It cannot be 
said that the stand which I 
have called “ mine ” presents 
any very novel features, either 
in its construction or its de¬ 
sign. It is nothing but a 
good, substantial thing, not 
ugly, nor yet devoid of some 
pretensions to decorative 
effect. Probably it will be 
none the less welcome to 
readers because it, to some 
extent, follows the tradition¬ 
ary shape and arrangement 
of an ordinary hall stand, in¬ 
stead of consisting of various 
ingenious combinations or ex¬ 
traordinary lines. The con¬ 
struction is not difficult, nor 
need the cost be great, as 
there is no elaborate carving 
nor anything which an ordi¬ 
narily skilful cabinet-maker 
cannot manage with his usual 

As the beginner would 
hardly attempt to make such 
a piece of furniture, it will be 
unnecessary to enter into a 
minute description of the de¬ 
tails of construction so far as 
the manipulation of the wood 
and tools are concerned; while 
the accompanying illustrations almost sup¬ 
ply the practised cabinet-maker with all 
the information he can require. To leave 
him without any description—or perhaps I 
should rather say without any hints—to 
guide him would not be altogether satis¬ 
factory to the majority, and the following 
remarks will, no doubt, be an assistance. 

Fig. 1 gives the front and Fig. 2 the end 
elevation. As both of them are drawn to 
inch scale as nearly as possible, it will be 
seen that the outside measurements are as 
follows: height, 7 ft. 6 in.; width across 
front, 4 ft. ; and depth from back to front, 
1 ft. 2 in. It will thus be noticed that the 
stand is not a small one, although it is not 
unwieldy or cumbersome. Those who, for 
any reason, wish to make a smaller stand 
of similar design will have no difficulty in 
doing 30 , as it will only be necessary to take 
the design as it stands, and reduce the 

distances between the upright pieces. At 
the same time, it should be remembered 
that a very light small hall stand is not 
generally satisfactory, from its liability to 
fall forward when heavy coats are hung 
on it. 

Leaving generalities, let us now examine 
the construction more in detail. We find 
all the essentials of a hall stand. There is 
a good-sized looking-glass, so arranged that 
a person of ordinary height can make use of 
it without stooping or standing on tiptoe. 
There is also a convenient table with 
drawer, and the spaces for umbrellas, sticks, 
etc., are large and get-at-able. The whole 
is sufficiently heavy to prevent the slightest 
risk of a mishap in the shape of an upset 

Fig. 3.—Beading on Rails. Fig. 4.—Beading on Drawer Front. Fig. 6.—Section of 
Square of Column. Fig. 7.—Moulding on Rail Below Drawer. Fig. 8. —Turned 
Spindle. Fig. 9.—Panel Moulding. Fig. 10.—Moulding for Glass. All Figs, 
full size. 

from any number of coats or other things 
which can reasonably be hung on it. 

Although general measurements are given, 
the maker must on no account omit to 
prepare a full-sized working drawing from 
which to set out his stuff—as wood is 
generally spoken of among cabinet-makers. 

American walnut is the wood of which 
the stand from which this description is 
taken is made, and it looks very well; there 
is, however, no reason why those who prefer 
oak or mahogany should not use them. In 
case oak be chosen, it may be well to say 
that it should not be fumigated and wax- 
polished, as the polish is easily injured by 
damp; and it is unreasonable to suppose 
that such a piece of furniture as a hall 
stand can always be kept clear of wet coats 
and umbrellas. 

The uprights are of l.j- in. stuff, so that 
“ down ” —which, for the information of 

novices, may be explained as meaning 
finished after planing—they are about 1| in. 
thick. This may strike some who are 
accustomed to see that many London-made, 
and possibly other hall stands, are made 
much thicker, as being very thin when 
compared with these. It must be remem¬ 
bered that the wood to which reference is. 
being made is solid, whereas in the unusually 
massive-looking stands the parts are gene¬ 
rally found to be simply faced on the fronts 
and veneered on the edges. Of course, if 
the maker wishes he may go to the expense 
of thicker wood in the solid, or use facing 
with pine backing. 

The cross-rails are, of course, the same 
thickness as the uprights. Those at the 
top, both in the centre and 
sides, are about 1^ in. wide, 
while those lower down are 
about 4 in. The bottom rail, 
to which the bottom of the 
stand is fastened, may be of 
any convenient width, and it 
is a matter of opinion whether 
it should project above the 
bottom board, and so form a 
small backguard, as in the 
illustration, or be below the 
bottom board. In the latter 
case it may as well be made 
of pine, as it is not seen. 

It will be noted that the 
two longer uprights are fitted 
to the bottom rail, the ends 
of which are fitted to the end 
pieces. All the other rails 
are stopped by the uprights, 
for it would not be good con¬ 
struction for the rails to go 
right across and the uprights 
to be fittedintothem. Whether 
the joints be dowelled or mor¬ 
tised and tenoned, is a matter 
of little consequence. The pro¬ 
fessional cabinet-maker will 
probably prefer the former, 
leaving the other and more 
tedious one to the amateur. 
It should be remembered that 
the centre rail below the glass 
must be considerably wider 
than any of the others, as it 
forms a back to the drawer- 

It will be noted that the 
edges of the narrower rails are 
beaded, and that the inter¬ 
mediate wider ones have 
beads run across them. These; 
of course, must be prepared 
before the rails are fastened 
in. The beadings are shown) 
by Figs. 3 and 4, the latter of which, it 
may be stated here, is the same as on the 
drawer front, and the former as on the 
rails above the spindles in front and at the 
ends. These rails are of 1} in. stuff, and 
about 2 in. wide. 

The turning on the front columns, which 
are of 2^ in. square stuff, is shown full size, 
so far as the members are concerned, in 
Fig. 5. As the pattern is repeated for the 
lower part, only half the length is given. 
The squares of the columns are ornamented 
on the front and end, as represented in trans¬ 
verse section by Fig. 6, which gives the parts 

The moulding on the edge of the rail 
under the drawer is given in Fig. 7, but this 
—and, indeed, any of the others—may be 
altered to suit the fancy of the maker, who, 
very likely, may have preferences of his 

Work—April 11,1891.] 

A Useful Microscope Lamp. 


The same pattern of moulding is on the 
edge of the table top, which is screwed 
through from the back. 

The ends of the drawer box are solid 1 in. 
stuff, and are fastened in the same manner 
to the back. Their bottom edges are on a 
level with the lower surface of the rail, 
under the drawer front. As the drawer 
and its fittings present no unusual feature, 
it may be presumed that it is unnecessary 
to say anything more about them. The 
fitting of the ornamental rail beneath 
presents no difficulty, and its shape is 
sufficiently shown in Fig. 1 to enable any¬ 
one to set it out. 

The base will require some thought to be 
given it by those who are not familiar with 
similar constructions, though it is very 
simple. The front rail—viz., that which is 
visible in Fig. 1—is about 4 in. wide, of 1 in. 
stuff. The back one has already been referred 
to, so need not be mentioned further. As is 
well known, pans or tins are usually let into 
the bottom of umbrella stands, and this one 
is no exception to the general rule. They 
are, of course, where they will be most con¬ 
venient, and that is under the open spaces 
on each side of the drawer. The whole of 
the bottom may be covered in, and holes 
subsequently be cut for the reception of the 
pans, but it is more convenient to have 
these of a good size than to have them so 
small as they sometimes are in stands other¬ 
wise well got up. The pans in this stand 
are, therefore, as big as they could be with¬ 
out being unsightly. They fill the space 
from back to front, and are practically 
square. Their edges rest on the front 
rail, on a ledge fastened to the back one, 
on the end rails, and on the board which 
encloses the remainder of the bottom. Now, 
the only part which is likely to trouble any¬ 
one is the end rail, for unless made as thick 
as the front columns, there will be a hitch 
somewhere, as the maker will soon find out 
for himself unless he is careful. To use 
such a piece as supposed would be only a 
waste of good material, so the way to do 
without it is to make the end rails say 1 in. 
less in depth than the front one, and then 
to make them equal to this by planting a 
piece of the necessary width on the top of 
them. The same object might be attained 
by making front and ends of the same 
width, and setting them back as far as 
possible. This method, however, would 
not look so well. In case anyone may 
want a pattern of the small spindles to 
turn to, Fig. 8 gives in full size all that is 

The construction has now been sufficiently 
described, and all the rest to be done may 
be looked on as ornamentation, if we except 
the hooks, which, of course, are a necessity 
on any hall stand. 

The lower panels above the umbrella 
spaces are plain, with sunk bevels. They 
are fastened in by mouldings of the pattern 
shown by Fig. 9, which gives the full-sized 
section. The same is used to the panels 
above, which are simply pieces of \ in. stuff, 
shaped as shown by the bow or fret saw. 
The carving on the panel above the glass 
and elsewhere is of the simplest kind. The 
moulding round the glass, as befits the most 
conspicuous part of the stand, is of a more 
elaborate character than the others. It is 
shown, also in full size, by Fig. 10. The 
fitting of the silvered plate calls for no 
special mention. Those who do not mind 
the trifling extra cost should have its edges 

The brass work consists of four coat 
hooks, two hat and coat hooks combined, 

and four single hat pegs, as well as a handle 
for the drawer. 

We now come to an end of the hints for 
the construction of a combined hat, coat, 
and umbrella stand, with hall table, and if 
any beginner does not find them ample 
enough, let him remember that the job is 
not a suitable one for a novice, and that by 
the time he has acquired the manual skill 
necessary to make it, he will find that diffi¬ 
culties in the way of understanding the 
construction have vanished. 


BY H. B. S. 

Advantages of Lamp — Method of Making 
Lamp Chimney of Tin Plate—Method of 
Making Shade—Cost of Lamp, Chimney, 
and Shade. 

Fob, the benefit of readers of Woek who 
have a microscope, I will here describe a 
lamp and method of making which will, if 
followed, for a very small sum supply them 
with a useful article which would cost at 
least 15s. if bought of a dealer. 

The fully-made article is seen in Fig. 1. 
The advantages of the lamp are : (1) That 
instead of the ordinary lamp chimney, a 
chimney of tin plate is substituted, in which 
is an ordinary 3 in. by 1 in. glass slip, or a 
slip of tinted glass of the same size ; (2) the 
glass slip can easily be replaced, costing 4d. 
per dozen ; (3) the glass slips do not break 
so easily with the heat as the glass chimneys; 
(4) the lamp is so low that, by tilting the 
microscope a little, direct light may be got 
from the lamp without reflecting the light 
by mirror. 

Buy the lamp body—they cost 6|d. in 
Liverpool. The wick stands about 3 in. 
from table. Then get a piece of tin plate, 
6 in. by in. (Fig. 2), and mark out an 
oblong by means of rule and steel point, 
commencing § in. from side, of 2| in. by 1£ 
in., then, by means of a cutting chisel, cut 
the piece out. Next prepare a strip of tin, 
7| in. by 1 in. (Fig. 3). Kule right across it 
four lines, at 1§- in., then at 2| in. from last, 
then at li in., and again at 2§ in. Then 
rule right along one edge ^ in. from side, 
and on the other side J in. and at \ in., as 
shown. Bend the box into shape, after 
snipping at each of marks £ in. on each 
side. This will leave | in. over at end, 
which requires soldering. Snip the box at 
top and bottom as shown (Fig. 3), so that 
the box will accommodate itself to the 
round shade. When this is done, push the 
box through hole in large sheet, bend up 
the £ in. as a flange, bore two holes on each 
side of the box through both sheet and 
flange, and rivet with copper rivets. Now 
bend the sheet on a round article, allowing 
about \ in. to wrap over, bore holes and 
rivet. The chimney will now be If in. in 
diameter, which will suit most lamps. 

It will be found that the box will be 
thrown a little out of shape by bending the 
chimney into the round form, but this can 
easily be remedied by a few touches of the 
pliers. Now bend the top piece outwards 
i in. as marked, the bottom piece outwards 
I in., then inwards again for & in., and the 
side pieces ^in. inwards, as shown in Fig 4. 
The box will then appear as in Fig. 4, 
and will allow of the glass slipping in 
from above, being held there by the side 

All that remains is the making of the 
shade. This shade prevents the light of 
the lamp coming to the unoccupied eye. 

Cut out a piece of tin plate, 4J in. by ll in., 
cut as in Fig. 5 ; this will allow 1& in. for 
top and 1^ in. for each side. Snip at each 
mark to l in., then bend into shape, and 
bend inwards each of the pieces snipped a 
in.; this will then allow the shade to rest 
on glass slip, as shown in Fig. 1. The tin 
shade, being bright, is a good reflector, and 
a great deal of the light lost in every direc¬ 
tion with glass chimney is now reflected and 
sent out in one direction ; besides this, by 
using direct light from the lamp, a good 
light is got for high powers or for rather 
opaque objects. 

/ V 

2 U7-VI 

* 1 

Fig 5- 

Fig. 3 

~] : ^ j | > 

Fig. 1.—Microscope Lamp complete. Fig. 2.— Tin 
Plate to fit over Lamp Glass. Fig. 3.—Fattei n 
of Template for Box. Fig. 4.—Box when bent 
into Shape. Fig. 5.—Hood or Shade for Box. 

My lamp cost me (without tools): For 
lamp body, 6|d.; for one sheet double¬ 
crown tin plate, 5d. ; copper rivets, 2d. (per 
oz.); one glass slip, |d. Total, Is. lgd. and 
pi. The glass slip has lasted quite a year, 
and is now as good as new. There are two 
friends of mine who have also made them, 
and they are as well pleased with their 
lamps as I am with mine. Finding this to 
be the case, it has occurred to me that others 
may find the lamp thus fitted and adapted 
for the purpose equally useful, and I have 
therefore placed on record in Work the re¬ 
sult of the experiences of myself and my 
friends, and the way in which we went to 
work ; trusting that it may encourage and 
enable others to follow in the same path. 


Constructive Strength in Metal Work. 

[Work— April 11,189L 



Moles of Uniting Metals—Tensile and Co¬ 
hesive Strength—Manipulation of Iron— 
Preparation of Steel—Expansion and Con¬ 
traction of Metals—Rolling and Hammer¬ 
ing Iron Plates—Conduction of Electricity 
nsr Wood and Metad—Elasticity. 

In my hints in No. 76, Vol. II. of Work, on 
“Constructive Strength in Woodwork,” I 
pointed out that the very nature of wood 
itself demanded that the way of the grain, 
and the splitting tendency of it, should be 
taken into account. 

In Metal Work there is no grain such as 
exists in wood, and metal does not split, but 
it cannot be held together by cement as 
wood is by glue; and whilst wood cannot 
be melted or heated, metals can be, and this 
gives rise to a totally different mode of 

Uniting metals may be done, firstly, by 
welding: i.e., by heating almost to fusion two 
parts, and hammering them until they form 
one piece ; secondly, by riveting ; thirdly, 
by screwing or bolting ; fourthly, by brazing; 
or soldering; whilst the shape or form of 
pieces of metal may be altered, firstly, by 
forging j secondly, by stamping ; thirdly, 
by melting and casting ; fourthly, by rolling 
or bending. 

In all construction, then, we must consider 
the reason for preferring one of these modes 
in any given case—that is, we must find out 
which of them is the strongest in relation 
to the purpose in view, and a few hints (for 
I only consider these papers as hints, and 
anything but an exhaustive treatise) in tbu.< 
direction may help Work readers to thini- 
out for themselves, in their own way, and 
apply to their own work, such hints as may 
seem to them to have some bearing on the 
particular job. 

Metals, like woods, have each their own 
tensile and cohesive strengths, as well as 
resistance to compression, from which their 
breaking strain can be ascertained. Tables 
are published of these strengths, and in con¬ 
struction, such as buildings, bridges, ships, 
etc., it is no longer safe to work merely as 
is done in carpenters’, joiners’, and cabinet 
work, with a knowledge of where strength is 
required ; we must measure and estimate 
not only where strength is wanted, but how 
much strength is necessary. Human life is 
at stake in such work, and an error of 
judgment or a false calculation might pro¬ 
duce a catastrophe causing agony and death 
to scores of people, besides making their 
relatives and survivors wretched, and often 
pauperising them. Such heavy responsibility 
as this should not be lightly undertaken, 
and demands the most conscientious cave 
in design, in calculation and watchfulness, 
during its gradual completion, that no bad 
workmanship or faulty material creeps in to 
become a menacing danger. 

By far the most useful and most used 
metal is iron, and it is of three distinct 
varieties—cast-iron, wrought-iron, and steel 
—which are none of them chemically pure, 
but are pure iron differently impregnated 
with carbon and other bodies. Thus cast 
iron contains the most carbon, steel less, 
and wrought-iron less still. By various 
processes cast-iron may be deprived of 
nearly all its carbon, and then becomes 
malleable or wrought-iron, or wrought-iron 
can be changed into steel by processes 
which add carbon to it : if too much carbon 
be not added, its malleability is not only not 

impaired, but improved, whilst if more than 
sufficient carbon be added its malleability is 
quite destroyed, and it becomes brittle, is 
much weakened in both tensile and cohesive 
strength, although its resistance to com¬ 
pression is not vitiated to the same pro¬ 
portionate extent. There is also a compara¬ 
tive degree of hardness in these three forms 
of the metal iron, owing to the presence, no 
doubt, of carbon. Cast-iron, whilst homo¬ 
geneous, is granular in texture—I was about 
to say crystalline. Steel also is so to a 
less extent, partaking more of the fibrous 
structure of wrought-iron, though in an 
inferior degree ; but it also possesses the 
property of being capable of excessive 
hardening, or tempering, as it is called : a 
property without which no tools for work 
could ever be made, and which all workers 
ought to regard as one of God’s best gifts to 
man. Curiously, cast-iron with more car¬ 
bon, and wrought-iron with far less, do not 
possess this property, except so far as their 
outer surfaces are concerned, which is termed, 
therefore, case-hardening. An instance of 
case-hardening is afforded by the Bower- 
Barff process, as it is termed, which consists 
in exposing cast-iron, wrought-iron, and even 
steel heated to redness to the action of steam 
(i.e., the vapour of water). The •effect of this 
is to convert to a slight depth the surface 
exposed into an oxide of iron, viz., the black 
or magnetic oxide (or peroxide of iron 
Fe ;i 0 4 ) which occurs also in a natural state, 
and is almost as hard as the diamond, and 
crystallises in cubes. It is useful, also, 
inasmuch as, being a higher oxide than the 
rotoxide (i.e., iron rust), iron so treated 
ecomes rustless, resists the weaker acids 
and weak solutions of the stronger acids; 
thus it requires no painting, and is prac¬ 
tically indestructible. It is called magnetic 
oxide, from the fact that natural loadstones 
consist of it. Cast-iron, if quickly cooled, 
especially in damp sand, where the heat of 
the metal when poured converts the moisture 
into steam, is almost converted in parts of 
its surface into this oxide (or perhaps, also, 
a silicate or aluminate combined with it), 
and the “skin,” as it is termed,is extremely 
hard and brittle ; but if the castings be an¬ 
nealed—that is, cooled very gradually—they 
are termed “ malleable castings ”—are fibrous 
rather than crystalline, and will bend rather 
than break. 

Further, steel prepared by adding carbon 
to wrought-iron—especially when it has been 
subjected to a great deal of hammering, and 
more so still if made of wire, nails, or other 
small pieces welded into one mass—is far 
superior to steel made by partially burning, 
or otherwise getting rid of the excess of 
carbon in cast-iron. In other words, adding 
carbon to wrought-iron is better than taking- 
carbon away from cast metal or “ pig-iron.” 
Bessemer steel partakes of the character of 
the latter process; Swedish steel of the 
former. Its tempering property is still 
further developed and improved by hammer¬ 
ing—hence the best tools are those upon 
which the most labour has been expended, 
and therefore they are cheaper in the long 
run than low-priced ones. In a less degree, 
rolling adds to the value of both steel and 
wrought-iron—its action making both more 
fibrous, ancl therefore tougher. 

In generalising thus, as I am doing, I 
must not omit to mention the fact that 
heated iron, steel, and cast-iron contract in 
cooling, although not to the same degree, 
probably, because the heat employed is 
much greater in the case of cast-iron than 
in forging—its contraction is greater. Steel 
also may be melted and cast, and then its 

contraction is also greater than forged or 
hammered steel. In order to obviate this 
contraction, which is unequal and by no 
means uniform, since it depends upon the 
rapidity of cooling in one direction being 
hastened or retarded by surrounding in¬ 
fluences, Sir Joseph Whitworth successfully 
introduced the process of casting under 
compression, whereby the melted metal was 
compressed whilst heated to the extent 
required to prevent any further contraction 
as it cooled. Patterns, therefore, were made 
the exact size, instead of any allowance for 
contraction being made. That compression 
castings are immensely stronger than ordi 
nary castings almost goes without saying, 
but if proof be needed, take a strap pulley or 
drum. The boss scarcely contracts at all— 
the arms, in proportion to their length, only 
about j^-ths of an inch to the foot; whilst 
the thin flat rim, six times the length of the 
arm, still contracts -^ths of an inch to the 
foot. It stands to reason that there will 
always be a compressive strain upon the 
arms, due to the rim having contracted six 
times as much as the arm has done. But 
under compression the contraction is not in 
cooling, but whilst the metal is in a molten 
state, when its component particles are 
mobile, and can seek their own positions. 
How often, in turning drums or pulleys true 
on the face, do they break and fly to pieces 
—directly the “skin” is turned off. the re¬ 
bound, so to speak, of the compressive 
strain on the arms overcomes the cohesion 
of the rim, and it gives way. Here let me 
remark that from its form the rim of a 
pulley will stand a far greater force from 
without than from within ; a pipe, there¬ 
fore, will burst from within far more easily 
than be crushed by pressure from without; 
nay, more, it is almost, not quite, as capable 
of resisting crushing from without as if it 
were solid throughout; and the crushing 
strain, if applied endwise, therefore, is 
practically the same as if it were solid , thus 
a hollow column will, if of correct propor¬ 
tions, bear as much weight as a solid column 
would—more, in fact, than the same weight 
of metal could sustain if made solid instead 
of tubular. This is due to the distribution 
of contending forces, whereby they neutralise 
each other’s action. Hence we may safely 
deduce that form or shape contributes to the 
strength (as it also does to beauty, if thought¬ 
fully used) of construction in metal. Take 
as a case in point a plate of iron \ in. thick, 
3 in. wide, and 7 feet long. Support the 
extreme ends, and put on in the middle 
weight enough to break it. But if you dish 
such a plate—that is, form a corrugation 
lengthwise, say k of an inch in depth— 
although the plate will be narrower, twice 
the previous breaking weight will be sup¬ 
ported without danger. To consider the 
torsal or twisting strain : if the plate be flat, 
a very slight force applied in a contrary 
direction at each end will twist it easily; 
but if it be dished as described, such slight 
amount of force will have but little effect; 
it would remain practically rigid. In like 
manner, angle iron is almost as strong as a 
solid bar of the same breadth and depth, and 
far stronger than the same weight of iron 
rolled into a square or round bar ; whilst T 
iron is for some positions, and under certain 
strains, stronger still. There is a still fur¬ 
ther gain : the weight of superincumbent 
iron is so much less for the same equivalent 
of resistance to strains—as in a roof, for 
instance—that the supporting walls or 
columns having less to carry may be so 
much, proportionally, weaker — hence an 
economy of material — without loss of 

work-Apriln, 1891 .] The Rubber in French Polishing : How to Use It. 


strength, whilst the labour in hoisting a 
less weight to the same height is also 
lessened. Further, if instead of rolling iron 
to such sections as I have alluded to, it 
were hammered, its strength would again be 
increased. The true explanation of these 
phenomenal facts lies in the great truth 
that all metals resist compressive strains 
much more easily than they do tensile, tor- 
sile, or side strains—just as I said there was 
a first principle in considering constructive 
strength in woodwork, but under different 
conditions. To illustrate this familiarly, a 
man can carry on his back or shoulders a 
far greater weight, when once it is raised 
for him, than he can lift from the ground. 

I ought not to omit another point of 
difference between wood and metal, and it 
is a very important difference—viz., that 
whilst wood never contracts in length, all 
metals do under the variations of tempera¬ 
ture. Wood is affected not by mere tem¬ 
perature, but by moisture and light. Metal 
is, so far as is at present known, affected by 
heat alone. Light and damp apparently, 
though this is not proved, have no influ¬ 
ence on its expansion or contraction, which 
probably is due to its greater density, or 
its homogeneous, instead of cellular, struc¬ 
ture, which leaves no interstices for moisture 
to lodge in or light to permeate. 

Another point of difference, which I fear 
has not been at all sufficiently investigated, 
but which offers a wide field for speculative 
scientists, is the different degrees of com¬ 
parative conduction of electricity in wood 
and metal. We do know that cast or 
wrought-iron girders on railways when laid 
horizontally to carry traffic become less and 
less fibrous, and ultimately crystallise. Is 
this due to electricity, as I more than sus¬ 
pect, or to vibration, as some engineers 
maintain? Does vibration act direct, or 
does it, in some unknown and incomprehen¬ 
sible manner, generate or attract electricity ? 
I cannot say, but I trust some day it may 
be elucidated. As in girder bridges, with¬ 
out such knowledge we cannot find any 
means of negativing its effect, because we 
do not know the cause. Take girders in 
subways, etc. ? for instance : if girders give 
way from this cause— i.e., crystallisation— 
or from the constant action of rust, enhanced 
by sulphurous fumes emitted by locomotive 
engines and bad ventilation, “What price for 
shares?” Were I at the elbows of rail¬ 
way engineers, I would suggest that in 
replacing any girders the new ones should 
be previously made rustless by the Bower- 
Barff process, and that experiments be made, 
at no matter what cost, to determine what 
is the cause of crystallisation, and what is 
its remedy ; and that a thorough inspection 
of all girders should at once be made on 
all the underground routes in the country. 
Unless this be done, no one will be less 
surprised than I to see an “ extra special ” 
newspaper detailing some catastrophe 
directly attributable to this cause. 

There is one point of similarity between 
wood and metal that ought not to be lost 
sight of—viz., elasticity, a quality or attri¬ 
bute of both, differing only in degree. In 
some woods it is, as in some metals, nearly 
absent, as in lead and in cocoanut, where 
the elasticity is that of ivory, mere resilience, 
when struck. Steel, as a metal, possesses 
this attribute in the highest degree, as do 
lancewood, and yew, and hickory among 
woods. In metals, the greater the ductility 
the less the elasticity ; and the reverse also 
holds good. Gold, the most ductile of 
metals next to lead, is absolutely inelastic. 
Now, elasticity is a force ! 

The subject of constructive strength in 
metal work after this introduction will 
divide itself into two distinct classifications 
—the one involving strength obtained by 
form only, and the other involving strength 
obtained by, in addition, utilising separate 
parts which, in the aggregate, being con¬ 
structed on the lines of the first classification, 
and united in some one of the foregoing 
methods, shall, as a whole, constitute good 

It will be impossible in this connection to 
refer to such minor considerations as the 
way to put together jewellery, for instance, 
where appearance is the main consideration. 
I shall devote my limited space, in the two 
papers to follow, to illustrating “ good form ” 
and good combination for strength, rather 
than beauty. 


BY P. B. H. 

The annexed sketch illustrates the method 
at present in use in China for raising heavy 
weights in the construction of buildings, etc. 
Whether any readers of Work will ever be 
brought into such a predicament as to have 
recourse to a similar method, time alone will 
show. It will, no doubt, be interesting, how¬ 
ever, as an illustration of the antipathy this 
people has to anything new. Their method 
of procedure is as follows A good stout 
rope a is fastened round the object to be 
raised (in this case a stone is shown), and 
carried over a horizontal beam b, placed at 
some convenient height above the permanent 
resting place of the stone ; it is then given 
a complete turn round a lower one c, and 
the end is dropped to the ground or some 
convenient platform, where it is held fast 
by one or more men, as required. This rope 
is principally for holding the weight after 
each rise, while the knot G is being re¬ 

adjusted. At a convenient height a lever d, 
about 25 ft. long, is hung suspended from a 
beam by a rope, which acts as a fulcrum 
about 4 ft. from the end. From the shorter 
end of the lever a rope is dropped and fastened 
by a running knot as low as possible on 
the main rope a. Another rope E at the 
longer end of lever falls to some convenient 
stage, where the end being unwound, as 
shown, each separate strand is grasped by 
one or several men, according to the power 
to be exerted. The ends of the rope e are 
now pulled, and the rope a is then raised, 
together with the weight, by the lever D, 
the men at the bottom end of A taking up 
any slack during the raising. This process is 
continually repeated, the running knot G 
being lowered, and the whole raised until the 
weight is at its destined height. 

The above is a very good example of the 
use of the lever and friction, as very little 
force will be required at the lower end of 
the rope a to keep a heavy weight suspended, 
on account of the friction between the en¬ 
circling rope and the beam c. This same 
frictional action is often seen when bringing 
up steamers at the landing-stage, and also 
on the rotating capstans used for shunting 
in railway sheds. 

When we consider that such primitive 
means are still in use among the Chinese, 
who can be surprised that it is extremely 
hard to induce them to adopt railways'! 

There is thus, it v/ill be seen, plenty of 
latitude for the persuasive powers of engi¬ 
neers and commercial travellers to induce 
them to use steam and machinery; but 
labour being no doubt so cheap, and the 
saying that “Time is money” not having 
yet been transplanted to the Chinese brain, 
there will be still some obstacles to over¬ 
come their prejudice. They are much worse 
than the natives of India in having anything 
instilled into them. These latter, when first 
the barrow was introduced, filled it about a 
quarter full, and then carried the whole on 
their heads. It was some considerable time 
before its proper use could be driven into 
them : so that it may still fall to some 
of our readers with strong persuasive- 
qualities to make them abandon such 
methods, though I have no doubt the above 
arrangement would be useful in some parts 
of the world inaccessible to machinery. 




How to Make the Rubber—The Outer Cover¬ 
ing—The Wadding—Prevention of Creases 
in Covering—Charging with Polish—Mo¬ 
tion of Rubber over Work—Re-charging 
■—Touching with Oil—Preservation of 

As is no doubt very well known, the pad by 
means of which French polish is applied is 
technically called the rubber. Without it 
the French polisher can do little or nothing 
in actual polishing, although he may not 
require it in the preliminary operations of 
oiling, staining, etc. However simple in 
itself the rubber may be, it is necessary that 
it should be properly and carefully made of 
suitable materials, for if it is not, really good 
work cannot be done with it. Possibly 
some readers who have seen polishers at 
work may be inclined to think that no great 
care is necessary, for all they saw was a 
dirty-looking rag covering a similarly unin¬ 
viting-looking lump of wadding, or, as it is 
sometimes called, cotton wool. 


The Rubber in French Polishing : How to Use It. 

[Work—April 11, 1891. 

it, the rubber, if in competent hands, will, 
on inquiry, be found to have been more 
carefully made than might have been ex¬ 
pected, and the polisher would, in all 
probability, prefer it to any nice clean¬ 
looking rubber such as a novice would 
choose. Mind, it is not said that a dirty 
rubber is what is wanted, for dirt is fatal 
to really first-class work, and the polisher 
should keep his rubbers as clean as he 
possibly can. They naturally will get stained 
and discoloured with the polish, but that is 
a very different matter from being dirty. 
It may be news to some readers that old 
rubbers are preferable to new ones, provided 
that they have been properly taken care of 
and not allowed to get hard. The care of 
rubbers will be dealt with later on, and, 
in the meantime, their construction and 
general manipulation may be attended to. 

For the outer covering or casing of the 
pad, soft rags are necessary. They may be 
either cotton or linen, the great point to be 
observed as essential to success being that 
they are perfectly soft. It should, perhaps, 
also be said that they must be tolerably 
fine, or, at any rate, free from knots or 
lumps. From this it will be seen that 
though rags have been mentioned as suit¬ 
able, some care in their selection is necessary, 
and that it would never do to have a piece 
with a seam across it for a rubber, as any¬ 
thing which would tend to scratch the film 
of polish as it is being laid or worked on in 
the final operation of spiriting off must be 
carefully avoided. Some polishers advise 
the exclusive use of linen, but to confine 
oneself to this is a needless restriction. It 
must not be supposed, because rags have 
been mentioned, that new material may not 
be used. To render it suitable, however, it 
must be thoroughly washed to remove all 
traces of the sizing and stiffening with which 
it may have been finished. Of course, 
before it can be used for polishing it must 
be thoroughly well dried. This may seem a 
small point to urge, but it must be remem¬ 
bered that success in polishing depends to a 
great extent on the observance of details, 
and judging by the answers in the “Shop” 
columns, difficulties which would not occur 
to the experienced polisher are constantly 
cropping up. The necessity of avoiding 
damp (aqueous) cannot be too much insisted 
on. In addition to rags—of which not a 
very large quantity need be laid in, as in an 
ordinary household there is generally plenty 
of material available—some wadding will be 
required. This really is the rubber, as the 
rag is principally of use as a covering and to 
keep the wadding within proper bounds. 
White wadding is the best to use, and it is 
readily obtainable from any upholsterer or 
chemist; possibly it may be purer if got 
from the latter, and it is most certainly 
very much dearer than any reasonable up¬ 
holsterer would charge for something equally 
suitable. Enough ought to be obtainable 
for a few pence to last a considerable time. 
If got from an upholsterer the wadding is 
sure to have a thin film or skin on one or 
both sides, according to whether it has been 
split or not. Anyhow, this skin must be 
removed, leaving nothing but the soft cotton. 
In cotton manufacturing districts, it may be 
useful to know that the raw material, if it 
is clean, will do equally as well as the finest 
wadding. The material known as cotton 
flock, and used by upholsterers as a stuffing 
for mattresses, chairs, etc., is not suitable, 
unless perhaps for the coarsest work. Even 
then it should not be used if anything better 
is available. For some special kinds of 

work rubbers composed entirely of flannel 
are occasionally recommended. It is, how¬ 
ever, a matter of personal preference, and 
it is, to say the least, very doubtful if 
there is any advantage in using flannel, 
except sometimes, perhaps, for large flat sur¬ 
faces, which can be got over more quickly 
with a large rubber than with a small one. 
All things considered, the novice cannot be 
advised to use any but the wadding rubber, 
and to become a competent polisher with it 
before experimenting with anything else. 

To form a rubber it is only necessary to 
take a piece of the wadding and a piece of 
rag of sufficient size to enclose it. It is not 
enough, however, merely to wrap the wad¬ 
ding up anyhow, for it is absolutely neces¬ 
sary that on the bottom or sole of the 
rubber— viz., that part of it which comes in 
contact with the work—there shall be no 
creases or folds. If there are any, then the 
delicate shellac film will be scratched. 
Perhaps the best way to convey the idea of 
what is wanted in a good rubber will be to 
imagine the wadding and rag ready to hand. 
Let a piece of the wadding be taken—say 
sufficient to form a ball, when moderately 
compressed, of double the size of a walnut. 
Put it in the centre of a piece of rag and 
gather up the edges of this so that the wad¬ 
ding is enclosed, as it were, in a bag. Keep 
the bag from opening by holding it with the 
thumb and finger tips, then press it down on 
any flat surface to flatten it, when, provided 
there are no creases, the rubber may be re¬ 
garded as perfect. The whole thing is 
really very simple, and with a little care it 
will be almost impossible to make a mistake. 
The size of the rubber will, to some extent, 
naturally depend on the nature of the work, 
but that just given may be regarded as 
generally suitable. It is, however, impossible 
to lay down hard-and-fast rules in this 
respect, and the polisher, as he gains ex¬ 
perience, must be guided by circumstances. 
Too large a rubber is not advisable at first. 
It has been mentioned incidentally above 
that the rubber is to be held by the 
tips of the thumb and fingers, but it must 
be understood that though this is the usual, 
because the most convenient, way with a 
rubber of moderate dimensions, the polisher 
may adopt any other method which suits 
him better. He will probably find, for 
example, that when using a large rubber it 
can be more conveniently used by holding it 
in the palm of the hand. 

To use the rubber it must, of course, be 
charged with polish. Some care will have 
to be exercised in doing this, and to prevent 
mistakes it is well to say here that actual 
directions for completely preparing and 
polishing any article are not now being 
given. We are at present only concerned 
with the rubber, so that many points which 
it would otherwise be necessary to refer to 
may be disregarded with the assurance that 
they will be considered in due course. 
Some polish being handy, the covering of 
the rubber is to be opened so that a little 
polish can be dropped on the wadding. A 
convenient way of doing this is to have the 
polish in a bottle, the cork of which has a 
channel or notch cut in it to allow only a 
few drops at a time to escape. Some 
polishers dip the rubber, or rather a portion 
of it, into the polish, but then the novice 
must remember that an expert may venture 
on methods which a beginner should not 
attempt. The method recommended is the 
one generally adopted, so the learner will 
be under no disadvantage in following it. 
The wadding must by no means be saturated 
with polish, of which only enough should be 

used to moisten it and come through the 
rag covering when pressure is applied. The 
rubber having been charged, gather up the 
rag as already directed. Then, to equalise 
the polish, press the rubber moderately 
firmly into the palm of the other hand. 
The sole of the rubber ought now to be 
ready for application to the wood, which, 
for explanatory purposes, may be assumed to 
have been properly prepared to receive its 
first coating of polish. The principal thing 
at this stage, it must be recollected, is to 
get a good even body of polish on the wood, 
not thick in one place and thin in another, 
but distributed all over alike, and not too 
thickly anywhere. How this may best be 
done depends, to a certain extent, on cir¬ 
cumstances, and on the custom to which the 
polisher has become habituated. One ex¬ 
ample must suffice, as, after all, if the 
desired result is got, the precise method is 
of secondary consequence. Let it be as¬ 
sumed that the work to be done is a small 
table top or other fiat surface. With 
moderate pressure on the rubber, wipe 
quickly over the entire surface, first with, 
then across, the grain of the wood. Then 
proceed without delay to go over it more 
minutely, the motion generally adopted 
being shown in the accompanying illustra¬ 
tion. The pressure should be gentle at first, 
but as the polish gets worked in and the 

Diagram showing Movement of Rubber in 
French Polishing. 

rubber drier, it is to be increased, though 
at no time must the pressure degenerate to 
mere scrubbing. 

A very important point which it may be 
necessary to caution the novice about is the 
necessity of not allowing the rubber to 
remain stationary on any part of the work, 
and on no account ever to leave the rubber 
lying on it during temporary absence or at 
the end of the day’s work. While the rubber 
is in contact with the wood it must be kept 
constantly in motion. As often as the rubber 
gets dry it must be recharged with polish, but 
let the novice beware of using this in excess. 

When the rubber seems to stick, instead 
of moving pleasantly and sweetly over the 
wood, just touch the face of it with a little 
raw linseed oil. If the oil could be dis- 

E ensed with altogether it would be better, 
ut as it cannot be, the next best thing is 
to use it as sparingly as possible. The 
merest touch will suffice. 

When any job is finished do not throw the 
rubber away, as amateurs have been known 
to do, under the impression that a rubber, 
when once laid aside, becomes useless. It 
does if left exposed to the air, because the 
spirit evaporates, leaving the shellac to 
harden. As old rubbers are better than 
new, when done with they should be kept 
in an air-tight receptacle ; a tin canister or 
a biscuit box will do as well as anything. 
If they are laid aside for any length of time, 
they will even then become hard unless the 
box be perfectly air tight, which it probably 
will not be. A few drops of spirit put into 
the box now and then will, however, keep 
the contents in proper condition for use. 

Work —April 11, 1891.] 

Wire-IVork in all its Branches. 




The Wire Gauge and its Variations. 

The gauge is an instrument for determining 
the numerical size of any particular piece of 
wire. There are many different kinds of 
gauges, and, upon good authority, it is said 
that great variance exists amongst them. 
Fig. 4 is a drawing of the one I have seen 
mostly used. The decision, when ascertain¬ 
ing the size, is arrived at by placing the 
wire in the notches (the holes are merely for 
the sake of convenience), and the number of 
the notch into which it will exactly fit dis¬ 
tinguishes the size by which 
the wire is recognised. 

There is a little book, pub¬ 
lished by Messrs. Spon & Co., 

Charing Cross, London, written 
by Mr. Thomas Hughes, en¬ 
titled, “ The English Wire 
Gauge a book of which my 
opinion is that it would prove 
usefully acceptable to wire- 
drawers and wire-workers alike 
—in which are given over two 
dozen diagrams of distinctly 
different wire gauges, the origi¬ 
nals of which, the author tells 
us, he has been collecting, and 
are of this and also last cen¬ 
tury’s manufacture. Through 
the whole of his book he 
clamours for a standard gauge, 
on the grounds that at present 
the same sized notch on two or 
more different gauges is known 
by different numbers, thus fre¬ 
quently creating confusion. 

I will take the liberty of 
making a few quotations from 
his handy little publication. In 
one part he says : “ An order 
was received by cable from 
Hew York for . . . No. 36 
w.g. (wire gauge). The re¬ 
ceivers gave out the order No. 

36 B.w.G. (Birmingham wire 
gauge), not aware of any other 
wire gauge. The manufacturers, 
incidentally learning what the 
. . . was for, instituted in¬ 

quiries, and discovering it was 
for America, rightly concluded 
the gauge intended was Stub’s, 
or Warrington wire gauge, that 
being the ‘Birmingham wire 
gauge’ commonly used in the 
United States. Had this order 
been executed in No. 36 b.w.g., 
the . . . would have been 
useless for the purpose intended. No. 36 on 
Stub’s gauge is No. 44 on the ‘Birming¬ 
ham wire gauge,’ and the difference in the 
price of . . . this order £28. . . .” 

Mr. Hughes gives a drawing of what he 
proposes should be accepted and used as a 
“ standard English wire gauge.” 

Although I have recommended his book 
to wire-drawers, I must tell them that in 
one portion he says : “ Wire-drawers, as a 
body, are not the most intelligent of work¬ 
men ; withal, they are too well aware of the 
fact that wire gauges vary, and are conse¬ 
quently content to draw their wire carelessly, 
irregular in size and form, knowing disputes 
cannot be settled by gauges.” Whether this 
is fair or unfair to this section of workmen 
I will not venture an opinion. I trust it is 
not, for I have always been inclined to be¬ 
lieve that the average British workman, 
whatsoever he laboureth at, is a painstaking 


reasons for arriving 
sions; and he 
also gives a brief 
but interesting 
history of wire¬ 

He elsewhere 
says : — “Accu¬ 
rately drawn wire 
is daily becoming 
more and more 
incumbent upon 
Formerly good 
drawing was wire 

Mr. Hughes gives his 
at the above conclu- 

certain sized wire in connection with any 
of the articles which I shall do my best to 

4.—The Birmingham 
Gauge (B.W.G.). 


50 A 


40 - 



17 - 

16 - 

• 058 . 

" 11 - 6 . 

13 . 

—1 - 

— 0 

“ 0 

15 . 

14 - 


17 . 

13 - 


20 . 

12 - 


22 . 

11 - 


- 25 . 


10 - 


27 . 


y — 

30 . 

8 _ 



which would 
enter one notch, 
but not the next 
notch on the 
gauge to it, the 
limit of variation 
—say No. 1 wire— 
being the two-hun¬ 
dredth part of an 
inch. It mattered 
not whether the 
wire was round 
or oval.” This is, 
undoubtedly, a 
fact, but 1 shall 
not endeavour to 
alter such cir¬ 
cumstances, and 

therefore shall adopt the use of the gauge 
shown in Fig. 4, one which has been ex¬ 
tensively used. Whenever I may mention 


7 — 

6 - 

5 — 

4 — 


3 - 

2 - 

1 - 





> 0 . 


44 . 









60 . 


C 1 — 



Fig. 4a. 



2 / — 

7 0 


3 / 



4 / 0 J 


‘ 70 . 


80 . 


' 90. 



100 . 

Hughes' “ English Standard Wire Gauge,” slightly modified. 

describe in following papers, it must be 
understood that I am using the numbers 
indicated upon the gauge just spoken of. 

A Tangent Galvanometer for Wood-Turners. [work—April u, i89l 


As wire increases in thickness, it is very 
often distinguished as rods; but it must not 
be assumed that I have taken any particular 
thickness as a starting point, for what in 
one workshop would be merely called wire 
would in another be termed rods. In refer¬ 
ence to this Mr. Hughes says :— 

“I have not found a wire gauge made 
anterior to 1846 to contain a larger size than 
No. 1, demonstrating that down to 1846 
the largest size wire was No. 1. Anything 
larger was called rods.” 

1 have alluded to wire-drawers, but it is 
not my intention—indeed, it is not within 
my power—to describe the process of wire¬ 
drawing. In fact, such really has no more 
to do with ivire-work than the operations 
carried on in saw-mills have to do with what 
is generally known as wood-ivork. I give in 
Fig. 4a a diagram of “ the English standard 
wire gauge,” the invention of Mr. T. Hughes, 
reproduced, with slight alterations in the 
position of the figures, from his publication, 
“ The English Wire Gauge.” I cannot ascer¬ 
tain whether or not it has been adopted by 
many wire-drawers or workers, and would 
thank anyone acquainted with any firm using 
this gauge to announce the fact to me. I 
shall say nothing further upon the merits or 
demerits of the article than to remark that its 
length is a prominent impediment. I might 
suggest that, if made similarly, with graduated 
groove, but round—that is to say, its two 
ends almost meeting—it, perchance, would 
be an improvement. I am aware that there 
would then be an inner and an outer diameter 
formed by the groove, but I fail to see that 
this would materially affect its utility or 
accuracy. I reproduce the design here, know¬ 
ing full well that it will be brought before 
numerous readers who may not have heard 
of Mr. Hughes’s interesting book. 



Description of Post Office Tangent Galvano¬ 
meter—How to Make a Simpler, though 


Parts— How various Portions are Con¬ 
nected—Materials Required—Method of 
Preparing Turned Parts—Lining Inside of 
Index Box with Tinfoil—Glass Required 
—Use of Mirror—Drilling Necessary— 
Division of Index—Preferable Alterna¬ 
tive — Pivoting of Magnet — Suspending 
same by Silk Thread — Needle — Best 
Length —Indicator—Winding of Coils— 
Gauges of Wire to be used—Connections 
of Coils on Base—Use of Short Circuiting 
Key—Levelling Screws— How Made—Use 
of the Instrument — Example — Shunting 
Part of Current—Conclusion. 

There is always a demand amongst amateur 
wood-turners for designs of simple articles 
which are effective in appearance, and yet 
do not require an extraordinary degree of 
manipulative skill in their construction. I 
therefore propose to show how a turner 
of average, or even limited, ability may 
make a handsome article at a very small 

Those who have studied electricity will 
not require to be told the use of a tangent 
galvanometer, which is a costly though 
beautiful instrument. Those used in the 
ost office, for instance, which are of the 
est design, are all of brass, with adjust¬ 
able controlling magnet, micrometer level¬ 
ling screws, etc., and are so arranged that 
the upper portion may move through an arc 
of a circle independently of the stand. 

The instrument I shall describe was 
designed for the use of electrical engineering- 
students who wished to construct their own 
apparatus, and was made of mahogany. 

Fig. 1 is a front elevation of the completed 
instrument, a is the ring which contains 
the coils of wire ; b is the box in which the 
index plate and magnet are placed ; c is its 
support; D the support for the ring and box ; 
and e the base. 

Fig. 2 is a section of Fig. 1, and shows the 
manner in which the various portions are 
fixed together. 

The mahogany required will be a piece 
1 in. in thickness, sawn roughly to a circle 
9|- in. in diameter. A circle 2 in. in thick¬ 
ness and 6 in. in diameter, another 11- in. 
in thickness and 91- in. in diameter, about 
6 in. of 3 in. square, and a few odd pieces 
of small size. 

To commence, fasten the piece of 1 in. 
stuff on the taper screw chuck, and face up 
one side. Reverse it, and then true up the 
other side for a couple of inches from the 
outside, and cut the groove for the wires— 
^in. wide by § in. deep—on its periphery. The 
edges of the flanges should now be neatly 
rounded and papered up on both sides, after 
which the ring may be cut off with a parting 
tool, the inside dimensions being 7 in. The 
inner edges will probably be slightly rough, 
and may be papered off by hand, or a piece of 
stuff may be chucked, and a recess turned 
on its face, into which the ring fits, friction 
tight, a little chalk being used to prevent 
any slight slipping. All being now finished, 
it should be put away till wanted for 

The piece left on the chuck must also be 
put aside, as it will be utilised in making 
the cap for the index box. 

This may now be commenced. The 2 in. 
stuff should be chucked and faced up, leaving 
it of the shape shown in the section. The 
projecting portion being 2 in. in diameter by 
£ in. in depth, this side must now be chucked 
and the stuff turned down to a diameter of 

in. The inside may now be removed to 
a depth of in., leaving the bottom £ in. 
thick. The bottom may have a small bead 
run round, and the edge of the box must be 
rebated to take the cap, as shown in Fig. 2. 

Now remove the box from the chuck, and 
replace the disc from which the ring was 
cut. This must be turned down so that the 
box will fit easily and yet not loosely, the 
rebate being of sufficient depth to allow for 
the thickness of the glass. The outside 
may be roughed into shape and the cap cut 
off', when the box must be rechucked, the 
cap fitted on with a little chalk, and neatly 
finished off with glass-paper. 

The projection on the bottom should now 
be partly cut away, as to leave a tapering 
dovetail, which fits into a corresponding 
mortice in its support. 

Before proceeding with the box support, 
etc., it would, perhaps, be advisable to turn up 
the base, and then work upwards. The base, 
which is of If in. stuff in the rough, should 
be faced up true on one side, reversed, and 
the edge of the other side trued up, and the 
middle recessed i in. deep to wfithin 1 in. of 
the edges. A bold moulding should now be 
turned on its circumference. A parting 
tool cutting a hole in the centre about 1 in. 
diameter will now remove it from the chuck. 

The ring support, d, should next be done 
up, being made from 3 in. stuff. The bottom 
should be turned to fit the centre hole in 
the base, and a £ in. hole bored right through 
for the passage of the wires connecting the 
coils with the terminals in the base. A slot 
must now be carefully cut with a fine saw, 

into which the ring must tightly fit. The 
ring should now be marked, so as to be able 
to replace it in its exact position again ; 
care being taken that the grain of the wood 
is either horizontal or vertical, the former, 
to my mind, having the best appearance. 
A i in. hole must now be cut in the portion 
of the ring which fits in the slot, and the 
base of the box support turned so as to 
“ cap ” the other one, and fit into the hole 
in the ring by means of a projecting pin-— 
the top being fitted with a dovetailed recess 
as shown in perspective in Fig. 3, corre¬ 
sponding to the dovetail left on the under 
surface of the index box. 

The woodwork is now complete, and 
should be nicely polished ; the interior of 
the index box should, however, be left 
plain, its sides subsequently being covered 
with tinfoil neatly glued all round to reflect 
the light on to the index plate. 

If the galvanometer is to be fitted with 
levelling screws, three will be required, and 
I shall refer to this at a future stage ; but if 
not, three small knobs should be turned up,, 
all exactly the same thickness, and glued in 
their places underneath, as shown in Fig. 2, 
the pins fitting into the holes bored for their 

The wood-turner’s portion is now finished, 
and he may survey with pardonable pride- 
the neat appearance his work will present if 
it has been conscientiously done, and the 
directions given have been properly followed. 

The next stage will be to get a piece of 
looking-glass to fit inside the index box, 
and a piece of plain glass to fit on its edge 
inside the cap, the latter maintaining it in 
position. A small hole should be drilled in 
the centre of each. 

The division of the scales on the index is 
a matter requiring great accuracy, and a 
deal of trouble would be saved by taking a 
walk yourself, or sending that convenient 
acquisition, a young brother, to the nearest 
newsvendor’s, there purchasing a duplicate 
of this number of Work, and cutting out 
the index, which may then be fastened to*the 
looking-glass, using paste and glue. When 
dry, the two portions marked x may be cut 
round with a sharp knife, and carefully 
removed. For those who would prefer to 
make the scales themselves, I have shown 
the means of obtaining the tangent divisions 
(Fig. 4). The use of the mirror is to pre¬ 
vent errors due to parallax, as if the eye is 
exactly over the needle its reflection on the 
glass will not be visible. 

The important question has now to be 
decided as to whether the magnet and 
pointer shall be balanced on a pivot, or 
suspended by a cocoon thread. I need 
hardly say that the former is vastly superior 
to the latter, though proportionately more 
difficult. If it is decided to suspend the 
needle, the silk thread is secured in the 
hole in the glass cover by a little shellac, 
and the needle fastened to its other extremity 
as near as possible to the index. 

I shall, however, take it for granted that 
the larger proportion of my readers will 
prefer to pivot it properly, and make a good 
job of it. 

A sewing needle driven upwards through 
the bottom of the box so as to project about 
I in. through the centre hole in the mirror 
will make a splendid pivot. The surplus 
part underneath may be broken off out of 
the way. 

The needle now claims attention. It may 
with safety be made | in. long without 
introducing any perceptible source of error 
considering the diameter of the coil, and 
should be about N i n - wide ar “d N i n - thick. 

Work—April 11,1891.] 

A Tangent Galvanometer for Wood-Turners. 




5 A« 














Our Guide to Good Things. 

[Work—April 11,1891. 

A hole should be drilled through the centre 
across the ^ in. width, sufficiently large to 
allow the sewing needle to ]aass freely 
through. The needle should pivot on a 
jewel, as it is absolutely necessary to 
eliminate all possible friction. A jewel 
set in a small plate can be obtained at the 
watchmaker’s, and fastened immediately 
over the hole by a little solder or shellac. 
A piece of very fine but hardened copper 
wire must now be fastened to the piece of 
steel, so as to form a straight line at right 
angles to it, and of sufficient length to reach 
the width of the index card. This pointer 
is the means employed to read the deflections 
shown on the scale. The accuracy of the 
pointer may be tested by observing whether 
its two points correspond to the zero on 
each side of the scale. 

Fig. 5 shows the alternative methods of 
fitting the needle : A showing the silk 
thread means of suspension, and b the 
■sewing needle pivot. 

The winding of the coils may now be 
proceeded with, and wire of the following 
gauges, best quality, should be used. 

Between the centre of the resistance blocks 
and the terminal b, No. 36 silk-covered copper 
wire of sufficent length to offer a resistance 
■of 320“ should be used ; something over 
-J lb. will be required. 

Between c and d, three turns, and between 
i> and e, twelve turns, of No. 18 silk- 
covered copper wire, the three turns being 
wound in the opposite direction to the 
twelve turns. 

The resistances inserted between the brass 
blocks are made up of No. 38 German silver 
wire, wound on a shallow reel under the 
base, the wire being doubled in half before 
being wound, as shown in Fig. 7. 

The wires are neatly wound in the ring 
and passed through the hollow pillar and out 
below the base, where they are connected to 
the various terminals, as shown in Fig. 6. 

When this has been done, a strip of patent 
leather may be fastened over them, so as to 
give a neat finish to the coiL 

The small key shown at g, in Fig. 6, is for 
the purpose of checking the oscillations of 
the needle, and bringing it quickly to rest, 
the coils being short-circuited when the key 
is depressed. 

Levelling screws, if required, may be made 
in the following manner— 

Three pieces of rolled brass, j in. by f in., 
and 2 in. in length, may be neatly filed up, 
one end of each being rounded to a semi¬ 
circle, as shown in Fig. 7, where also is seen 
the positions of the holes to be drilled. The 
hole at the rounded end should be tapped 
to take a convenient-sized thread, say £ in. 
Whitworth, though a fine instrument thread 
is far preferable. The end may now be 
sawn down for a short distance, and the 
■ends slightly closed by a light tap with a 
mallet (to save denting the metal), so as to 
give a spring grip upon the screw. The 
two small holes at the other end are for the 
purpose of screwing it to the under side of 
the wooden base. 

The levelling screws may be of any form. 
The heads should preferably be milled, and 
the ends rounded, so as to avoid scratching 
the surface of any polished table, etc., on 
which the instrument may be placed. 

The galvanometer being completed, per¬ 
haps a few words as to the manner in which 
it is used will not be amiss. 

Referring to Fig. 6, a current sent from c 
to E would give nine turns, acting on the 
needle, three of the twelve being neutralised 
by the three in the opposite direction 
between c and d. 

The resistance of these coils is almost 
negligible, so that by using the various 
terminals effects can be obtained from three, 
nine, or twelve turns, without appreciably 
varying the resistance of the circuit. 

The 320 w coil is joined to the middle brass 
block and to b. If a plug is inserted in the 
left-hand hole, the end of the coil joined to 
the middle block is connected to terminal a 
direct. Without the insertion of this plug, 
however, an additional resistance of 750 M is 
left in the circuit, and the resistance between 
a and b is l,070 w . 

The resistances are arranged for use with 
a Daniell cell of a comparatively low resist¬ 
ance, and if such a cell be joined to A and 

b, the current would be equal to Y .°' tS 
H 1070 ohms, 
or ’001 ampere, viz., 1 milliampere. 

If a current to be measured is very strong, 
a very high deflection will be the result, and 
to obviate the difficulties which would arise, 
the current is “ shunted,” or provided with 
a second path, so that only a portion passes 
through the galvanometer, the remainder 
passing through the shunt. 

If the shunt was equal to the resistance of 
the coil, half the current would pass through 
each; but if the resistance of the shunt is 
3 -f° ohms, then ^ of the current will pass 
through the shunt, and only through the 

This is the case in the instrument in 
question, the resistance being wound in the 
same way as previously described, and also 

laced beneath the base. The shunt is 

rought into play by inserting the right- 
hand plug. 

Suppose a current of 1 milliampere gives a 
deflection of twenty-seven tangent divisions. 
If the tenth shunt is then inserted, and a de¬ 
flection of eighty-one divisions obtained 
with a current of uncomputed strength, the 
current flowing round the galvanometer is 
evidently three milliamperes, but as this is 
only W of the real strength, it follows that 
the total current is thirty milliamperes. 

I do not profess to have explained the 
theory of, or more than touched upon the 
method of, using the tangent galvanometer, 
and have no wish to trespass upon the 
domains of our electrical contributors ; but 
persons unacquainted with its use will not 
require to make it, and those who do under¬ 
stand it are not in want of any explanation. 
The coils requiring to be of a specified re¬ 
sistance should be tested carefully by means 
of a Wheatstone bridge. 

In a future paper I hope to show how 
a simple bridge may be constructed. 


4.—The Britannia Company’s No. 8 Fret-Saw 

From the time of its introduction the Britannia 
Company’s “ No. 8 ” machino has been a favourite 
one with fret-cutters who could appreciate its 
numerous good features. The makers have, 
however, not been content to rest on their oars, 
but have, from time to time, introduced improve¬ 
ments as they have been suggested, till the 
“Improved No. 8,” as the newest form of the 
machine is called, is as nearly perfect as possible. 
All the chief points of the original, the heavy 
driving wheel, large table, equal tension of the 
saw with perpendicular action, etc., have all 
been preserved, so that in general the machine 
remains much as it was. Closer examination, 
however, shows that there are several well- 
thought-out improvements, which cannot fail 
to he appreciated alike by the novice and the 
experieneed worker. Comparing the present 
with the original machine, the vertical drill, in 

addition to the one at the side, is the most 
prominent feature which attracts attention, hut, 
beyond this, there are several minor improve¬ 
ments which conduce to the comfort of the 
worker. Perhaps the most important of these is 
the facility with which the saws can be fitted, as 
the fumbling which so often happens to fit them 
into the clamps is done away with by a very 
simple expedient, which allows them to be fixed 
with the greatest ease. The tilting arrangement 
has also been simplified, while the saucer-like 
receptacle for sawdust underneath the table, 
where it was sometimes in the way when 
fastening the saws, has been done away with. 
The stroke of the saw has been increased, as has 
likewise the distance between the table and the 
upper arm of the frame. This by no means 
exhausts the list of improvements; but the others 
are of comparative unimportance, although they 
all tend to make the machine what I consider the 
best both for amateurs and cabinet makers who 
do not require to cut anything over, say, f in. 
thick, though, as an experiment, I have cut oak 
of considerably more. It almost goes without 
saying that the thinnest material and the finest 
saws can be used, when necessary, with equal 
facility. The price of the machine complete is 
65s. I understand that the makers are contem¬ 
plating a lathe attachment, which will be a great 
advantage to those fret-cutters who wish to do 
the small turned parts which are so often found 
in fretwork designs. When this is ready, no 
doubt I shall have something to say about it; 
meanwhile, readers who desire to know more 
about it cannot do better than apply to the 
Britannia Company direct. 

5.— Some Useful Books, etc. 

The Amateur.—-I have received the Amateur 
for March, 1891, published by Messrs. Henry 
Zilles & Co., 24 and 26, Wilson Street, Fins¬ 
bury, London, E.C. It contains a very good 
pattern in fretwork for a bracket and towel- 
roller combined, which seems a somewhat in¬ 
congruous bringing together of the drawing¬ 
room and back kitchen or scullery, for the towel- 
roller would not be wanted in the former apart¬ 
ment, and an elaborate bracket above the towel- 
roller is clearly a waste of ornamentation in the 
latter. The part also supplies an excellent de¬ 
sign for an inlaid table in olive wood, curled 
walnut, and rosewood. 

Development.—This handy volume on an im¬ 
portant branch of photography, written by Mr. 
Lyonel Clark, C.E., author of “ Platinum 
Toning,” forms Yol. V. of “ The Amateur Pho¬ 
tographer’s Library,” published by Messrs. 
Hazell, Watson, & Viney, Limited, 1, Creed 
Lane, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. It includes 
instructions for the use of eikonogen as a de¬ 
veloper for instantaneous work and a comparison 
of developers. 

The Electro-Platers’ Handbook.—Our friend 
Mr. George Edwinson Bonney, who by this time 
is well known to all readers of Work as an au¬ 
thority on all matters connected with electro¬ 
metallurgy and kindred subjects, has written 
this volume of Whittaker’s Library of Arts, 
Sciences, Manufactures, and Industries, pub¬ 
lished at 3s. by Messrs. Whittaker & Co., 2, 
White Hart Street, Paternoster Square, London, 
E.C., “to meet the wants of amateurs and young 
workmen desiring a practical manual on electro¬ 
plating at a low cost.” It is written in Mr. 
Bonney’s careful, painstaking, and explanatory 
style, and cannot fail to answer the purpose that 
he has in view. 

Ventilation.—This is a thoroughly practical 
and exhaustive volume on the important subject 
of ventilation, written by Mr. William Paton 
Buchan, R.P., Sanitary and Ventilating Engi¬ 
neer, author of “ Plumbing.” It is, as it purports 
to be, a complete guide and text-book to the 
practice of the art of ventilating buildings, 
and contains instructions on air-testing, giving 
various methods of examining the air of build¬ 
ings. It is published at 3s. 6d. by Messrs. 
Crosby Lockwood & Co., 7, Stationers’ Hall Court, 
Ludgate Hill, London, E.C., and forms a volume 
of Weale’s Rudimentary Series. 

The Editor. 

Work—April 11,1891.] 




A Corner for Those who Want to Talk It. 

I *.* In consequence of the great pressure upon the 
“Shop" columns of Work, contributors are 
requested to be brief and concise in all future 
questions and replies. 

In answering any of the “ Questions submitted to Corre¬ 
spondents," or in referring to anything that has appeared 
in “ Shop," writers are requested to refer to the number 
and page of number of Work in which the subject under 
consideration appeared, and to give the heading of the 
paragraph to which reference is made, and the initials 
and place of residence, or the nom-de-plume, of the writer 
by whom the question has been asked or to whom a reply 
has been already given. Answers cannot be given to 
questions which do not bear on subjects that fairly come 
within the scope of the Magazine. 

II.— Questions Answered by Editor and Staff. 

Furniture Colouring.— W. N. (Sheffield).—! am 
afraid you are not such a careful reader of “ Shop ” 
as you say you are, or you would have seen not 
very long ago an answer to a correspondent on 
the same subject. As your signature is somewhat 
illegible, and I cannot turn up the inquiry then 
answered, 1 am unable to say whether it is not the 
one you refer to as having been lost. You know it 
is really impossible to give answers to questions at 
once, as the “ Shop ” columns are limited in extent. 
It is not worth wnile repeating remarks so lately 
given, so I can only briefly answer your present 
inquiry. Take the colouring of your walls, and 
paint your furniture similarly. The more colours 
you use, and the more pronounced they are, the 
greater the liability to failure. Low tones or light, 
almost white, colours are generally the most success¬ 
ful Without knowing something of the prevalent 
colours of the room in which the furniture is to 
stand, how is it possible to advise you on what will 
be best either from Aspinall’s or any other paint- 
maker’s cards 1 If you use white polish, it will not 
affect the colour; but, of course, if you use dark 
polish, the colour will be modified accordingly. 
Get a machinist to do what is necessary to your 
lathe. I do not think you can do it yourself—D. D. 

Stove and Fret Saw.— Artist in Wood.— Your 
stove seems practicable enough, as it does not differ 
essentially from many now in use. It it just such a 
thing as anyone who has to do sufficient veneering 
to make it worth his while to have a special stove 
for heating cauls could construct or arrange for 
himself. No doubt you know that, in ordinary 
circumstances, the usual open fireplace is quite 
sufficient. I am sorry to say that I am so dense as 
to be unable to make head or tail of the descrip¬ 
tion of your new form of scroll saw. Therefore, 
to say that it is very good would be flattery of the 
most senseless kind; while, on the other hand, to 
say that the idea is worthless, might possibly be the 
means of discouraging you, and preventing what 
may be a really good thing from being brought 
forward. To go into all the parts which I do not 
understand would entail too much time, but if your 
invention has got further than paper, and a machine 
has been made on the lines you dimly suggest, let 
us have a description in which the blanks of your 
present one are filled up. Such little omissions as 
source of motive power, disposition of top end of 
saw, and one or two trifles of that kind, do not 
exactly help one to understand your meaning. Life 
is too short to spend many days in trying to work 
out a mechanical puzzle of the kind you put before 
us.—D. D. 

Polishing Alabaster. — Monumental Mason. 
—This is an inquiry for “full details,” and yet 
there is no indication, except, perhaps, the signa¬ 
ture which points to carved doves, whether the 
work to be polished is flat, turned, or carved. Space 
is too precious to go into all the tools and methods 
employed, so the following summary is submitted 
with the hope that it will give the information 
required; if it does not, then write again. I wifi 
suppose that the work has already a good smooth 
surface left from either rifflers, scrapers, or glass- 
paper. Now use some fine sand-stone or grit-stone, 
such as robin hood, water of Ayr, or snake-stone, or 
else trent sand and Water, until you get rid of all 
tool marks; follow on with pumice, either in lump 
or powder, also with water; next use putty powder 
and water, and for a finish I am told soap and 
water is particularly good to use with the putty 
powder, especially for lathe work. As to the way 
in which you will apply these materials, that must 
rest with yourself, as I have no details to guide me. 
If for crevices in carvings, a soft stick will best hold 
the polishing powder. For choice, get some dog¬ 
wood—that is, what butcher’s skewers are made of. 
Then for other forms, butt's of leather, pads made of 
cloth, either to use by the hand or to revolve in the 
lathe, or dollies of wool or list, also for the lathe, may 
be required, while the hand itself may be used to 
give it an extra finish.—H. S. G. 

Bird Cages. — A. T. (Inverness). —There are 
probably few readers of Work who do not keep a 
canary or a bird of some kind, and perhaps some of 
them would like to see their songster in a large 
cage. I will give instructions how to make a cage— 
a cage that is roomy, ornamental, and not difficult 
to make. The one illustrated (Fig. 1) is a square 
cage, standing upon a table. The eight uprights 
are of J in., and the rest is of 4 in. mahogany. The 
top is in one solid piece, with a round hole cut for 
the dome. After the wiring is done in the bottom 

part, the top is simply glued on the eight uprights, 
as in Fig. 4. To wire the dome, divide round the 
circle with a compass $ in.; for the top of the dome, 
have a round piece of mahogany; divide that into 
the same number of parts; bore the holes, then cut 
a number of wires the length, to give the dome a 
pleasing curve ; fasten a wire in the bottom and in 
the top piece, and bend it to the proper shape; then 
put one in each corner; and now go all round, bend¬ 
ing each wire. For binding and straightening the 
wire, see page 20, No. 54 ? Vol. II. of Work. A 
simple breeding cage, if it is wanted to hang in 
a large room for the season only, could be made 
of | in. pine, put together as In the drawing (Fig. 2). 
There is no pretension to ornament: it is a simple 

Simple Breeding Cage for Canaries. Fig. 3.— 
A, End, and B, Bottom of Breeding Cage that 
can be taken to Pieces. Fig. 4.—Mode of 
fastening the Top on. 

square cage that any novice might knock together. 
Fig. 1 is also an easy cage to make, and anyone with 
a little knowledge of carpentry could make it. I 
have several cages that are made to take to pieces 
after the breeding season, and can be stowed away 
in a small space. They are often on the plan of 

Fig. 2, but I should not care to keep the birds all the 
year round in a deal cage. I will now describe how 
to make a simple breeding cage. List of pieces re¬ 
quired :—Two pieces for top and bottom, 24 in. by 
11 in.; two pieces for sides, 14 in. by 10| in.; one 
piece for back, 23 in. by 10J in.; one piece for false 
bottom, 23 in. by 10J in.; for front, three strips, 23 in. 
by 4 in.; one strip, 23 in. by 2 in. Plane all these 
pieces both sides, and before putting the cage 
together, stain and varnish the outside and white¬ 
wash the inside. Now mark the pieces for the wire, 

4 in. apart; you can do this with a rule or a stiff 
compass, but if you are making several cages, it 
will save time if you make a marker, as described 
in Work, No. 54, page 20. You can bore the holes 
in soft wood with a bradawl; take care to have it 
sharp, and cut across the grain ; bore holes right 
through on strip of i in., and half-way through the 
others ; cut one of the {- in. strips into two pieces, 

5 in. long, for the door, and put the door together 
with seven short wires. Having bored the last 
hole right through, and shaved the other ends so that 
the door will shut flush, put the wires through the 
centre strip, and get them all level; get the top strip 
on next, beginning at the end; pinch each wire with 
the pliers, and give the pliers a slight tap; leave out 
seven wires in the centre of the cage for the door, 
and put the door on the eight wires; out about 14 in. 
off the seventh wire from each end of the cage for the 
food and water fountains; turn up, and drive the 
wires into the bottom strip, taking care that they 
are parallel. Bore holes, and put the wire in for 
the fountains, and take care to fasten the ends in 
well; cut a slant for a feeding tin. Now the front 
is ready: nail the end on the back and front, then 
the bottom, and lastly, the top and the front strip 
on to the false bottom; make the fastenings foi 
the door; fit and fix the perches in. The drawings 
will assist the amateur to make a simple breeding 
cage. There is a very good nesting basket described 
in Work, Vol. II., No. 95, page 699, which I have 
found to answer the purpose; such can easily be 
fixed to the back of the cage.—F. H. 

Spokes.— Wood-Worker.— First get your spokes 
for the heavy cart dressed off. When the hub or nave 
is turned, you will see that the wood-turner has 
marked a line with his chisel. This guide-line is 
nearer to the front than the back. When marking 
and driving home the spoke in the nave, the face 
of the spoke at the bottom must be in a dead line 
with this guide-line. If the wheel has twelve 
spokes, we divide the nave into twelve equal 
parts with a pair of compasses 1 in. behind the 
guide-line; when found, mark the division well by 
digging the compass-point well in the nave. Next, 
fix the nave in the pit-frame, and bore half-way 
through with a I in. bit at every mark or division. 
In boring, always have the bit perfectly perpen¬ 
dicular. When all are bored, get a dressed spoke 
and place the tang or foot of it just over a hole, 
and the face of the spoke in a dead line with the 
guide-line, and let the spoke be placed exactly 
between the other two holes at each side of the 
spoke; next run your pencil round the two sides and 
the back, thus marking the nave. We now pare 
this mortice out within the lines, and drive in the 
spoke, using a spoke-boy or stick set right to guide 
us in driving the spoke in properly. We no w miss a 
mortice, and go on to the next and serve it in exactly 
the same way as we did the first; thus six spokes 
are driven in alternately, leaving a space between 
every two spokes to receive another after the first 
six are in. If all the spokes were driven in one 
after the other, the consequence would be that the 
nave would burst into halves. In light wheels, the 
spokes are dressed off differently from the cart 
fashion, and are driven in the nave on the on and 
off system alternately; therefore two guide-lines 
are turned upon the nave, the off guide line being 
4 in. behind the on or front guide-line. The strengtn 
of the timber for a heavy cart wheel is generally 
as follows :—Oak nave or hub, length 15 in. by 13 in. 
(in 6 in. wheels the'spokes of English oak are 4 in. by 
2 in.); felloes of ash or oak, 6 in. by 4| in.; hoops or 
tyre, 6 in. by f in. thick; height of wheel when 
finished, 4 ft. 9 in. In 44 in. heavy cart wheels the 
strength of the nave is the same; the spokes are 34 
in. by ljin.; felloes, U in. by 34 in. or 4 in.; tyre, 44 in. 
wide, 4 in. thick; height of wheel when finished, 4 ft. 
G in. or 8 in. The strength of timber for wheels for 
a light trap is: nave of elm, 9 in. by 8 in. j felloes of 
ash, 2J in. thick; oak or hickory spokes, 2 in. by 15 in. 
thick; tyre, 14 in. wide, 4in. thick ; the lengths of the 
spokes go according to the height of the wheel. A 
pair of wheels suitable for light spring-cart for a 
pony of thirteen hands would be about 4 ft. high.— 
W. P. 

Platinum.—J. W. (Homerton).— Write your 
w'ants fully to Messrs. Johnson, Matthey & Co., 
Hatton Garden, London, E.C., who will doubtless 
reply to you. 

Silvering on Glass.— W. E. L. B. (King's Nor¬ 
ton) from information given in Work has succeeded 
in silvering glass in the ordinary way; he now 
asks information on chemical silvering. May I ask 
if W. E. L. B. intends to work simply experiment¬ 
ally or on a large scale for profit ? If the former, I 
think I can help him ; if the latter, something more 
than information will be needed. I have never had 
occasion to silver by this process, hut I have secured 
information from a reliable source which I am 
pleased to impart to the inquirer. There are several 
processes; the following I give with confidence. 
Silvering Solution.— Dissolve forty-eight grains of 
crystallised nitrate of silver in loz. of distilled water. 
Add strong liquid ammonia drop by drop, stirring 

6 o 


[Work—April 11,1891. 

at the same time with a glass rod—the stirring must 
be continued until the brown precipitate is nearly, 
but not quite, re-dissolved. It must now be filtered 
and distilled, and water added to make up to twelve 
fluid drachms. Reducing Solution. —Dissolvetwelve 
grains of Rochelle salt in 1 oz. of distilled water. 
Boil in a flask, and whilst boiling add two grains of 
crystallised nitrate of silver dissolved in one drachm 
of water. Let it boil five or six minutes after the 
latter has been added. Filter when cold, and add 
distilled water to make twelve fluid drachms. 
Silvering— The glass to be silvered must be chemi¬ 
cally clean. To secure this, dip it in strong nitric 
acid. Then wash in liquor potass®, and finally 
wash in distilled water. To have the glass approxi¬ 
mately clean is not enough. Chemicals are very 
particular as to what company they keep, and 
positively refuse to act unless they are consulted. 
In a glass vessel of a size suitable to the glass to be 
silvered, equal portions of the two solutions must 
be poured, and stirred so as to be intimately mixed. 
Previous to this, some plan must be devised by 
which the glass can be gradually lowered into the 
vessel. For example., a piece of wire may be 
cemented to the side of the glass not to be silvered, 
and be made to pass through a hole in a piece of 
thin board; this may be placed across the mouth of 
the vessel; the glass attached to the wire can then 
be raised or lowered. The glass, whilst still wet from 
the bath in distilled water, must be let down into the 
solution. The utmost care must be taken that the 
entire surface touches the solution without any air- 
bubbles between. The vessel must be set in the sun¬ 
shine in a warm room. The light soon turns the 
fluid black, which gradually grows clear as the 
silver is deposited. It must at this point be removed, 
for if left after the solution is exhausted, the silver 
will be partly re-dissolved. When the mirror is 
removed from the bath, it must be carefully washed 
in distilled water and placed on its edge to drain 
and dry. When perfectly dry, the silver must be 
varnished with an elastic varnish or paint to prevent 
damage. I shall be pleased to give further details 
if needed.—O. B. 

To Soften Gold.—H. H. W. (Pimlico).— To 
soften gold or silver after hammering, all that has 
to be done is to anneal it—that is, make it red hot, 
and let it cool or quench it in water, when it will be 
as soft as ever it was. Experience will teach yon 
that the heat should be applied regularly, gently, 
and gradually; that to make the part near a 
soldering seam hot first of all will cause it to open; 
that a sudden quenching is bad. These, and many 
other things, will be found out by experience, for on 
the application of heat for soldering and annealing, 
one of our foremost jewellers (Giuliam of Picca¬ 
dilly) says that it takes an apprenticeship of seven 
years to master. This applies only to the work if of 
good size and of complicated design. For every¬ 
day work, no difficulty is likely to be experienced.— 
H. S. G. 

Silver Foil.— Carol.— This preparation is gene¬ 
rally believed to be a French production, and from 
experience with it in. the workshop as a finished 
article, I should say that it would be a very difficult 
matter to keep the thin silver flat, smooth, and 
bright while the paint—which I believe is put on 
when warm—is being evenly applied. You might 
make inquiries at the flatting mills (Buckland Hop 
Gardens, St. Martin’s Lane) as to the thinness they 
can flat silver to; if too thick, then try a gold beater. 
When you have got your silver thin enough, you 
have to find somebody to burnish it. The next thing 
will be to obtain the paint. All I know about that is, 
that it can be bought at jewellers’ material shops in 
various colours—named after the stones. Of its com¬ 
position I have never thought, but rather suspect 
if I really wanted to know that, I should get a 
chemist to analyse some. The foregoing is merely 
an indication of what I think is the manner of pro¬ 
ceeding. The game can never be worth the candle. 
If, however, you intend going in for it in large 
quantities, no doubt the Editor will put a query at 
the end of “Shop,” and I will as well spend some 
time in going into the matter, if you will but write 
again.—H. S. G. 

Angle Iron.—W. C. ( West Bromwich).— The iron 
mentioned in answer to A. S. ( Forest Gate) is not 
angle iron, but iron of “rectangular” (oblong) sec¬ 
tion. I do not think you can get angle iron so 
small, but upon this point you could get informa¬ 
tion from any manufacturer of iron bedsteads. I 
believe they use the smallest angle iron rolled.— 
F. C. 

Staining and Polishing.—L. G. (Middleton).— 
To stain your light wood chest of drawers a nice 
mahogany colour, darken it first with a weak 
walnut stain, and then finish off with French 
polish, reddened with a little Bismarck brown. 
The work connected with the polishing is done 
exactly as if you were treating unstained wood, 
but it may be necessary to remind you that if the 
staining raises the grain, as it probably will, you 
must rub down with fine glass-paper. If you prefer 
to use a ready-made mahogany stain, you can buy 
one at almost any oil shop.—D. D. 

Booh on Joinery.—E. W. C. (New Wands¬ 
worth.).— Joinery and cabinet-making are distinct 
trades, and the details, etc., given in books are, 
properly speaking, examples, and not working 
drawings. You would find Tarn’s “ Carpentry and 
Joinery ” (2 vols.), published by Crosby Lockwood 
and Co., 7, Stationers’ Hall Ccurt, London, E.C., 
very useful. “ Drawing for Cabinet Makers," by 
Davidson, published by Cassell & Company, Ludgate 
Hill, E.C., is also a very good book.—E. D. 

Gun Rack.—J. H. (Lancashire ).—This simple 
device should be found satisfactory accommodation 
for three guns and cartridges, unless you object to 
having their muzzles pointing nearly horizontally. 
The thicker the side brackets are the better—even 
li in. or U- in. would not be too stout. Connect the 
ends of a back rail to the brackets after some such 
method as I show in Fig. 3. You must have noticed 
sufficient details elsewhere, applicable to the con¬ 
struction of the cartridge compartments, which I 
advise you to have as a box, with lid, in preference 
to drawers. To retain the guns in the position 
shown, it will be necessary to have hook-shaped 

Fig. 1.—Gun Rack. Fig. 2.—Gun Stock Support. 
Fig. 3.—How to join Back Rail. 

rails, as in Fig. 2, joined to one side of the article, 
against which will rest the stocks. By placing the 
guns as I show, their triggers will be less exposed 
to contact with coat sleeves, when a gun is being 
taken from the rack, than if stowed each flush with 
the other.—J. S. 

Concrete. —H. A. H. (Manitoba). —(1) Concrete 
is made of four parts of broken stones, made to pass 
through a 2 in. ring, two parts of fine gravel or 
coarse sand, and one part of Portland cement. 
These must be measured in a box without top or 
bottom, and laid on a platform of boards, and turned 
over with shovel and pickaxe till thoroughly mixed; 

Fig. 1.—Binding of Wall. Fig. 2_Frame for 

Concrete Building. 

then sprinkle water on, and turn over till every 
part is wetted, but not saturated ; it is then fit for 
use. (2) Walls 16 feet high can be built with it, and 
if all the moisture is dried out of them, they will 
not be affected by frost. Should there be any mois¬ 
ture left in, the frost will crack it, but to what 
extent can only bo learnt by experience. If any 
concrete has been used in the district, you could 
note the effect of the frost upon it. If you have six 
months of dry w r eather after being built, the con¬ 
crete should be dry. If the climate is wet. you 
might mould the concrete into blocks—say 12 in. by 
6 in. by 3 in.—and wall them as ordinary bricks, 
binding them as in Fig. 1. For these the concret e 
must be screened through a J in. screen. (3) The 
method of building in concrete is by frames 12 in. to 
18 in. deep, kept apart by pieces of wood, -and a row 
of J in. bolts 3 feet apart at the top and bottom. 

Washers or iron plates should be put on at the out¬ 
side, and battens on the outside of the frame, which 
may be of 1 in. boards. The frame is filled with 
concrete, and when sufficiently set, the frame is 
moved along, and again filled, and so on round the 
building. Then commence a second course, and 
carry it round in the same manner. When the bolts 
pass through the concrete, lay a piece of board at 
each side, to prevent the concrete adhering to the 
bolts. The holes can be filled up afterwards. Fig. 2 
shows the frames. For building flues, use a round 
core, 10 in. or 12 in. in diameter, with a handle on 
the top; fill round this with concrete, and, when set, 
draw the core up. Window and door frames are 
walled in, a board being fixed at each side of the 
frame to fill out the thickness of the wall. Two 
frames will be enough, except for a very large 
building. After the walls are up. render and float 
them inside and outside with Portland cement mixed 
with three times its bulk of sharp sand. (1) The 
outer walls may be 16 in. or 18 in. thick, and the 
inner walls 10 in. or 12 in.—M. 

Smelting Furnace.— J. G. N. (Manchester).—A 
drawing of such a furnace is given in Bloxam’s 
“ Metals,” page 314.—J. 

Colouring Gold Chains and Whitening Silver 
Ones.— New Subscriber.— Your best plan will be 
to send both sorts to a gilder to be renovated, for 
there are many considerations that govern the use 
of the following methods, the chief being the 
qualities of the gold and silver that are to be 
coloured or whitened. For colouring, you will 
find all the details given in a reply to Young 
Amateur in No. 19 of Work, page 301. If the 
gold chains are not worn, but only discoloured, you 
can restore them by laying them in a mixture of 
chloride of lime one part, water ten parts. After¬ 
wards rinse well in hot water and dry in warm 
sawdust. Neither of these methods to be used for 
any quality under 15-carat gold. To whiten silver, 
neither of the two following methods are to be 
tried on anything less than standard silver, and they 
only give good results at the first attempt when the 
silver is fine, such as >s used in filigree work. 
Cover the work over entirely by the aid of a brush, 
with borax ground up with water on a piece of 
slate until it is as thick as cream. Then make it 
red hot, and drop it into a clean warm solution of 
vitriol one part, water about thirty parts. If it does 
not come out white on the first application, repeat the 
process two or three times. Another way is to 
cover the work with powdered charcoal and 
powdered saltpetre, mixed together with water in 
the proportion of three or four of the first to one of 
the last. Then anneal and boil out in the vitriol 
pickle given above, or else make this solution in its 
place: bi-sulphate of potashonepart, water ten parts, 
and clean your work in that. After either of these, 
the work must be well rinsed in hot water previous 
to being dried in warm sawdust. To scratch-brush 
you can use soap and water, but diluted beer is 
better. Perhaps this method will do what you 
require: Take a piece of cyanide of potassium 
about the size of a lump of loaf sugar and dissolve 
it in a half-pint of warm water, then immerse your 
chains for a few minutes until the tarnish has gone 
off, then rinse, etc. To clean them only, an easy 
method is to apply whiting moistened with ammo¬ 
nia diluted with at least an equal quantity of water, 
using a soft brush. If you are thinking of trying 
any of these, first examine your work to see that 
there is no pewter solder on it, and in the case of 
gold there must be no silver solder about. It is 
safest to do as I advise at the beginning of this 
reply—send them to the gilder. Your signature is 
evidently a correct one, or else you would have seen 
that Mr. Bonney has a series of articles in this 
paper dealing with the subject of electro gilding.— 
H. S. G. 

Power of Water delivered through Pipe.— 

Gosforth.— This must be treated by a formula for 
the flow of water through pipes, and the head will 
be a plus d, assuming that no tank intervenes. To 
ascertain the power, we must calculate the dis¬ 
charge at the delivery point, and the work accumu¬ 
lated in the water at that point. This will be best 
shown by an example. Let a=10 ft.; d =50 ft.; y— 
100 ft.; and x=2 ft. The total head h=a+d=60 ft. 
Then if Q=cubic feet of water discharged per 
minute, we find by Downing ’s form ula:— 

Q = 2,356 \/^ x tf 5 =2,356\/ jjjjj x 2 5 = 10,270 cubic ft. 

One cubic foot of water weighs 62’, lbs., therefore 
the weight of water delivered per minute will be 
10,270x62;=64,185 lbs. As the pipe is 2 ft. in 
diameter, it* area is (from a table of areas) 31- 
sq. ft. Dividing the quantity by this, we find 

the velocity per minute =3,423 feet per minute 

=57 feet per second. From the laws of falling bodies 
we find that the accumulated work in a body is 
equal to the product of its weight and the square of 
its velocity in feet per second divided by 64f. In this 

case it equals 64(57) -=32,381,000 foot-lbs. per 

minute. Now one horse-power is equal to 33,000 
foot-lbs. per minute; therefore the horse-power 

given by the water will be =981 horse- 

power.—F. C. 

Musical Box Repairs.— Secretary.— First you 
say “ pins out of barrel.” Do I not tell how to re-pin 
the same in my article? “ Three teeth in comb gone.” 
I also state the best remedy unless you purchase 

Work—April 11, 1891.] 


6 i 

■ new comb; but three teeth you can insert, as I wrote, 
low, as to working—and being a mechanic the job is 
asier to you—be sure to let it down to the bottom, 
or pins and teeth are broken by careless unscrew- 
ng of the fly-wheel; when spring has great power, off 
;o lots of teeth and pins. Then do as I say —clean 
t thoroughly; not too much oil, and it will go easy 
md well. If not, see to the worm part. This part 
nay be too far in—“too near its work,” as you 
nechanics would say. If too far away—why, it 
,vould go to the bottom in two minutes or less ; this 
,'ou remedy by turning the screw from you (only 
ji quarter-turn, or less) until it works, with pressure 
)f your finger or thumb on the second wheel from 
,vorm.—P ractical. 

Slide Painting.—W. J. C. ( Islington ).—First, 
;he colours used. Most dealers in artists' material 
supply boxes with all needful colours, etc. But it is 
hot really requisite to procure a box, or, indeed, 
ivery colour that may be found in them. The 
following will be found sufficient for a beginner. 
W. J. C. doubtless is aware that all colours must 
be so-called transparent. Red —madder lake, crim¬ 
son lake, pure orange, pure scarlet (this colour has 
been a difficulty, but a few months ago I received a 
tube from Messrs. Reeves, 113, Cheapside, London. 
It is a new paint, and I am informed that it is the 
result of much patient experimenting; the colour 
is exceedingly good, though it must be confessed 
that an absolutely pure scarlet in transparent colour 
remains to be discovered), burnt sienna. Yellow— 
yellow lake, gamboge, yellow madder, Italian pink. 
Ghreen— verdigris. Blue— Chinese, Prussian, indigo, 
French ultramarine. Brown— Vandyke, madder 
brown. (Madder lake and ultramarine are Is., 
andthe others from 3d. to 6d., per tube.) Varnishes 
will be needed. From W. J. C.’s letter, I fear he 
has been working without them, as he says his 
paint rubs off. Mastic, gold-size, copal, and pure 
turpentine, will meet his requirements. There is one 
little omission in W. J. C.’s letter; and that is, he 
does not say if he is working in oil or water. I am 
presuming, however, it is oil. Secondly, heasks, “Is 
there any way of putting them on, as I cannot get 
them on even ? ” They can not only be got on, but 
evenly too. I suppose the difficulty experienced is 
on large flat surfaces, as the sky. Now, if one looks 
minutely at a well-painted slide, he will see that 
the sky appears granulated, if I may so say. Some¬ 
times circular marks similar to “thumb-marks’’ 
will be seen; colour is laid on the upper sky, and 
brought down near the horizon—from the horizon 
upwards to meet the blue. Yellow-red (or orange) 
is laid according to the effect required. These two 
colours are now blended together by means of the 
tip of the little finger. The finger makes little 
dabs accompanied by a somewhat rolling move¬ 
ment difficult to describe, but soon acquired by 
practice; by this means the two colours are 
blended in a perfectly even manner. If the colour 
is too thin on the glass, then a little is taken on the 
finger from the palette and dabbed on. On the 
other hand, if the colour is too thick, wipe the 
colour off the finger on the palm of the other hand, 
repeating this until the colour is brought to the 
proper intensity and depth. Some workers cover 
the top of the finger with the end of a white kid- 
glove, but practical men prefer as a rule to dispense 
with this addition. The last point referred to is— 
that when the paint is put on, it rubs off so easily. 
By this I am afraid that proper precautions have 
not been taken—first, in the use of proper varnish, 
such as I have mentioned; and, secondly, the slides 
have not been stoved in a warm (not hot) oven for 
the purpose of hardening the varnish. If proper 
varnish is used and hardened, there is no danger 
of the paint coming off. It must be understood 
that the first coat must be perfectly hard before the 
next is laid on. I have only given the colours as 
they are procured ready-mixed in the tubes, but it 
will be understood that any number of secondary 
colours may be made by a proper mixture of any 
two of the colours named. There is another word, 

I am afraid, necessary from W. J. C.’s letter in refer¬ 
ence to the use of a medium with his colours. Mix 
mastic varnish f oz., turps, one teaspoonful, and 
twenty drops of pale drying oil or gold-size together 
in a wide-mouthed bottle, and thin down all paints 
with it.—O. B. 

Work Binding and Index. — Index. — The 
price of the covers for binding Work volume is 
Is. 3d., and the Index Id. of all booksellers. You 
would do well to have your numbers bound at your 
bookseller’s, as the carriage backwards and for¬ 
wards would be expensive. 

Wheel Cutting on “Go-Ahead” Lathe.— 

Index.— If you wish to understand how dividing is 
done by worm and wheel, please read the article on 
page 113, Vol. I. of Work. This will, I hope, make 
it quite plain how you may get any number of 
divisions from a given worm and wheel. You wish 
to fix a worm-wheel on the tail end of your mandrel, 
and the worm on the back of the headstock beneath : 
you might adopt a worm-wheel of 120 teeth, and a 
worm of i in. pitch = T2o. Multiplying T25 by 120, 
you get the pitch circumference of the worm-wheel, 
15 in. ; dividing this by 31416, you find the diameter 
to be 177—say, 4jf. Now then, having 120 teeth in 
the worm - wheel, one turn of the worm - screw 
between each cut will give you 120 teeth or 
•divisions; two turns, 60 teeth; three turns, 40 teeth; 
half a turn, 240 teeth, etc. Or, according to the 
rule given on page 215 of Yol. I., divide 120 by 
the number of divisions you require, and you get 
the number of turns, or the part of a turn, you must 
give to the screw between each cut. Now you will 

know that on the end of the screw you can put 
three different lands of expedients for counting its 
revolutions or parts of a revolution ; you may have, 
simplest of all, a divided collar, or a series of ex¬ 
changeable collars having different numbers of 
divisions ; or, secondly, you can have an index plate, 
or several plates—a system which is explained in 
Messrs. Brown & Sharpe’s “Milling Machines,” to 
be had from Buck & Hickman, or Churchill, for 
6s. 6d.; or, thirdly, you can have a train of small 
wheels with a click, so arranged as to turn till the 
click falls into a notch between each cut. The plan 
explained in Vol. I. is a kind of cross between the 
two last, and is somewhat simpler than either, and 
I think it would suit you very well, as you are not 
continually employed in wheel cutting. The sketch 
below shows how you might arrange matters. The 
dotted arc is part of the pitch line of the worm-wheel; 
w is the worm, s the spindle which carries it; a is 
the centre screw confining its motion endways (it is 
made of large diameter, so that the collar of s can 
be passed through the tapped hole it leaves); b is 
the place on which the divided collars fit; c, c are 
the bosses on the plate d ; e is the pivot screw 
which secures the plate d, and round which it can 
turn when raised into gear by turning the square, G, 
of the eccentric f ; this eccentric bears upon the 
bottom of a recess h, cut out of the plate i, which 
plate, i, is secured to the back of the headstock by 
one or more screws, k, and may remain in position 

even if d and its attachments be removed ; l is a 
collar, of which there must be several; they fit on 
b by pressure of the hand, and have in their edge 
a number of shallow holes, into which the ball 
point m drops, and is held there by the spring n ; 
o is the boss of the spring; it is fixed to the worm 
spindle in any position by the set screw p. Since 
you say you wish to cut wheels of from 60 to 80 
teeth, divide 120 by every number of teeth you wish 
to cut — thus, Vj 1 = 2, which means you require 
to turn the worm-screw round twice between each 
tooth. Some numbers, being primes, are very dif¬ 
ficult to deal with except by the method indicated 
on page 215 : these numbers are 61, 67, 69, 71, 73, 74, 
77, 79. Very probably these numbers may not be 
required, and for the rest you will require ten collars, 
divided into 3, 5, 7, 8,11, 13, 17,19, 21, 23. These you 
could easily divide yourself by stepping round with 
dividers, which would be quite exact enough for the 
collar.—F. A. M. 

Steel Spring.—H. S. ( Chesterfield ).—Your order 
is a difficult one to fill, especially as you want the 
springs of different tempers; it would have been 
easier if different strengths would have done. I 
should advise you to write to Messrs. Grimshaw and 
Baxter, 33 and 35, Gosvvell Road, London, E.C. I 
think clock spring will be the best material to use. 
—F. C. 

Hinge.— Helpless.— To obtain,what you require, 
you must make or get a spiral spring, which in its 
length makes one half turn, and in radius fitted to 
that of the hinge when closed, or it should be rather 
less, to keep the hinge sides tightly closed. If there 
is no cavity behind the hinge for the spring to play 
in, the hinge itself must be recessed. The spring so 
made is to be firmly fixed by one end to one wing of 
the spring (the fixed wing preferably), and so set 
that its free end, after making a half turn, bears 
firmly against the other wing of the hinge.—F. C. 

Wood Background for Carved Panels.—B. 
A. B. (Hampstead).— To obtain the basket-work 
effect, a punch of this style is sold |||| for hammering 
the uncarved background. Also, I believe, a tri¬ 
angular one hi,. But it is obvious that either of these 
would yield a set mechanical effect, whereas if an 
ordinary tool—say, a chisel with a blunt edge—is 
hammered on (in the rougher way shown in the 
design), the effect can be obtained more roughly, 
and, therefore, more effectively.—J. G.-W. 

Piano Scale, and Pelt on Hammers.—G. T. 
(Chatham).— Your letter is not very explicit. I 
gather from it that you, having set your compasses 
to A of an inch, 3 ft. 9 in. and 3 ft. 11 in. do not 
correspond. I cannot understand exactly what you 
want to know; so I must surmise. In No. 36 of 
Work you will find a portion of a scale, actual size. 
Now, if you make one octave correct to this, and 
repeat it until you have the seven octaves, I cannot 
see how you can go wrong; this will be your top 

scale, the bottom one is contracted 2 in. at the bass 
end. The top scale is placed at the bottom edge of 
the wrest-plank when it is used, as this is the strike- 
lino where the hammers strike. If you placed this 
scale on the top edge of wrest-plank, it would be 
decidedly wrong. Read No. 36 of Work with care ; 
it will explain everything you require to know. Of 
course, if you commenced your piano before you 
saw Work, it is impossible for me to know how 
you made it, and where you obtained your instruc¬ 
tions, unless you divulge it. If this answer does not 
satisfy you, write again and enter into particulars. 
The longer the letter, the more complete will be the 
answer. The felt, as you are perhaps aware, is 
manufactured on the taper ; the thick end is placed 
at the bass, while the thin end extends to the treble. 
You can obtain this felt in strips—from Is. 6d. up¬ 
wards—from Goddard, ironmonger, etc., Tottenham 
Court Road, W.C. Of course, the better the quality, 
the better the tone ; you can get a medium quality 
for 3s. 6d. You require a long-bladed shoemaker’s 
knife, and sharpen on emery cloths; this gives an 
edge suitable for felt. Take the felt off your treble 
and bass hammer, and see that your felt is not too 
wide. If you look at the felt you have taken off, you 
will see that where it is glued on the wood of the 
hammer the edges are pared down while it is in the 
length. Now make a piece of wood ^ of an inch 
wider than the felt you have taken off. Use this as 
a gauge to cut your felt by. Springs for putting this 
felt on may be obtained from G. Buck, tool-maker, 
Tottenham Court Road, if I remember rightly, at 
about 3d. each. If you wish to do without springs, 
you can use pieces of very narrow tape to tie with. 
To take the old felt off, cut through the centre of the 
felt with your knife, as it is not glued here; then you 
can tear it off. Having your glue nice and hot, but 
not so thin that it will soak in the felt, begin at the 
bass end. Take the first piece of felt, and glue the 
top side of the hammer only ; then wrap your piece 
of tape round, or put on your spring. Now miss one 
piece of felt and one hammer, doing every alternate 
one, till you have got to the treble end; then go back 
to the bass, and glue those you have missed. The 
idea of missing every other one gives you more 
room to put your spring on. Now, having got all 
these glued on the top side, start at the bass again 
as before, and glue the under side of the hammer, 
not the centre. Pull your felt firmly over (you will 
find it will stretch a little), and secure as before. You 
must then trim the sides with your knife; and if 
you have not cut them neatly (as this requires some 
practice), apply a warm flat-iron to the sides.— 
T. E. 

Boiler Injector.— Stoker.— The apparent para¬ 
dox of steam leaving one part of a boiler, and not 
only rushing back into it, but carrying a quantity of 
water with it—although, on its passage, there is an 
opening to the atmosphere—may be thus explained. 
It must first be observed that whereas steam in 
motion expands in all directions , a jet of water 
moves in one direction only. Suppose we have 
steam 60 lbs. pressure above the atmosphere ; its 
volume is 380 times that of the water from which it 
came, and into which it will condense. Then, if it is 
supposed that steam is leaving a boiler at that pres¬ 
sure through an opening of 380 square inches, and 
that its speed of motion remains the same, if it is 
suddenly condensed in passage it will pass through 
an opening of one square inch, it will remain of the 
same weight, and, therefore, have the momentum 
acquired from 60 lbs. pressure over the larger area, 
and being liquid will keep its course in its direction 
when condensed ; so it is easy to see why the con¬ 
densed steam will jump a break and go back into the 
boiler, and it is also evident that it will have a great 
margin of spare energy. Its speed will not increase, 
for each particle will have its original velocity, but 
in the condensed form they will close up and act 
upon less surface—like a few people forming up 
close together to rush into an open crowd. Now, as 
for the feed water it takes in, that depends upon the 
general principle of injectors. If you blow a stream 
of air through a nozzle into a tube in fine with it, 
its friction against the air through which it passes 
drags the latter with it and so creates a partial 
vacuum into which water will flow, and the same 
occurs with the condensed steam in the boiler 
injector. This is very old, and a water stream was 
in remote times so employed to suck in air for a 
blast at the Cornish mines. If you take a T-shaped 
piece of glass, open at all ends, and put the stalk in 
water, and then blow through the horizontal part, 
you will see the water rise. Barber’s sprayers are 
on this principle.—F. C. 

Oven Thermometer.— I). G. T. (Ilminster).— An 
oven thermometer should be procurable for about 
five shillings. Arensberg, Boar Lane, Leeds, or 
any respectable scientific instrument dealer, would 
supply you with one.— Qui Vive. 

Bass Bar.— Albert. — Accepting 9 in. as the 
width across the waist, the position for the bar 
should be laid out by making two lines, the first 
1 in., the second 1| in. distant from, but parallel 
with, the centre joint. The dimensions of the bar- 
speaking generally, of course—are 21 in. long by 
i in. thick by 1 in. deep at the point where the 
bridge will stand; from this point it should 
diminish with a slight curve to i in. deep at each 
end. The “reeds” of the wood, should run ver¬ 
tically through the bar, which ought to be 1J in. 
deep when planed up ready for being fitted.—B. 

Fairy Bells.— Curly.— The dimensions given on 
page 814, Vol. I., are correct. No better wood than 
pine can be used, as it combines lightness with 
straight, even grain, and a perfect freedom from 


Shop, etc. 

[Work—April 11, 189L 

knots. The best kind of varnish to use is hard copal, 
if spirit varnish is used, although it may be handled 
sooner, it is not nearly so lasting, and will show 
white marks if scratched or chipped. But better 
than any varnish is French polish, which also gives 
a better finish. The figures given in Fig. 3, p. 811, 
are 21 in.—R. F. 

Syphon. — W. B. (Highgate Hill). —The term 
syphon (although generally employed) is hardly 
the correct one. It would, perhaps, be more correct 
to say trap. If your meter is lower than the main, 
you must put in a T-piece close to the meter. Let 
the T-piece point downwards, and screw a short 
piece of barrel (about 12 in. or 18 in.) in it, plugged 
off at the end. This will catch any water that may 
collect in the pipes, and can easily be unscrewed 
and emptied at any time. It will be best to call 
the attention of the Gas Company's inspector to the 
fact that a syphon is necessary before putting it in. 
—T. W. 

Chromic Acid Cell. — J. A. S. ( Cardiff ).—I 
cannot understand or explain the erratic behaviour 
of your chromic acid cells, as I have not experienced 
such variations as you mention. It would be better 
to employ a stronger solution, containing 3 ozs. of 
chromic acid and 3 ozs. of sulphuric acid to 1 pint of 
water, instead of 1 oz. of each to 4 pint of water. I 
should suspect a wrong adjustment of the brushes, 
or a worn condition of their bearing parts, rather 
than a failure in the cells.—G. E. B. 

Magnesium Lamp.— Dry Plate.— One of the 
most simple and least costly forms of a magnesium 
lamp is shown in the 
annexed illustration. It 
is made of silver-plated 
sheet copper to the form 
shown, and the inside is 
burnished and polished 
to a mirror-like bright¬ 
ness. The height should 
be from 6 in. to 7 in., and 
the width in front about 
4 in. A small brass clip 
is fixed in the roof of the 
lamp, and to this the 
spiral of magnesium 
wire is attached. The 
spiral is made out of 6 in. 
of magnesium wire 
wound on a thin pencil, 
then stretched out. It 
is burnt by means of a 
small spirit lamp. Some 
few years ago a gentle¬ 
man advocated in the 
British Journal of Pho¬ 
tography the use of 
granular magnesium mixed with sand instead of 
magnesium wire. The mixture was held in a small 
coned funnel of brass over a spirit lamp furnished 
with a horizontal burner. When all was ready the 
mixture was released, and the magnesium took fire 
as it fell through the flame of the spirit lamp. Per¬ 
haps some of our photographic friends can suggest 
a better lamp.—G. E. B. 

Booth’s Mitre Machine.— J.¥.(Hyde, Cheshire). 
—I should think you could get it from any large tool 
maker, or from Booth Brothers, Tool Makers, 
Dublin, Ireland.—R. 

How to Make a Dulcimer.— Trichord.— An 
article on the above appeared in Nos. 31, 38, and 41 
of Work. The numbers can be had from the pub¬ 
lishers, Cassell & Company, London, E.C.; or you 
can order them through your bookseller. 

Steam Carriages. —J. W. (Belfast).— You would 
have no difficulty in getting a steam engine fitted to 
a road carriage. Its weight will depend upon the 
power required, and that will be ruled by the steep¬ 
ness of the hills you have to ascend. One of Mr. 
Yarrow’s engines, such as he puts in his “ Zephyr” 
yachts, might suit. They are worked with mineral 
oil vapour instead of water, and mineral oil is the 
fuel; they are driven from coil boilers. You might 
write to Messrs. Yarrow & Co., Millwall, London, on 
the subject. As to a steam engine, you might write 
to Messrs. Robey & Co., Lincoln ; but in each case 
state just what you want. An electric motor would 
be cleaner than a steam engine.—F. C. 

Fowls’ House.—E. II. I. (Norwich). —The sketches 
show a portable wooden fowls’ house, with nest- 
boxes and perch inside, so that it can be drawn by 
a horse into different fields when required. Fig. 1 
shows the carcase or framework, with 4 in. by 4 in. 
sleepers (on which the whole is erected, and to the 
ends of which the wheels are attached); sills, 4 in. 
by 3 in.; corner posts, 3 in. by 3 in.; heads, cross¬ 
pieces, and intermediate uprights, 2) in. by 3 in.; 
joists, 44 in. by 2 in.; rafters, 2) in. by 3 in. ; ridge 
board, 1) in. by 7 in. All the openings, except those 
left for the nest-boxes, should have braces going 
from angle to angle, especially as the structure is 
going to be subjected to great strain by the motion 
of moving over rough ground. I have left these 
braces out in the sketch for the sake of clearness. 
Fig. 2 shows the thing complete, with the exception 
of the wheels. These can be got at any large iron¬ 
monger’s, and are readily fixed to the under side of 
the 4 in. by 4 in. sleepers. The sides are covered 
with feather-edge boarding, and the nest-boxes with 
1 in. matchboarding. All the woodwork should be 
yellow. The roof is the ordinary iron roofing. 
Louvre ventilators should be provided, as shown 
at each gable, so as to ensure thorough ventilation ; 
and the window is also very desirable. The inside 
of the hatchway in door should have a sliding or 
hinged flap to be fastened inside, so that when the 

door is locked you have the fowls under control. 
The slope should also be hinged or detachable, to 
save it from injury in moving. The size and position 
of perches depend very much on the class and size 
of fowl you wish to keep, and can easily be added to 
suit your requirements. If you examine Fig. 1, you 
will see that the construction is very simple, and 
can easily be made by anyone who can use a few 

Fig. 2.—Fowls’ House complete. 

simple tools; and most of the joints need only be 
butted together and strongly nailed. The floor 
boards should be left loose, to enable the whole to 
be thoroughly cleansed and lime-whited inside from 
time to time. I have given the size of house as 
6 ft. by 8 ft., so you will see it is rather a large 
thing for an amateur to attempt. The great ad¬ 
vantage of the nest-boxes opening from the outside 
is, firstly, the convenience of taking eggs without 
entering the house; and secondly, the nests are 
kept clean, because it is impossible for the fowls to 
foul them from the perches above. I am not pre¬ 
pared to state what you would have to pay for 
materials in Norwich, but the best way would be 
for you to measure up the quantity of each sort of 
stuff you require, and go to a respectable timber 
merchant direct, and ask what he would charge. 
Write to Messrs. Boulton & Paul, Rose Lane Works, 
Norwich, asking them for a price.—E. D. 

V.—Brief Acknowledgments. 

Questions have been received from the following correspon¬ 
dents. andanswers only await spacein Shop, upon which there 
is great pressure :— Anxious ; A. McC. ( Bolywood); B. and W. 
(Sheffield i ; Indebted; J. S. (Ipsioich); G. W. (Bradford)-. 
J. W. M.; Diapason; R. O. ( Birmingham ); R. A. D. (Forest 
Hill); W. H, W. E. T. ( Newcastle-on-Ty-ne ); J. J. (Lifford); 
H W. ( Strabane ); Lemur ; W. B. B. ( Edinburgh ); W. T. (Stir¬ 
ling); B. (Dundee); M. E. R. (London, W .); A. R. (Scorricr); 
F. S. M. (United States, America); Heathfield : D. B. (Nor¬ 
folk) ; T. W. B. (Huddersfield); S. T. (York ); J. H. F. N.; T. W. A. 
(Peckham, S.E .): K. L. ( Walton-on-Thames ); W. H. G. (Lon¬ 
don, N .); F. M. T. (Swansea ); M. A. H. (Richmond ); H. C. (Lee, 
S.E.); A. L. (London, S.E .); W. B. (Camberwell ); F. S. P. (Ship- 
ston-on-Stour); J. S. (Govan); W. H. ( Reading ); One who finds 

Work "Useful; Fait Accompli ; Eastwood ; J. H- (York); 
White ; D. P. V, ; London , S . E .); The Wye .Cycle Co ; J. S. 
(Edinburgh); Hollow-ware; G. J. W.; Anxious; House 
Decorator ; J. K. ( Manchester ): D. M. (London , S . E .) ; C. C. k. 
( Stratford ); A. L. (Nottingham) ; Gum Pot ; A. J. L. (Peckham \; 
Fowl; A. D. (Cardiff); Photoorapher; A Reader 
the First. 


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Work—April 11, 1891.] 



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[Work—April 11, 1891. 



Beecham’s Pills 
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A RE universally admitted to be worth a Guinea a Box for 

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and all Nervous and Trembling Sensations, &c. The first dose will give relief in 
twenty minutes. Every sufferer is earnestly invited to try one Box of these Pills, 
and they will be acknowledged to be 


For Females of all ages these Pills are invaluable, as a few doses of them carry 
off all humours, and bring about all that is required. No female should be without 
them. There is no medicine to be found equal to Beecham’s Pills for removing any 
obstruction or irregularity of the system. If taken according to the directions given 
with each box, they will soon restore females of all ages to sound and robust health. 
This has been proved by thousands who have tried them, and found the benefits 
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Vol. III.—No. 109.] SATURDAY, APRIL 18, 1891. [Price One Penny. 

Fig. 1.—Overhand Knot. Fig. 2.—Fourfold Overhand Knot. Fig. 2 a.— Ditto, closed. Fig. 3.—Figure-of-Eight Knot. Fig. 4—Reef Knot. Fig. 4 a .— 
Ditto, hauled straight. Fig. 5.—Ditto, half made. Fig. 6.—Granny Knot. Fig. 7.—Ditto, closed. Fig. 8.—Overhand Rosette Knot or Bow. Fig. 9. 
—■Weaver’s Knot, half made. Fig. 10.—Ditto, closed. Fig. 11.—Overhand Knot joining two Ropes. Fig. 12.—Flemish Knot joining two Ropes. 
Fig. 13.—Whipcord Knot. Fig. 14—Fisherman’s Knot. 



Simple Knots and Knots for 
Uniting Ropes. 

Overhand Knot—Fourfold Knot—Figure-of- 
Eight Knot—Reef Knot—Granny Knot— 
Rosette Knot or Bow—Openhand Knot— 
Weaver’s Knot—Overhand Knot joining 
Two Ropes—Flem ish Knot joining Two Ropes 
—Whipcord Knot—Fisherman’s Knot. 

Simple Knots .—Overhand knot (Fig. 1). 
This is the simplest knot that is made ; at 
the same time it is a very useful one. It 
also forms a part of many other knots. To 
make it, the standing part of the rope—that 
is, the main part in opposition to the end— 
is held in the left hand, and the end of the 
rope is passed back over it (whence its name) 
and put through the loop thus formed. It 
is often used at the end of a rope to prevent 
the strands unlaying. It is also sometimes 

used in the middle of a rope as a stopper 
knot. If we pass the end of the rope 
through the bight two, three, or more times 
before hauling it taut, we then have the 
double, treble, or fourfold knot (Fig. 2). 
This forms a larger knot than Fig. 1. It is 
often used on the thongs of whips, and is 
then termed a blood knot. Fig. 2 a shows 
the knot hauled taut. Fig. 1 also goes by 
the name of the Staffordshire knot, as it 
forms the insignia of the county. A Flemish 
or figure-of-eight knot is shown in Fig. 3. 
To make it, pass the end of the rope back, 
over, and round the standing part, and up 
through the first bight. For the benefit of 
my non-nautical readers, I may say here 
that the bight of a rope is the loop formed 
when a rope is bent back on itself, in contra¬ 
distinction to the ends. The term is also 
used for the bend in the shore forming a 
bay—as the Bight of Benin. The Flemish 
knot is used for much the same purposes as 
the preceding knots, but is rather more 

Knots for Uniting Hopes .—The circum¬ 
stances under which we have to join the 
ends of two pieces of cordage together are 
very various, and several methods of doing 
so are brought into requisition at different 
times, but it is always of considerable im¬ 
portance that the most suitable knot be em¬ 
ployed in each case. The value of some 
knots consists in the rapidity with which 
they can be made, and in the case of others 
in the readiness with which they can be un¬ 
done, but it is a sine quo non that the 
knot should hold firmly and not slip when 
once hauled taut. The commonest knot 
for joining the ends of two ropes, and pro¬ 
bably the knot that is most often made, is 
the sailor’s, true, or reef knot (Figs. 4 and 5). 
When correctly made it is as perfect as a 
knot can be. It can be made very rapidly 
and undone with equal ease, and is very 
secure when taut. It has, however, one 
disadvantage—it will not answer when 
made with ropes of different sizes, as it 
then slips and comes adrift, but where the 


Artistic Lithography. 

[Work—April 18, 1891. 

two pieces of cordage are of the same size it 
is a most secure and reliable knot, the strain 
on every part being so equally distributed. 
Though very readily made when once you 
get in the way of it, it requires a little 
practice to make it properly. To do this, 
take an end in each hand and lay one over 
the other, the right end being undermost ; 
bring the left-hand end under the standing 
part of the right end, as shown at a, Fig. .5, 
and over the end at B, round it, and up 
through the bight at c. The key to the 
knot I take to be putting the right end 
under the left when the two .ends are 
crossed at the commencement of the knot, 
as the left-hand end then comes naturally 
first over and then round the other rope, 
and the ends lie parallel with the standing 
parts, as in Fig. 4. If the ends are not 
passed correctly, a granny, lubber’s, or calf 
knot results. This is shown in Fig. 6. 
Though at first sight this seems to be a good 
knot, yet it is not so in reality, and when any 
strain comes upon it it slips and becomes use¬ 
less. Fig. 7 is a granny knot, as it appears 
when hauled upon. It is considered a very 
lubberly thing to make a granny knot, and 
my readers should practise until they can 
make a true knot rapidly and with certainty 
in any position. The sailor’s knot is invari¬ 
ably used for reefing sails, the ease with 
which it can be undone making it very valu¬ 
able for this purpose. You have only to 
take hold of the two parts on each side just 
outside the knot and bring the hands 
together, and the loops slip over one another, 
as in Fig. 4, and the knot can be opened at 
once. This knot has a curious peculiarity 
which I do not think is generally known. 
If we take hold of the end of one of the 
ropes in one hand and the standing part of 
the same rope in the other, and haul upon 
them until the rope is straight, the knot be¬ 
comes dislocated, so to speak, and the rope 
not hauled upon forms a hitch (Fig. 4a) 
round the other part. This property was 
the secret of Hermann’s celebrated trick, 
“the knotted handkerchiefs.” After the 
handkerchiefs were returned to him by the 
audience knotted together at the corners, 
under pretence of tightening the knots still 
more, he treated each knot as I have de¬ 
scribed. To the superficial observer the 
knots seemed as firm as ever, but in reality 
they were loosened so that a touch with his 
wand separated them easily. The common 
bow or rosette knot is a modification of the 
sailor’s knot. The first part of the process 
of making it is the same, but instead of 
passing one end singly over and under the 
other, as in the sailor’s knot, both ends are 
bent back on themselves, and the double 
parts worked as before. Care must be 
taken to pass these doubled ends exactly as 
those described in the sailor’s knot, or a 
granny bow will result. One often hears 
people say that they cannot understand ivhy 
their shoes are always coming untied, the 
reason being that they were tied with granny 
instead of true bows. Another way of 
joining the ends of two pieces of cordage is 
shown in Fig. 8. This is merely an over¬ 
hand knot, made with two ropes instead of 
one. It is also sometimes called an open- 
hand knot. It can be made very quickly, 
and there is no fear of its slipping, but if 
there is much strain put upon it the rope is 
very apt to part at the knot, in consequence 
of the short “ nip,” or turn, that it makes 
just as it enters the knot. 

Fig. 9 shows the weaver’s knot partly 
made, and Fig. 10 the same knot completed, 
but not hauled taut. This knot is called by 
weavers the “ thumb knot,” as it is made 

over the thumb of the left hand, and is used 
by them in joiningtheir “ends” asthey break. 
No one would believe, without seeing them, 
the rapidity with which they make the 
knot, snip the ends off, and set the loom 
going again. It is used by netters to join 
their twine. It also forms the mesh of 
the netting itself, though, of course, it is 
then made in a very different way. In 
making the weaver’s knot, we cross the two 
ends to be joined in the same way as in the 
sailor’s knot, placing the right end under, 
and holding them with the thumb and finger 
of the left hand at the place where they 
cross. The standing part of the right-hand 
rope is then brought back over the thumb 
and between the two ends, as shown in Fig. 
9 . The end a is then bent down over it, and 
held with the left thumb, while the knot is 
completed by hauling on b. We shall meet 
with this knot again further on. 

Fig. 11 shows an excellent way of joining 
two ropes. It can be made by laying the 
ends alongside one another, overlapping each 
other sufficiently to give room for the knot 
to be made. The double parts are then 
grasped in each hand and an overhand knot 
is formed, which is made taut by hauling on 
both parts at once, as if the knot was single. 
Though this is the easiest way to make the 
knot, it is not available where the ropes are 
fast. In this case we make a simple knot 
on the end of one rope, but do not draw it 
taut. The end of the other rope is then 
passed through the bight of the first, and a 
second loop formed with it alongside the 
first. The knot is closed by drawing the 
two ropes as before. This is in every way 
an excellent knot, and very secure. Fig. 12 
shows the ends of two ropes joined by 
means of a Flemish knot. 

This does not require much description. 
It is made after the manner of the last 

Fig. 13 is the whipcord knot, and is used 
to fasten the lash to a whip ; a shows the 
thong, and B the lash. The lash is first 
laid across the ends of the thong, which are 
turned up over it. The lash is then brought 
completely round the thong and through the 
loop it makes, which secures the ends of the 
thong firmly. If a silk lash is used, the 
short end is cut off, but if whipcord, the two 
ends are generally twisted together for a 
few inches, as at b, and an overhand knot 
made with one end round the other, which 
secures them. The remaining part is left 
somewhat longer, and another overhand 
knot at the end prevents it from unravel¬ 

The fisherman’s knot (Fig. 14) is one of 
the most useful knots we have. It derives 
its name from the fact that it is always used 
for joining silkworm gut for fishing purposes. 
In making it, the strands are first laid over¬ 
lapping one another, and an overhand knot 
made with one end round the other strand. 
The strands are then turned round, and 
another overhand knot made with the other 
end round the first strand. When the knot 
is tightened by hauling on the standing parts, 
one knot jambs against the other and nolds 
securely. The knot is improved by putting 
the ends twice through their respective 
loops, as in Fig. 2. The size of the knot is 
increased by this means, but it will stand a 
much heavier strain, so that it is advisable 
to do this whenever the size of the knot is 
not of paramount importance. 

The attention of the reader is called to the 
illustrations of the various knots mentioned 
above, which show in the clearest, manner 
possible the nature and character of each 
knot, and how it is made 




The Ink—Its Preparation—Mixing the Ink— 
Chalks—Stumping Chalk—Effect of Heat 
on Chalks—Craton-Holders — Brushes— 
Handle — Care of Brushes — Dusting 
Brushes—Lithographic Pens—Instruments. 
The Ink .—After the student is satisfied that 
the stone is in a suitable condition for 
working upon, his next consideration is the 
materials used in the manipulation of the 
work, the most important and principal one 
being the fatty matter which is necessary to 
preserve the natural qualities of the stone, 
and with which the drawing must be made. 
This consists of a black ink, and is sold at 
all lithographic dealers in two forms, that of 
a solid stick of ink, and chalk. 

Being unnecessary for the student to make 
his own ink, it will be sufficient for him to 
know that it is composed of certain fatty 
matters, such as soap, tallow, shellac, etc., 
mixed in various proportions, and a black 
pigment in sufficient quantity to allow the 
artist to see how his work is progressing, 
and also how the subject will appear when 
printed in black. Without this black pig¬ 
ment the drawing would be invisible on the 
stone, although it would print just the same. 

Its Preparation.— When the ink is re¬ 
quired for use it must be dissolved in soft 
water, and should be made fresh every day, 
for if allowed to stand from one day to 
another, it would get thick, and more water 
require to be added, in consequence of 
which the ink would not contain sufficient 
fatty matter in proportion to the water used 
for preserving the stone, especially in any 
very fine work. 

Mixing the Ink .—The best way of mix¬ 
ing the ink is to warm a small earthenware 
saucer, cut some small pieces from the 
ink, and pour sufficient water from a drop- 
bottle, or one with a small hole cut in 
the cork, over it to make enough for the 
day, then rub with the fingers in order to 
dissolve the ink, until it be of the necessary 
consistency for working, which will be when 
the ink adheres to the side of the saucer. 
Should there be too much water, the ink will 
glide off, besides which it will not contain 
sufficient greasy matter as spoken of above; 
and if made too thick, it will not flow freely 
enough from the pen, or brush. It should be 
just thin enough not to spread when work¬ 
ing with it on the stone, and just thick 
enough not to smear when dry. 

When working with the brush it is best to 
use a saucer slightly tilted, but when the 
pen is used a small bottle is better. A large 
thimble makes an excellent substitute, and 
a very good inkstand can be made by 
taking a small square block of wood and 
cutting a hole in the centre, large enough 
in which to place the thimble. Any 
small bottle would do as well so that it is 
washed out every day, but the above is, 
perhaps, as good as anything. 

C/uilks .—These should be sharpened by 
cutting away from the point in the same 
manner as charcoal or an ordinary crayon ; 
being of such a soft, greasy substance, it is 
very likely to break. The ordinary crayon- 
holder is rather heavy for lithographic- 
chalks, and likely to make them snap. It is 
preferable to use a holder consisting of a 
wooden handle with a steel top enclosed by 
the usual ring for holding the chalk. This 
allows the slightest pressure required on the 
stone to be given entirely by the hand, 
instead of by any weight from the holder 

"Work —April 18, 1891,] 

Some More Hints on Framing. 


These chalks are made of various density 
and numbered, the hardest being a copal 
chalk, which should only be used for out¬ 
lining very fine clear lines that cannot be 
made with a No. 1 chalk, which, being the 
next in order, is also used for outlining and 
fine tinting generally. No. 2 is a medium 
chalk, and No. 3 being very soft, is useful 
for strong shadows and large bold work. 

Stumping Chalk. —This is not much used 
except in light even tints for large work, as 
by its very density it prints stronger than 
the ordinary numbers, besides which it works 
very fiat and without any texture. It 
should be used with the stump or a piece of 
chamois leather. 

_ A good way to use this is to keep a small 
piece of stone handy with an average grain, 
and rub a piece of the chalk across or down 
one side until it is quite black. Then with a 
small clean piece of the leather passed over 
the first finger of the right hand and held 
firmly, take some of the chalk from the 
stone, being careful only to rub it one way, 
and taking it off as evenly as possible; then 
try it on another part of the stone (always 
taking care to rub one way) to. see the 
necessary strength required, to take off any 
superfluous chalk that may have adhered to 
the leather, and also to make it more even, 
or it will be likely to work in streaks. The 
stump or leather being now ready for work¬ 
ing with, gum round the edges of the space 
required for the tint, and when perfectly 
dry rub the leather evenly over the surface, 
and the gum will prevent the chalk from 
adhering to the stone further than it is 
required. It sounds very easy just to rub an 
even tint on the stone, but the novice will 
find it requires practice to obtain an equal 
pressure of the linger on a surface of only 
a few square inches. 

The student will also find on trial that it 
is impossible to make a chalk drawing on a 
polished stone, on account of the even sur¬ 
face not allowing the chalk to be scraped 
away, which is done in the case of a grained 

Effect of Heat on Chalks.— Heat has a 
great influence on the chalk, it being often 
possible to get the same effect with a No. 1 
on a hot day in summer as by the use of a 
No. 3 on a cold day in winter. It is also ad¬ 
visable to have half a dozen chalks in use at 
the same time, as they are apt to get soft 
from the heat of the hand, and therefore 
will not work well. 

_ Crayon-Holders.— The artist should have 
different coloured crayon-holders, so as to 
easily distinguish the number of the chalk 
he is using, and he need never throw away 
the chalk cuttings, for although they are of 
no use to him, still they make excellent ink 
for the printer, and a good foreman will be 
very glad of the perquisite. 

Brushes. —The brushes used should be 
very fine red sable, and for fine line work it 
is much better that the artist should cut 
away the outside hairs from an ordinary 
size lithographic brush, leaving only the 
centre ones for working with, than to buy 
one the exact size required, which would not 
be as firm as a larger brush cut down. 

Some writers use a brush with the hairs 
1 in.. long,, but. as they require very careful 
manipulation, it would not be advisable for 
the student to practise with them at first. 

Brushes that wili not always do for one 
thing come in very handy at times for a 
different object; thus a brush that has lost 
its point, and cannot be used any longer for 
drawing fine line's, may be very well used for 
filling in solid—that is, where a portion of 
the stone is required to be covered with ink, 

and brushes that are of no further use for 
ink are often suitable for gum work, but 
the student must be most careful in keeping 
the latter apart from those used for ink, as 
gum acts as a protection against the ink 
touching the stone, and, therefore, no work 
would print if drawn with the same brush 
as that used for gum, or if drawn on any 
part of the stone where gum has been used. 

Handle. —A good handle for brushes can 
be obtained by using a common metal pocket 
penholder, in which the top can be taken off 
and reversed to protect the pen, or in this 
instance the brush, which should be fixed in 
with sealing-wax, of course not allowing any 
of the wax to go on the outside of the metal, 
as it would not then shut in the holder 

Care of Brushes. —Always wash the brush 
with a little soap and water when finished 
with it for the day. Some artists allow the 
ink to dry in the brush as a protection to 
the point, but it is a very dirty habit to 

et into, as the brush must always be washed 

efore using, and it is much easier to do so 
the same day than if it were allowed to dry 
with the ink in it, and most people will agree 
that there is nothing so annoying as to find 
dirty tools when they are ready and anxious 
to start work. 

Dusting Brushes. —The artist also requires 
a flat camel’s-hair brush, about 2 in. in width, 
for dusting the stone with during the pro¬ 
gress of the .work, it being most necessary 
that the stone should be kept perfectly free 
from any specks of dust, or dirt, etc. 
This applies specially to chalk work, and is 
of so much importance that it will be 
referred to again when the work is ex¬ 

A fiat camel’s-hair brush of not less than 
4 in. in width is required for etching pur¬ 
poses, and should be kept when not in use 
in a well, similar to those used for copying 
brushes. It is better to have one that will 
hang against the wall, and only use sufficient 
water to cover the hair of the brush, or else 
the water, in conjunction with the acid used, 
will rot the metal of the brush. 

Lithographic Fens. —Lithographic pens are 
much finer and more delicate, besides being 
more highly tempered, than the ordinary 
writing pens, and being very brittle are apt 
to snap unless carefully handled; in fact, an 
ordinary pen for fine work on stone is of no 
use whatever, on account of the difference 
in the substance of the ink, and the writing 
or drawing surface, but lithographic pens 
are so common that they can be obtained 
from most dealers besides those who deal 
exclusively in lithographic materials; they 
therefore need not be further described. 

The artist should have several pens in 
use at the same time, for if one will not 
work well another will, so he can change 
about, and frequently a pen that is difficult 
to manage one day will work splendidly the 
next, blew pens are better for the finer 
parts of the work, and worn ones for the 
coarser ; and if the pen should get crossed 
nibbed, which is often the case, all the artist 
need do is to bend it back on the thumb¬ 
nail, when it will work as well as before— 
that is, presuming it has not snapped during 
the operation; but the student will soon 
judge for himself the pliability of the pens. 

The artist should always use a good size 
penholder, and not merely a thin stick of 
wood, else the hand, is apt to get cramped 
unless there is something firm for it to 
grasp, besides which the artist will work 
with much greater freedom; and this applies 
equally well to crayon and brush-holders. 

Instruments .-—Such instruments as the 

bow compasses, and ruling pens, are very 
highly tempered, and are specially made for 
drawing on stone ; they should not, if pos¬ 
sible, be used for drawing on paper, as it 
spoils them for stone work, and they should 
be kept in wadding, or chamois leather 

Rulers, straight-edges, curves, set-squares, 
etc., should be made of the best materials, for 
the stone being perfectly level, and having 
suchapolished surface, enhances the slightest 
error, which on paper is sometimes toned 
by its roughness. Steel is a very good 
metal, and although the student will find it 
rather more expensive, still, once having 
invested in steel instruments, he will find 
them invaluable, and will seldom, if ever, 
have to buy others ; the same cannot be said 
of wooden ones. 

It is presumed that the student already 
has a knowledge of drawing, and therefore 
a necessary knowledge of the above instru¬ 
ments and also their use ; they are not there¬ 
fore further described. 

In the next paper I hope to finish with 
the description of the principal various 
tools, etc., used in lithography, and I shall 
then be able to at once take up the more 
interesting subject of drawing on the stone. 



Cutting Tenons—Cutting Shouldfrs— 1 Tenons 
often too Wide—Wedges often too Great 
an Angle — Care in fitting Panels—In¬ 
putting Together—Mitres to Mouldings— 
Scribing Mouldings. 

In former papers on Woodwork, in pages 
482 and 646, "Vol. I. of Work, I have chiefly 
confined my attention to the plane. This 
tool, however, though very important, and 
its efficient use difficult to the beginner, is 
not the only tool upon v. hich it is desirable 
to give some explanation or assistance. 

Supposing that the previous remarks 
made by the above-signed have been read 
and understood, and that the verbal de¬ 
scription has been translated into “ some¬ 
thing accomplished, something done,” let us 
now try to finish our framing, which was 
prepared, set out, and was being mor¬ 
tised. Mortises involve tenons, and it by 
no means follows that our readers who have 
profited by the various instructions and 
advice as to mortises are much helped 
thereby in the cutting of a tenon. We will, 
as a preliminary, first examine the mortise- 
gauge. This we have new and bright, with 
its lacquer still intact and its polish odorous 
with benzoin. If so, take care. The steel 
points of a new mortise-gauge are large and 
prominent—very tusks, rather than teeth— 
and our beginners must handle the gauge 
with care, not using much pressure to score 
the lines deeply on styles and rails, because, 
if so, we cannot be sure of the exact line 
which lies somewhere in that deep ugly 
score. We who deal with pencil marks and 
chalk lines are too apt to forget the differ¬ 
ence between our lines, so-called, and the 
“ flowing of points,” the “ length without 
breadth ” of the mathematician. 

However, let us make as narrow a mark 
as possible—just enougli for us to see and 
to cut by. In setting the gauge to the 
width of the chisel, let us be as exact as we 
can, and until proficient let us always take 
the precaution to try the effect on a piece of 
spare wood, applying the chisel to make 
sure that we have successfully fixed the 
points the exact distance apart. 


Some More Hints on Framing. 

[Work—April IS, 189L 

Now, if the mortise is well cut, it will be 
just the width of the chisel; but it will not 
be well cut if the gauge is set too wide or 
too narrow. The two gauge_ lines will be 
two conflicting masters, and, inexperienced 
as we are, we shall fail of a good result. 

It will not help the fit of the tenon for the 
mortise to be cut badly. We will suppose 
ourselves interested spectators while a 
workman cuts a tenon. He has already 
marked with a mortise-gauge the lines 
which are to form the boundary in thick¬ 
ness—equal, as we have seen, to the width 
of the chisel—and he has also marked the 
shoulders each side. We notice that he has 
marked these with a knife or chisel, and not 
with a pencil, from which we learn that the 
appearance of the work is worthy of con¬ 
sideration. We notice that he fixes the rail 
in the bench screw, and, just placing his 
thumb on the end of the rail, he draws his 
saw towards him; and, on inspection, we 
find that the saw has already made a shallow 
channel for itself just on the edge of the line, 

The line of entrance of the saw is more 
correctly determined by so doing, and if 
properly sawn, the joint at the surface is a 
knit'e-cut one, as correct as our square or 
bevel, modified by our skill in using it. 

It is most important to exercise care in 
cutting shoulders that the saw is not allowed 
to cut too deep, as the tenon would be spoilt 
by so doing. 

I have already said that the proportions 
of a tenon and its mortise partly depend on 
what panels, mouldings, rebates, etc., are 
present; but we ought not to go far from 
the usual custom of making the tenon about 
one-third of the thickness of the stuff. As 
far as the other dimensions are concerned, 
clearly a tenon right through must be as 
long as the style is wide ; in width, how¬ 
ever, we may use judgment. 

The present writer has often seen pro¬ 
fessed workmen make the tenon so wide, 
that when the work was wedged up and the 
superfluous wood of the styles cut off, the 
tenon looked dangerously near the extremity 

Rail, showing Method of cutting Wedges. Fig. 4.—Simple Plan to obtain Mitres : Draw 
Parallel Lines equidistant from Inner Edge of Frame ; join Intersections and Angles of Frame. 
Fig. 5. — Section of a Sash Bar. Fig. 6.—Diagram exhibiting Scribed End of Sash Bar—S, S/ 
Shoulders ; T, Tenon. None of these Diagrams are drawn to Scale. 

the channel itself being outside the thickness 
of the desired tenon. 

We see, too, that he began the tenon at 
the point farthest from him, accurately to 
the line, and that he gradually brought the 
cut to the nearer edge, until, with the same 
accuracy, one edge of the saw just seemed 
to scrape the fine line made by the mortise- 
gauge. Asking him how to manage tenons 
on long pieces, he tells us that sometimes 
tenons must be cut on the stools, turning 
the wood once or twice during the progress of 
the work. In order to cut tenons success¬ 
fully, therefore, we must learn the difference 
between cutting on a line and cutting up to 
a line. 

Still another point : the saw must not be 
allowed to penetrate past the shoulder, if 
ike appearance of the work matters at all. 

The tenons having been sawn, the shoul¬ 
ders may be cut—removing what are called 
the cheeks. This is done with the tenon 
saw, unless in very small work, when the 
dovetail saw is more suitable. Having the 
shoulders marked with a knife, we may be 
allowed to remove a little wood from out¬ 
side the line, as in Fig. 1. 

of the style, and the wedge looked like 
forcing the little piece of wood which re¬ 
tained it right away (Fig. 2). 

This leads to the subject of wedges, about 
which a word or two might be spoken. Our 
experienced readers are asked to pardon the 
writer because he wishes to insist on a point 
so obvious to them. A thick, rapidly in¬ 
creasing wedge does more harm than good, 
and a young carpenter might do much worse 
than consult a lathe-man as to the angles 
which jam and those which do not. He 
will be told that if you want a wedge to 
hold, like a drill in its socket, the taper 
must be slight and gradual; while if you 
want freedom of motion, only obtaining 
definiteness of position, the magnitude of 
the angle must be increased. 

Wedges, however, as we understand them 
—of wood, and used for framing—are com¬ 
pressible, and if the tapering receptacle is 
not cut to the same angle as the tapering 
wedge placed in it, the compression at the 
point and the head of the wedge is un¬ 

It would, perhaps, be best to have the 
compression equal, but it would be better to 

have the compression greater in the interior 
of the mortise than at the outer edge (at a 
rather than b; see Fig. 2). 

There is no doubt that this error pro¬ 
ceeds from school teaching, in which dia¬ 
grams of the inclined plane and the wedge 
are drawn, the wedge generally with an 
angle about double that of the inclined 
plane. I distinctly remember being in¬ 
formed (?) that a wedge is really two in¬ 
clined planes fixed together, and my con¬ 
tention that I could see no real difference 
(as drawn for the boys’ instruction) be¬ 
tween them, except that the wedge was 
drawn as an isosceles triangle and the in¬ 
clined plane was drawn as a right-angled one, 
the angle opposite the shorter side not 
being very seriously different in each case. 
Improved wall-sheets and better illustra¬ 
tions have changed all that.* 

However that may be, wedges need not 
be short and rapidly tapering ; but they are 
still wedges—and are more efficient ones too 
—if more gradual in the taper. 

The wedges for our purpose are usually 
cut out of the waste wood of the width of 
the tenon, by which means they are, at any 
rate, the right thickness. Fig. 3 gives an 
idea of what I mean. 

Panels are often an embarrassment to the 
beginner—it is so easy to make them other 
than flat, square, and parallel (by square, 
the workman means that the angles are 
right angles). 

It is also easy to make the grooves for the 
reception of the panels the right depth in 
most places, and yet leave some part of the 
groove not down to the depth intended. 

For each of these faults, greater care is 
the only and sufficient remedy; and, as 
practice makes perfect, so the necessity of 
care only seems to make itself understood 
when some failure occurs, or, if not actually 
occurring, its likelihood is pointed out. 

That is just the reason why I have called 
attention to these matters, which, though 
trifles in themselves, yet are no trifle if 
they prevent the work from going together 
as it ought. 

In gluing up the framing, we ought not 
to insert the wedges until the shoulders are 
in contact, or very nearly so, and wedges 
ought not in any case to be driven hard—so 
hard as to smash them—as may be some¬ 
times seen, even in the work of those who 
ought to know better. Every blow of the 
hammer ought to be delivered with judg¬ 
ment, otherwise the joints are apt to go up 
at one corner of each, instead of uniformly, 
as they ought. 

The directions given in my last paper as 
to setting out the styles may prove useful 
for gluing up. As may be remembered, the 
worker was advised to mark out on the edge 
of the style the outline of the section of the 
rail ; and if the mortise has been truly cut 
and the tenon just easy, the wedges will 
give that slight adjustment which will be 

* I think not. Theoretically, the teaching was, 
and is, right enough. The positions of the wedge 
and inclined plane are altogether different. The 
inclined plane proceeds from a point in, and is in¬ 
clined to, a horizontal line, supposing, for illustra¬ 
tion’s sake, that the plane is viewed in side eleva¬ 
tion or profile. A wedge, mathematically speak¬ 
ing, under the same conditions is formed by two 
planes proceeding from the same point in, and in¬ 
clined at equal angles to, a vertical line. There¬ 
fore, the surfaces of a wedge are two inclined 
planes, nothing more and nothing less. Moreover, 
the wedge of Mr. Baxter’s schoolboy recollection 
was a mechanical power shown in its best form 
for splitting and rending, while the wedge of his 
later experiences is, or ought to be, cut to suit a cer¬ 
tain inclination, and is rather a half wedge—the 
wedge being divided in the vertical line—used for 
purposes of locking up, gripping, and compression, 
and not for splitting.— Ed. 

Work —April 18,1891.] 

Screws Used in Metal IVork. 


sufficient to bring the rail to the exact place 
indicated by the setting out. 

If, as we are supposing, our framing has 
any mouldings, a word or two on mitres will 
fitly conclude this paper. Mouldings, to be 
perfect, ought to intersect, by which is 
meant that perfect meeting of edges, angles, 
and curves which makes it evident that their 
section is alike; or that, if “ raking,” the 
section is properly modified, and that the 
angles at which the moulding is cut are the 
correct angles. Let us suppose the angles 
at the corners of our framing are right 
angles, then the mitres, or angles at which 
the mouldings are cut, must be 45°. The 
angles of intersection are very easily drawn 
on a panelled framing which has mouldings 
inserted afterwards, as is often the 
case. All that is needed is a small 
piece of wood for a gauge, and, mov¬ 
ing it round the panels with a pencil 
in contact, the place of the moulding 
can be outlined, and by joining the 
intersections the correct mitre of each 
angle, however different, will be ob¬ 
tained. (See Fig. 4.) 

In ordinary cases, where the angles 
are (in workshop phraseology) square, 
the use of a template for all stuck 
mouldings is all that is necessary. 

For mouldings that, instead of being- 
mitred, are scribed—as sashes—the 
use of the template to indicate the 
portion to be cut away is similar to 
its use in mitreing, except that in this 
case only one of the surfaces requires 

We will suppose a sash bar is to 
intersect with the style or rail (Fig. 5). 

A little consideration will show that it 
can either be done by mitreing or by 
scribing—in the case of mitreing, by 
using the template as a pattern to cut 
off the angles to the point of contact 
at the edge on both bar and rail; in 
the case of scribing, using the tem¬ 
plate only on the bar, as an indication 
of the portion to be cut away, being 
the counterpart of the moulding on 
the rail which remains intact. The 
learner may see from this that mitres 
require only to be cut at the proper 
angle, while a scribe requires the use 
of chisels and gauges of suitable sizes 
and curvature, according to the style 
and contour of the moulding. 

On the other hand, scribing has 
the great advantage of allowing some 
adjustment. For instance, if the bar 
just mentioned happened to be a 
trifle thicker or thinner than its 
fellow by which the rail was set out, 
if scribed the fit would be equally per¬ 
fect ; whereas, if mitred, every divergence 
from the size marked on the rail would be 
unpleasantly apparent. 

Leaving our friends to try some experi¬ 
ments in mitres, scribes, and other joinings, 
and strongly advising them to spend a little 
time in such practice, I can only hope—what 
is sure to be the case—that their success will 
be in accordance with their industry and per¬ 
severance. ... 

ever invented is the screw in its various 
forms. It is employed for such an infinite 
variety of purposes—in some cases having 
to bear enormous strains, and in others 
scarcely any. It is used almost universally 
(the rivet, its great rival, alone excepted) to 
hold together two or more pieces of the 
same or varying metals or materials. It is 
used as a means of imparting motion in 
gearing, as in the worm and wheel, the 
worm being simply a fixed screw turning on 
its axis. A great many presses are worked 
by, and owe their great power of compress¬ 
ing substances into small bulk to, the screw, 
which in these machines is subject to great 
strains. The breech mechanism of our 
large and small guns, where the strain is 


or spiral, but there are, no doubt, many who 
do not know how to define it and how it is 
obtained. I once saw, in answer to the ques¬ 
tion, “ What is a screw 1 ” : “ It is a short 
pitch spiral ” ; and in answer to “ What is a 
spiral 1” : “ It is a long pitch screw.” This 
definition gives no accurate information to 
anyone, though almost everybody has some 
idea, though faint, of what a spiral is, and 
that “spiral” and “screw” are used by 
many persons almost synonymously. Yet 
the above definition is not quite clear, so I 
shall endeavour to show how to obtain a 
spiral line practically, which is, I consider, 
the best method of impressing it on the 
memory, as it gives you a very simple way 
of making one yourself. 

Fig-. 7' 



Fig. 2 . 



1 _, 

Fig.S. Fig. 9 . Fig. 10 . 

Fig. 11. 

Fig 12. 

Fig 13 . 

Fig 3. 

Fig 4 . 

Fig. 5 . 

. Fig 6 


Fig. 1.—Formation of Spiral of Screw round Cylinder. Fig. 2.—Diagram showing Increase or Diminution 
of Pitch. Fig. 3.—Whitworth Screw Thread. Fig. 4.—Square Screw Thread. Fig. 5.—Whitworth Screw 
Thread, rounded. Fig. 6.—Trapezoidal Screw Thread. Figs. 7 and 9.—Conventional Modes of drawing 
V-Threaded Screw. Fig. 8.—Ditto, Small Square-Threaded Screw. Fig. 10.—Ditto, Single Square- 
Headed Screw. Fig. 11.—Ditto, Double Square-Headed Screw. Fig. 12.—Ditto, Double V-Threaded Screw. 
Fig. 13.—Ditto, Single V-Threaded Screw. 



BY P. B. H. 

Their Uses—What is a Screw?—Howto Obtain 
a Spiral Line—Design of V-Thread—Square 
Thread — Trapezoidal Thread — Conven¬ 
tional Method of showing Threads—Right- 
and Left-Handed Screws—How to Draw a 
Spiral Line. 

One of the—or I might, with perfect truth, 
say the—most useful pieces of mechanism 

likewise enormous, is kept in position by a 
screw. Then, again, the fine adjustments of 
the microscope and the almost inappreciable 
movements of the measuring blocks in the 
machine for measuring to the 1,000,000th 
part of an inch owe their minuteness and 
accuracy to the screw, which in these two 
cases is subject to a very slight strain. 
From these few instances it will be seen 
between what extremes the screw can be 
usefully employed. Many others could be 
given, but the reader himself will, no doubt, 
recall to mind a number. 

In this article I shall confine myself solely 
to the screws used in metal work, not to 
those employed in wood. 

The forms of the threads vary according to 
the purpose and the material for which they 
are employed. I shall show later the princi¬ 
pal forms of threads, and the method of draw¬ 
ing them,both conventionally and accurately. 

Most readers have some idea of a screw 

Take a cylinder, a b c d (Fig. 1 ), of any 
convenient size ; then take a rectangular 
piece of paper, efgh (Fig. 2 ), the length of 
which must be exactly equal to the circum¬ 
ference of the cylinder—that is, the points 
E g must coincide with F H respectively 
when the sheet is wrapped round the cylin¬ 
der. Having got this correct, cut off the 
dotted portion, e g h, of this rectangle. 
Take the remaining triangle, e f h, 
and wrap it again round the cylinder, 
making f h (Fig. 2 ) parallel with the axis. 
The points E and F should now coincide at 
E 1 F 1 , and the line h 1 e 1 in its winding round 
the cylinder forms a spiral or screw, the 
pitch of which is equal to the depth f h. 
The pitch of a screw or spiral is the 
distance the thread or line rises during 
one complete revolution. For instance, if 
you turn the cylinder once round in the 
direction of the arrow, meanwhile following 
the line from n 1 , it will have gradually risen 


Screws Used in Metal IVork. 

[Work—April 18, 1891. 

from h' to f' or e', which distance, as before 
stated, is the pitch of the spiral. By in¬ 
creasing or diminishing the line F h (Fig. 2) 
the pitch is increased or diminished. By 
this means the pitch can be varied from the 
smallest fraction of an inch, as in some 
watch screws, to as much almost as you like, 
if the body round which it winds is big 
enough. A good illustration of a long pitch 
small diameter screw is the egg-whisk, 
where, by sliding a wooden nut backwards 
and forwards along a twisted wire shaft, the 
whisk rotates first in one direction and then 
in the other. Spiral staircases are the 
largest pitch screws I can think of. When 
once the method of obtaining a spiral line is 
grasped, the student will follow with com¬ 
parative ease the drawing of screw or spiral 
threads, as these only consist of combina¬ 
tions of spiral lines. 

Unwin defines a screw as “ a cylindrical 
bar on which has been formed a helical pro¬ 
jection or thread.” These projections, in 
order to suit the different purposes for which 
they are intended, are of various shapes, of 
which the four principal forms are shown in 
section in Figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6 ; but the two 
first only—viz., the V and the square thread 
—are in very general use. Fig. 3 shows the 
ordinary V or triangular thread, as used in 
all English workshops. The use of a common 
thread was early recognised by our manufac¬ 
turers to be of the very greatest import¬ 
ance, and as Sir Joseph Whitworth was the 
first to propose a uniform system of threads, 
it has received his name. The Americans 
use a somewhat similar thread, called “ the 
Sellers,” after the introducer. 

In most books treating on machine de¬ 
sign and engineering formula, there are 
tables giving the pitch or number of threads 
to the inch for a given diameter of screw. 

Fig. 3 shows the method of designing the 
Whitworth thread. Draw two parallel lines 
0'96 of the pitch apart. Set off the pitch 
on one of these lines, and at the points so 
obtained form angles of 55°, as shown. 
Again, draw two parallel lines centrally be¬ 
tween the first two, and 0’64 of the pitch 
apart. The threads where these lines cut 
them, or one-sixth the depth of the thread, 
are rounded off at the top and bottom. The 
rounding off facilitates the cutting of the 
screw, and renders it less liable to damage. 

When these screws are used in conjunc¬ 
tion with nuts, they are termed bolts, and 
one of their drawbacks is that, when tight¬ 
ened in their nuts, as will be seen from the 
slope of the threads, the greater the force 
used to screw them up the greater is the 
tendency to burst the nut. 

For wrought-iron pipes a finer pitched 
screw thread is used, and is known as the 
gas thread ; it does not cut away quite so 
much of the metal of the tube. 

Fig. 4 shows a square thread, and there 
are, compared with the V thread, so few 
used that there is no real standard, each 
screw being designed for its special work ; 
but the pitch is generally twice that of the 
triangular thread for the same diameter of 
bolt. In designing it, the pitch is first 
settled, and this divided by two gives one- 
half for the thread and one-half for the 
space, the depth of which is slightly less than 
one-half—or, say, —of the pitch. These 
square-threaded screws are generally used 
to transmit motion. The surface of the 
thread being normal to the axis of the screw, 
there is with this form of thread no oblique 
pressure on the nut, as in the preceding 
(Fig. 3). 

Fig. 5 is the same as Fig. 4, only the 
threads are completely rounded. This screw 

is employed where it is subject to very 
rough usage. 

Fig. 6 shows a form of screw thread called 
“ trapezoidal,” which is used when the 
screw has to resist a pressure acting in one 
direction. Here the surface bearing the 
strain, as in the square thread, is normal to 
the axis, so that there is likewise no tendency 
to burst the nut. The method of designing 
is almost the same as in Fig. 3. Draw a 
vertical line, and set off thereon the pitch. 
From each of these divisions draw horizon¬ 
tal and angular lines at 45°. Through the 
point where the horizontal line from one of 
the divisions cuts the angular line from 
the one above it, draw a line parallel to 
the first one, which will pass through all 
the inner angles of the teeth. Then, as in 
Fig. 3, draw two parallel lines, 0'64 of the 
pitch apart, centrally between the first two 
lines. These will cut off a portion of the 
angles, which should be rounded as shown. 

Of course, to draw screws accurately in 
most machine drawings would take up too 
much time, and it would be almost impos¬ 
sible in some cases, owing to the smallness 
of the screw 7 . On this account I have drawn 
Figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13—which 
show the conventional methods of drawing 
threads on bolts—of varying size. Figs. 7 
and 9 represent the ordinary V-threaded 
screw, the first (Fig. 7) being delineated by 
thin parallel, equi-distant, slightly inclined 
lines. Fig. 9, being larger, shows a short 
thick line betw’een two fine ones ; this 
gives a much neater appearance to it than 
if the lines had been the same. Fig. 8 
represents a small square-threaded screw, 
shown by two fine parallel lines for the 
thread, while the space between the two 
threads is slightly increased. Figs. 10 and 11 
show respectively a single and double 
square-threaded screw', somewhat larger than 
Fig. 9, therefore shown in more detail. The 
threads in these are represented merely by 
straight lines, but more in detail than in 
Fig. 8. The method of obtaining the vari¬ 
ous points from which the lines are drawn 
w'ill be shown later in the larger scale 
drawings of how to draw an accurate V 
and square-threaded screw. Figs. 12 and 
13 show respectively double and single V- 
threaded screw's, which are likewise formed 
by straight lines. 

There are, of course, right- and left-handed 
screws : those I have drawn are all right- 
handed. A right-handed screw 7 , when turned 
in the direction of the arrow (Fig. 11), will, 
if a nut be placed at the end, enter it; a 
left-handed one would, however, work out. 
Another simple way of distinguishing be¬ 
tween them is : hold the screw vertically 
opposite you, when if the threads in passing- 
round the body rise from the left-hand side 
to the right, then the screw 7 is right-handed ; 
if they rise from the right to the left, then 
the screw is left-handed. The spiral line 
(Fig. 2) is also right-handed. A good illus¬ 
tration of a right and left-handed screw 
working together is the adjustable coupling 
between railway passenger carriages. _ 

Having shown what a screw or spiral is, 
and how to obtain it—also the various 
shapes of threads and the conventional way 
of drawing the same—we now come to the 
accurate delineation of the threads of a 
screw, which, how'ever, through want of 
space in this number, will have to appear 
later. But as it may, at first sight, seem 
rather difficult for beginners to grasp the 
method, on account of the number of con¬ 
struction lines, I w'ill, before closing this 
paper, show 7 how the simple spiral line 
h' e' (Fig. 1) is drawn. 

Divide the pitch H F (Fig. 2) into any 
even number of equal (in this case eight) 
parts, numbered 1, 2, 3, etc. Draw hori¬ 
zontal lines through these points, till they 
cut h e in 1', 2', 3', etc. As h 1 is an eighth 
of the pitch h f, the line h 1' is an eighth of 
H E. It is also true that all horizontal lines, 
drawn through any of the divisions in the 
pitch line to cut the diagonal line H e, cut 
it proportionately to the pitch : for example, 
the distance H 4 is half the pitch, therefore 
H 4 ' is half the length of H E, the line form¬ 
ing the spiral. Now, the whole of the line 
H E just completes the circuit of the cylinder 
while rising the distance h' f' (Fig. 1); 
therefore h 4 ', the half of this line, will com¬ 
plete one-half the circuit while rising one- 
half the distance—that is, one-half the 
pitch. Therefore, for every eighth of the 
pitch rise there is an eighth of the line H E 
wrapped round the cylinder. If, now, we 
could mark off the points 1', 2', 3', etc., in 
their respective positions on abcd (Fig. 1 ), 
a line drawn through them w'ould represent 
the path of the line h' e', or the spiral de¬ 
sired. To do this we proceed as follows : 

Draw a horizontal line a e below the 
cylinder, and equal to its diameter, as shown 
(Fig. 1); draw a vertical line cfg through 
the centre of the cylinder, cutting a e in /. 
With /as centre, and fa or / e as radius, 
describe a semi-circle. Divide this semi¬ 
circle into four equal parts at b, c, cl, e —that 
is, half the number the pitch is divided 
into. From a, b, d, and e set up vei’tical 
lines : the lines from a and e correspond 
with the sides of the cylinder. 

Now, if a complete circle had been drawn 
below instead of a semi-circle, the vertical 
construction lines from b, c, and d would 
have passed through the points of division 
in the corresponding half; so a semi-circle 
is all that is necessary for our purpose. 

The lower part of the spiral shall com¬ 
mence on the line c g, therefore (supposing 
Figs. 1 and 2 to be in proper relative posi¬ 
tions) produce the line H G (Fig. 2) till it cuts 
c g in h' ; this will give the starting-point of 
the spiral, which, in this case, winds upwards 
to the right: therefore, from d, one-eighth of 
the circumference to the right of c, set up a 
perpendicular, d i. Now, as already ex¬ 
plained, for every one-eighth of the circum¬ 
ference the spiral travels it rises one-eighth 
of the pitch: therefore, produce the line 1 1' 
till it cuts d i in 1"—this gives the first point 
in the spiral: then produce the line 2 2' (Fig. 
2 ), till it cuts the side of the cylinder B D— - 
that is, the vertical line from e, which is 1 
of a revolution from cj this gives one more 
point in the spiral, viz., 2". Here let me 
remark that I have drawn the curve from 
1'' to 2" without any intermediate points, 
as, from continued practice, I know that it 
takes some such form. For exercise, how¬ 
ever, the readers might subdivide the i 
pitch between h 1 and h 2 into any 
number of convenient parts, so long as 
they divide the one-eighth part of the circle 
d e into the same number ; then set up per¬ 
pendiculars from them and draw horizontals 
from the pitch, when extra points would 
be obtained between 1” and 2" to draw the 
curve more accurately. After passing 2", 
the curve commences to wind behind the 

If the semi-circle ace had been com¬ 
pleted, and divided into eight equal parts, 
the point showing the next division would 
have been on the vertical line passing 
through d, as before remarked; there¬ 
fore, to obtain the next point in the 
spiral, we may make use of this line. W e 
now prolong the line 3 3' till it cuts d i in 

Work—April 18,1891.] 

A Model Electro-Motor. 


3", three-eighths of the pi tch above h". For the 
above reason, 4 4', produced till it cuts c g, 
will give another point, 4"; 5 5' will cut b h 
in 5"; 6 6' will cut a 0 in 6 ". The curves 
joining all these points must be dotted as 
it winds round the back of the cylinder. To 
proceed, 7 7' produced cuts b h in 7"; 8 8 ', 
or e, is represented by e' coinciding with f'. 
The curve from 6 " to e' is drawn in full, as 
it again winds round in the front of the 

If the readers of this article will thor¬ 
oughly master the why and wherefore of 
these proceedings, they will find no difficulty 
in understanding the remaining portion, 
which shows how to draw both the V 
and square-threaded screw, single and 
double, and which, as before stated, will 
appear in a future paper. 



Atkinson’s Electro-Motor—The Field Magnet 
Castings—The Armature and its Bearings 
—The Brush Kocker and Brushes—The 
Commutator—Winding the Armature — 
Winding the Field Magnets—Fitting the 
Parts Together—Testing for Fault in In¬ 
sulation—A Cheap Galvanometer. 

The small electro-motor shown in the ac¬ 
companying illustration at Fig. 1 is suited 
to the requirements of amateurs who have a 
lathe and employ it in turning parts of 
machines as a hobby, and who have a fancy 
for making up pretty little machines for 
bazaars and exhibitions. It is a machine 
that will look very well indeed when good 
workmanship is put into the fitting and 
polishing of the various parts, and its parts 
will also require some careful fitting to make 
them run well. When properly made, it 
will drive a small polishing or dental lathe, 
or a small fretwork machine, or a small 
drilling machine, or even a light sewing 
machine, with a battery power of some three 
or four quart cells of a chromic acid type, 
or the equivalent current from any other 
source. Full sets of castings and all other 
requisites are supplied at a low price— 
3s. Gd. for the castings, and from Is. 9d. 
to 2s. for the wire—by Mr. H. Atkinson, 
137, Stamford Road, Handsworth, Birming¬ 

These castings consist of two malleable 
iron field magnet sets of cores and bridges, 
as shown at Fig. 2, each measuring 4y in. 
in length by 2j- in. in width ; one malleable 
iron casting (Fig. 3) for the armature, 
measuring 2| in. in length by If in. in 
diameter; two gun-metal castings, li in. in 
diameter (Fig. 4), for ends of the armature ; 
two brass castings of four-legged spiders for 
the bearings of the spindle; one brass casting 
of a pulley, in. by T % in. ; one brass cast¬ 
ing of a smaller pulley, 1 in. by i in.; two 
brass end-pieces, 2-p- in. by £ in. (Fig. 5), to 
form feet for the field magnets; one brass 
casting for brush rocker, 2\ in. in length 
(Fig. 6) ; two brass castings of brush-holders 
(Fig. 7); two brass castings of set screws 
(Fig. 8); castings for the brass nuts, brass 
tube for commutator, and a strip of phos¬ 
phor bronze for the brushes. 

These having been obtained, we will set 
about fitting and finishing the various parts 
and putting them together. 

The Field Magnet Castings. —These, as 
received from the vendor, will be rough, but 
not so rough as some I have seen—in fact, 
these are clean and tolerably smooth, but 
they will require a few touches with a file 
to make them fit and have a presentable 

appearance. All nodules and roughness 
must first be filed down with a flat bastard 
file. The channel for the armature must 
next be smoothed with a half-round file, 
care being taken not to alter the contour of 
the arches, nor to more than merely smooth 
the casting. The corners of the cores should 
now be rounded a little, to prevent them 
from cutting into the insulating cover of the 
wire as this is being wound qn. The out¬ 
sides may now be smoothed and the ends 
trued to make the whole fit well together. 
The top casting is a little thicker than the 
under one. The under field magnet casting 
will have the two brass feet or holding-down 
pieces, shown at Fig. 5, fitted under each end, 
and must therefore have two small holes 
drilled and tapped under each end to receive 
two small screwed studs, which pass through 
the flanges of the brass feet and the ends of 
the lower field magnet castings into the 
iron of the top casting, as shown in Fig. 9. 
Similar small holes for set screws, to hold the 
feet of the spiders, must also be drilled and 
tapped in each of the corners of the tunnel 
arches (as shown at Fig. 9) above and below 
the tunnel at each end, and round-headed 
brass studs may be screwed to fit these. 
Thus prepared, the castings may have a 
coat of Japan black and be set aside to dry. 

The Armature is of the Siemens H 
girder type in one solid casting of malle¬ 
able soft iron. This must be filed smooth 
and true at the ends, and the channel 
also made smooth with a file. The gun-metal 
end-pieces shown at Fig. 4 will be fitted 
to the ends of the armature, and these 
will hold the steel spindles. It will be 
well, therefore, to take these together. 
Get two 2 in. lengths of I in. steel rod, 
and turn them down to T 3 ^ in., so as to 
have them true and smooth. Turn the 
end-pieces smooth, drill a T \ in. hole in the 
boss of each, and fit one end of each spindle 
into each boss, then sweat or shrink them 
in, as may be deemed best. The end-pieces 
will be secured to the ends of the armature, 
after being fitted true to it, by small brass 
studs ; holes must therefore be drilled 
through the end-pieces and into the arma¬ 
ture to receive them. The castings are 
marked with dots where these holes should 
be drilled. In one of the end-pieces we 
must drill two extra holes for the ends of 
the armature coil to come through, and 
these holes must be bushed with small 
tubes of ivory or of bone. When the ends 
are fitted on, mount the armature in a 
lathe, and true it by taking a very light cut 
over it, just enough to take off the rough 
skin. This done, mark all the screw's and 
screw holes to act as guides in putting 
together, take off the ends, and dress the 
v'eb and channel wfith shellac or good 
sealing-w'ax varnish, then set aside to dry, 
ready for winding. 

The brass spindles, showm at Fig. 1 , fulfil 
the double purpose of clamps to hold the field 
magnets together and to form bearings for the 
armature spindles. These must now be 
drilled with holes to fit the spindles, holes 
in each foot to receive the holding studs, 
and small oil holes in each bearing, then 
filed smooth, and polished neatly. The 
projecting boss of one of these bearings 
must be turned to form a pivot for the 
brush rocker, which will fit on this like a 
loose sleeve, and the insides of the spider 
legs and bodies should also be turned 

The Brush Rocker. —The casting for this 
is shown at Fig. 6 . The hole in the centre 
must be turned to fit the pivot on the boss 
of the bearing above-mentioned ; then there 

must be a small hole drilled and tapped in 
the edge of the rocker to receive a small 
brass set screw for fixing the rocker on the 
ivot in any required position. The small 
rass castings, shown at Fig. 7, must then 
be turned and filed to the form shown at 
Fig. 10 , to form brush-holders, and these 
are held in holes drilled through the ends 
of the rocker. The part from A to b, Fig. 
10 , is first turned dowm to £ in., and a thread 
chased on it to receive a brass nut. The 
hole in the end of the rocker is drilled 
in. larger, and this is to be bushed with 
vulcanite or a bit of asbestos board, with a 
collar of the same on each side, to insulate 
the brush-holder from the rocker. A fairly 
good bush can be made from a small washer 
of rubber cut off from the end of a piece of 
rubber tube, and two collars of thin cloth 
to come between the shoulder of the brush- 
holder and the rocker on one side, and tho 
nut and the rocker on the other ; but these 
are liable to be destroyed by oil. The plain 
end to the right of the chased thread must 
be pierced transversely with a T y in. hole 
to receive the conducting wire, and this 
hole is met with another, drilled in from the 
end, and tapped to receive the thread of a 
binding screw furnished with a milled head, 
as shown at Fig. 11 . The other end of the 
brush-holder is turned dowm smooth, a 3 V in. 
slot is to be cut up to the shoulder, one side 
of the holder filed flat, and a in. hole 
drilled through both, the lower half of the 
hole being tapped to receive the screwed 
part of a brass set screw'. 

The Brushes are strips of phosphor bronze 
foil, 2 in. by ^ in., cut from the roll sent 
with the castings to the form shown at Fig. 
12 . Six of these strips are placed together 
to form a pad. The ends at one end are 
soldered together, and a slot, £ in. by ^ in., 
cut through the whole in the middle to 
receive the adjusting and tightening stud. 
A set of these are, of course, at each end of 
the rocker. 

The Commutator. —As on this form of 
armature there is only one coil, the two ends 
of which are connected to two parts of the 
commutator, a two-part commutator, made 
out of a ferrule of brass split into two equal 
parts, will be required. The piece of brass 
tube sent with the castings has an internal 
diameter of ££ in. This is fitted on a box- 
wmod bliss £ in. in width, wdiicli is then 
bored with a hole to exactly fit the spindle 
at that end of the armature with the wire 
holes drilled in the end. The ferrule is now' 
to be scribed into two equal parts, and on 
each side of the dividing lines scribe two 
more lines, so as to have the three lines on 
each side £ in. apart. Through the centre 
of the two side lines drill a small hole into 
the boxwood to receive two short brass 
screws. Countersink the mouths of these 
holes, and screw in the screws tightly. Do 
the same on the other side of the commu¬ 
tator. This done, cut the ferrule into tw 7 o 
equal parts with an oblique cut as shown at 
Fig. 13. This is best done with a hack-saw, 
so as to make a clean cut through the brass 
into the boxwood beneath. The boss, with 
its split ferrule, may now be pressed on the 
spindle, and trued up in the lathe. In 
pressing on the ferrule, let the inner ends of 
the oblique cuts coincide wfith the wire 
holes in the armature ends. 

Winding the Armature. —This is a simple 
matter. Measure off 60 ft. of No. 20 double 
cotton-covered copper wire, roll into a hank, 
and soak for a quarter of an hour in melted 
paraffin wax, then hang up to drain and 
cool. When cool, take the armature in the 
left hand, and the wire in the right. Place 


A Useful Electro-Motor. 

[Work—April 18,1891, 

Fig. 1.—Model Electro-Motor : Siemens Bridge Type, complete. 

the commencing end of 
the coil (with 2 in. left 
free) at the left side of 
the channel, and hold 
it down with the left 
thumb whilst the wire 
is wound closely around 
the web of the armature 
in regular coils, side by 
side, to the right side of 
the channel, then back 
again with the 
and regularity, until all 
the wire has been wound 
on in regular and even 
layers. Then twist the 
two ends together to 
keep them from spring¬ 
ing apart and the coil 
from unwinding. Test 
each layer for insulation as they are wound 
on, and test the whole coil again when 

The end-pieces may now be put on, then 
the ends of the armature coil may be 
brought out through the bushed holes in 
the ends and connected (by soldering each 
end) to each part of the commutator. The 
ends should be soldered to the inner edges 
of the commutator pieces, along which they 
may lie to the length of §■ in. The coil may 
now be given a coat of sealing-wax varnish 
to set the wires ; then set aside to dry, 

T Vi.icling the Field Magnets .—The field 
magnets of this little motor must be so 
wound as to cause the arch above the 
armature to assume a magnetism of opposite 
polarity to that of the arch below the 
armature. It matters but very little 
whether we have a north pole at the top 
and a south pole at the bottom, or a south 
pole at the top and a north pole at the 
bottom, providing both are not north poles 
and both south poles. This desired end is 

accomplished by winding the core on one 
side of the arch in one direction, and the 
core on the other side of the arch in the 
opposite direction. Thus, if we wind the 
left-hand core of the top magnet from left 
to right overhanded, we must wind the 
opposite or right-hand core in the opposite 
direction, namely, from left to right under¬ 
handed. This will ensure a north polarity to 
the upper arch. In commencing to wind 
the lower cores from the left-hand side, we 
must wind the left-hand core overhanded 
and the right-hand core underhanded. This 
will ensure a south polarity to the lower 
arch, as shown in the diagram (Fig. 9), if 
the current is sent through the wires as 
shown by the direction of the arrows. Wind 
each core regularly with three layers of No. 
20 double cotton-covered copper wire, and 
test each layer for insulation. When the 
last turn of wire on each core has been 
reached, cut off the wire so as to leave 6 in. 
over and above that needed to make the 
turn; pass this in under the turn of wire so 

as to form a kind of 
half-hitch, and draw this 
tight to prevent the wire 
from unwinding ; then 
give the whole a dress¬ 
ing of sealing-wax var¬ 
nish to secure each coil 
in their places, and to 
give the coils a finished 

When the machine is 
being put together, these 
coils must be connected 
together as here de¬ 
scribed, and shown at 
Fig. 9. The finish end 
of the first coil at a 
must be bared of the 
cotton covering and 
cleaned with emery 
cloth ; so also must the commencing end 
of the second coil on the next core at d. 
Dip both cleaned ends in some soldering 
fluid, tin them with a hot soldering bit, 
twist the tinned ends together with a 
pair of pliers, then give them a final touch 
with the soldering bit to solder them to¬ 
gether. Each end must be thus treated and 
connected, namely, a to b, c to d, and e to 
f. The two ends, c r>, may pass down holes 
made in the motor base, and be connected 
beneath the base. The two free ends above 
the upper arch will then go, one to one of 
the brushes, and one to one of the terminal 
binding screws on the base, if the coils are 
to be connected in series with the armature; 
or both of these wires will be connected to 
the brushes if the coils are to be connected 
in parallel with the coil on the armature. 

Fitting the Parts Together .—The field 
magnets may first be fitted together, the 
ends of the coils soldered and tucked in out 
of sight, the screws holding the two cores, 
inserted and screwed tight, and the brass 

Fig. 2.—Field Magnet Casting of Electro-Motor. Fig. 3.—Armature Casting. Fig. 4.—Gun-Metal Casting for Armature Ends. Fig. 5.—Gun-Metal Foot 
for Electro-Motor. Fig. 6.—Rocker for Brush-Holders. Fig. 7.—Casting for Brush-Holder. Fig. 8.—-Casting for Screw. Fig. 9 .—Sectional Diagram 
of Electro-Motor, showing how it is fitted and wound. Fig. 10.—Brush-Holder complete. Fig. 11.—Brass Screw with Milled Head. Fig. 12.—Brush. 
Fig. 13.—Commutator. 

Work—April 18,1891.] 

How to Make a Puzzle Money-Box. 


feet screwed on. We should next fit on the 
already turned and polished spider bearing 
to the opposite end from that of the com¬ 
mutator ; then put in the armature, slip the 
other bearing on its spindle, and screw this 
bearing in its place. Now turn the arma¬ 
ture around by hand, and see that it runs 
true in the tunnel, not touching it anywhere, 
but parallel with it on all sides. The back 
pulley should now be fitted on the spindle, 
and tightened on it by means of a small set 
screw passing through the boss on the out¬ 
side. The rocker may next be fitted on, 
and secured to the outside of the bearing 
by a small set screw. One of the brushes 

loose fitting in the bearings, must never be 
allowed in electro-motors. The motor may 
now be mounted on a wood base made of 
oak, teak, or mahogany, and furnished with 
brass terminals to the wire coils, as shown 
at Fig. 1 . The little motor sent me by Mr. 
Atkinson is mounted on a polished oak 
base 10 in. by 8 in., furnished with carved 
oak legs at the corners, and holding-down 
clamps of polished brass at the sides. Thus 
fitted and finished, the price complete is 

As it is advisable to test the insulation 
of the wire whilst winding it on the cores 
and armature, we must be provided with a 

with the winding, and test again further 
on. A small galvanometer, suitable for this 
purpose, is sold by Mr. Atkinson for 3s. 



Setting out the Pattern—Cutting the Ends— 
Putting Together—Puzzle Picture Frames. 

The subject of the present paper suggested 
itself to the writer on being asked to con¬ 
tribute some small article for sale at a 

Fig. 2.—Commencement of putting Parts together. Fig. 3.—Completion of putting Parts together. 

Fig. 4.—Full-size Design for Ends (Foliage). 

will have its free end bearing on top of the 
commutator, and the other brush will press 
lightly against the under side of the com¬ 
mutator. Their relative positions will be 
determined by the direction of rotation of 
the armature, the commutator running off 
from the brushes, but not against them to 
ruffle them up. The right angle to set these 
must be found by experiment. The rocker 
can be easily moved until the best effect 
has been obtained, then fixed in this position 
by the set screw. The smaller pulley is now 
slipped on the spindle, the armature brought 
forward until it runs freely in the position 
where it ought to work, then the pulley 
must be tightened on the spindle to prevent 
undue end shake of the spindle in its 
bearings. A little end play or shake is 
always admissible, but side shake, due to 

galvanometer of some sort, and a cell of 
some battery. Almost any battery will 
serve the purpose. Connect one terminal 
of the battery to the commencing end of the 
coil being wound on. Connect the other 
terminal of the battery to one stud of the 
galvanometer. To the other stud of the 
galvanometer connect about a foot of copper 
wire, and use the bared end of this to touch 
and scrape the iron on which the coil is 
being wound. If the needle of the galva¬ 
nometer is deflected—that is, moves from 
its position of rest—then the bare wire is 
touching the iron, and the bare place must 
be found by unwinding the coil. Cover the 
fault with a few strands of soft cotton 
soaked in melted paraffin, or with a bit 
of silk ribbon, then proceed again. If the 
galvanometer needle does not move, proceed 

bazaar, and, judging by the results, I should 
think that if any reader of Work should 
find the same task put before him, he could 
not make a more satisfactory and desirable 
article. The following notes will describe 
the method of manufacture :—• 

Procure a strip of wood—Honduras ma¬ 
hogany will do very well for the purpose— 
2 ft. 6 in. long X 2 in. wide x l in. thick : 
this must be dry, or the box will soon fall 
to pieces. Cross-cut it into six 5 in. lengths. 
Take one piece for a pattern, and set it out 
exactly as shown in Fig. 1. Groove it at a 
and b, making the grooves i in. deep and 
I: in. wide. Cut the ends as in Fig. 1, or 
as shown in the other designs. Figs. 4 and 5; 
then make the other five pieces just the 
same as No. 1, with the addition that one 
of them will require a slot for putting in the 


Our Guide to Good Things. 

[Work—April 18,1S91. 

money. This may be mortised with a fine 
bradawl and cleaned out with a key-hole 
saw and piece of glass-paper. The slot 
should be 1^ in. long, so that it will just pass 
a penny, and our box is ready for putting 
together. The sketches will explain the 
method of doing this. For clearness, I have 
numbered each piece. Put No. 1 (see 
Fig. 2) on the table; add Nos. 2 and 3 ; 
then 4 and 5, as shown in Fig. 3 ; finally 
put No. 6 in position. Force it down with 
the thumbs. It 'will be found that Nos. 2 
and 3 will spring sufficiently to allow No. 6 
being forced into its place. It will then 
key all the others; but if the wood is brittle 
and there is danger of splitting, it may be 
eased at the side, as shown in Fig. 4. 

Figs. 4 and 5 give suggestions for 
cutting the ends if the reader has a fret¬ 
saw. In Fig. 5 it is supposed that the box 
is to be given to a child, the ends being cut 
with his or her monogram. 

Of course it is not necessary to adhere 
blindly to the dimensions given. The pieces 
may be made 2% in. wide, and the grooves 
made further apart accordingly, bearing in 
mind that in all cases the distance from out 
to out of grooves must equal the width 
added to the depth of both grooves. Again, 
the box may be made with the ends plain 
or simply rounded; and if no better material 
is handy, the cedar of a cigar-box may be 
utilised. It is scarcely necessary for me to 
add that each piece should be cleaned off 
with glass-paper before putting together. 

Puzzle picture frames are put together in 
much the same manner, each corner being a 
miniature copy of the money-box. 


Patentees, manufacturers, and dealers generally are re¬ 
quested to send prospectuses, bills, etc., of their speciali¬ 
ties in tools, machinery, and workshop appliances to the 
Editor of WORK fen' notice in “ Our Guide to Good 
ThingsIt is desirable that specimens should be sent 
for examination and testing in all cases when this can be 
done without inconvenience . Specimens thus received 
will be returned at the earliest opportunity. It must be 
understood that everything vjhich is noticed, is noticed 
on its merits only, and that, as it is in the power of any¬ 
one who has a useful article for sale to obtain mention 
of it in this department of WORK without charge, the 
notices given partake in no way of the nature of adver¬ 

6.—The Indiarubber “ Grip ” Handle 

Messrs. P. B. Cow & Co., 46 and 47, Cheap- 
eide, E.C., send a specimen of their new India- 
rubber “ Grip ” Handle Cover (Caffarey’s Patent) 
for enabling those who use them to obtain a 
firmer grasp and bold then can be obtained by 
the band alone without any intervening medium 
on the bandies of tennis rackets, cricket bats, 
sculls, bandies of cycles, and clubs and sticks for 
golf, lacrosse, polo, and hockey. The cover is in 
the form of a bandage with a rough or embossed 
surface externally, and a smooth surface inter¬ 
nally, fitted with a stud and eye at one end, the 
stud being reversible, so that the cover may 
be put on so as to bring either surface, as may be 
preferred, in contact with the hand. Being, as 
it has been said, in the form of a bandage—the 
sample before me, intended for a cricket bat, 
being 36 in. long and 1| in. wide—it is wrapped 
round the handle, starting from the end without 
a stud, each fold overlapping the preceding one, 
the operation being completed at the other end 
by slipping the eye over the stud. It may be 
said that this new handle cover is entirely free 
from the objections that attach to the old tubular 
form of cover, the chief of these being the diffi¬ 
culty of pulling the latter on to the handle owing 
to its being, of necessity, made somewhat smaller 
than the handle it is intended to fit—a difficulty 
“ frequently resulting,” as the manufacturers 
point out, “ in pinched fingers, loss of temper, 
and splitting the cover.” As a matter of course, 

that which is difficult to put on is also difficult 
to remove ; and conversely, that which is 
easily applied can be taken off with equal 
facility. This gives the now cover an additional 
advantage over the old one, and enables any 
cricketer who has occasion to change his hat to 
transfer the handle cover from one to the other 
in a very short space of time. The manufacturers 
claim that the new cover is “ most effectual, very 
durable, and inexpensive.” I have no doubt 
whatever as to its utility and durability; and 
with regard to its cheapness, it will he sufficient 
to say that covers for all articles cost only Is. 
each, the only exceptions being those for cycles, 
which cost Is. 6d. per pair, and scull handles, 
which are sold at 2s. per pair. They further 
state that a tennis racket handle cover “ may be 
used for a cricket hat, and vice versa, the only dif¬ 
ference being in the length. In the case of oars 
and sculls, the rower can produce his cover, and 
apply it to any scull he may happen to use. With 
golf this is a great advantage, the clubs being 
frequently changed. The ‘ Grip ’ rolls up into 
the smallest possible compass when not in use, so 
can be readily carried in the pocket. For cj r cle 
handles, which vary so much in size and shape, 
the same handle cover will fit equally well all 
sizes and shapes, an advantage hitherto unattain¬ 
able in any other handle cover. When the old 
form of cricket and tennis hat handle cover 
works loose, it becomes practically useless. The 
‘ Grip ’ never works loose.” I do not see, myself, 
why the new covers should not be turned to good 
account for augmenting the grip on the handles 
of pickaxes, hatchets, adzes, heavy hammers, and 
similar tools. It would obviate, for amateurs, at 
all events, that salivatory process which is some¬ 
times necessary to assist in attaining a firmer grasp 
on the handle of a heavy tool that has become 
polished by the friction resulting from constant 

7.—Proctor’s “ Defiance ” Writing Inks. 

Messrs. John M. Proctor & Co., St. Ann’s 
Ink Works, Nottingham, have submitted samples 
of the various inks and writing fluids manu¬ 
factured and supplied by them, and also some 
dry inks or inks in the form of powder, which 
can he rendered fit for use in a very short space 
of time by dissolving the powder in cold water, 
and shaking it until the powder is dissolved. 
Having made trial of these inks, I can say with 
pleasure that they are excellent, and satisfy in 
every way the requirements that men and women 
generally are apt to insist on when selecting an 
ink for their personal use. The most noticeable 
points with regard to these inks are—firstly, 
their perfect fluidity, which secures perfect 
freedom in writing, and enables the writer to 
skim over the surface of the paper, currente 
calamo, as the phrase goes, and to get a marvellous 
number of words on the paper with a single dip 
of the pen. For my own part, I am accustomed 
to write very fast and very small; and to do this 
with clearness and legibility one requires a light 
touch, a fine pen, and ink free from the clogginess, 
if I may use the expression, that seems inseparable 
from many kinds of ink, which are so muddy in 
themselves and contain so much sediment as to 
render them well-nigh intolerable. The special 
ink about which I am now speaking is, I take it, 
the cheapest of Messrs. Proctor & Co.’s inks, 
being an ink prepared for the use of schools, and 
supplied in nine-gallon casks at Is. per gallon. 
They supply inks that are higher in price, hut, 
as far as I am concerned, I am perfectly satisfied 
with this inexpensive ink without going to a 
higher price. Secondly, as the ink is so perfect 
a fluid, it neither clogs the pen nor causes the 
formation of an incrustation about it, which soon 
corrodes it and renders it useless. To go at 
length into the various inks supplied by Messrs. 
Proctor & Co. is not possible, owing to their 
number and variety, hut what may be said of 
one kind may be said of all. The varieties 
include blue-black fluids for writing and copy¬ 
ing, black inks for writing and copying, violet- 
black ink, inks of special scarlet, bright red—an 
excellent ink — machine - ruling inks, fancy 
coloured inks in mauve, magenta, purple, green, 
blue, and violet; endorsing inks for indiarubber 

stamps; and multiple writing ink of a violet 
tint for graphs. The dry inks for mixing 
with water will be found useful by travellers and 
emigrants. Prices of the various inks manu¬ 
factured by Messrs. John Proctor & Co. will 
he supplied on application. I noticed some 
little time ago, in Work, a sample hoard covered 
with Proctor’s “Defiance” Slate Composition; 
and may now take this opportunity to call 
attention to Proctor’s “Defiance” Slate Paper, 
faced with the composition for diagrams, draw¬ 
ing examples, etc. The composition does not 
wash off, and it is said that the paper is so 
durable that it may he used any number of 
times. It is sold in two sizes—3 ft. hv 2 ft., at 
fid. net, and 4 ft. by 3 ft., at Is. net. The slate 
paper will be found extremely useful, not only 
in schools where something supplementary to the 
blackboard is required, hut also in lecture-rooms 
and class-rooms where the lecturer requires a 
medium that may he speedily available for the 
diagrammatic illustration of his remarks. 

8.—New Patent Non-Conducting Covering 
for Steam Pipes. 

The Cortex Calorifuge Company, Limited, 3, 
Fenwick Street (offices), and 19, Hanover Street 
(works), Liverpool, send me a letter and pamphlet 
relative to a patent cork covering for steam pipes 
that they are now manufacturing and supplying, 
which is known as the Cortex or Cork Covering. 
The Company’s manager, Mr. H. E. L. Grundy, 
writes :—“ We are manufacturing a new kind of 
non-conductor for the covering of curved or 
straight steam pipes, to prevent radiation and 
reduce the consumption of coal, and carry steam 
a much longer distance, either inside or outside 
of buildings. The covering is made of pure 
solid cork, and can he bent to suit any diameter 
or shape of pipe. The cork is cut into long 
strips; the ends of each are bevelled, and then 
joined and coiled into strips of eleven yards. A 
covering of linen at the back of the cork enables 
it to be bent and wrapped around steam pipes 
with the greatest ease. It is a natural non¬ 
conductor, and in its wild state has to resist heat, 
frost, and water, so that it is specially adapted 
for non-conducting purposes, being so durable 
and light.” Of course, we all know the nature 
of cork, and are acquainted with many of its 
adaptations for mercantile purposes ; and being 
well aware of its qualities and characteristics, 
there is no difficulty in accepting all that Mr. 
Grundy says with reference to it. Moreover, it 
is highly commended by various engineers and 
naval architects who have tested it on the steam 
pipes of large steamers. It is made to suit 
various sizes of pipes in strips from | in. to f in. 
thick and 11 in. wide, and is sold by the square 
foot, and according to thickness, at Is. 6d., Is. 7d., 
Is. 8d., and Is. 9d. per square foot. The coils in 
which the cork covering is supplied are between 
11 yds. and 12 yds. long. To fit it on to the 
pipe, the coil is first unrolled on to the pipe loose, 
and then lies slack about the pipe. One end of 
the cork is then secured with string or wire, and 
the slack is tightened up by wrapping it closely 
round the pipe. The ends of the cork stiips 
being bevelled and covered with a solution, all 
that is necessary in order to join them is to press 
the two ends together and overlap the spare 
linen hacking of the cork which is left at each 
end for the purpose. When this is done, the 
cork coil should he overlaid in the contrary 
direction with a linen tape, specially prepared 
with a solution which is applied to the inside 
surface of the linen. This linen, with the dressed 
surface innermost and touching the cork, or 
rather, the linen with which the cork is backed, 
is wrapped tightly and closely round the cork 
covering, and the operation is completed. In 
the case of curved pipes, a little must be cut 
from the edge of the cork on the inside, or the 
gaps on the outside must he filled in with small 
pieces of cork covered with linen. A very neat 
appearance is imparted to the covering by apply¬ 
ing a coat of white lead or zinc to the linen 
envelope. This tends to preserve the linen, 
which, it should he said, is supplied at the rate 
of 3d. per square foot. The Editor. 

Work—April 18,1891.] 

Shop . 



A Corner for Those who Want to Talk It. 

®«* In consequence of the great pressure upon the 
“ Shop ” columns of Work, contributors are 
requested to be brief and concise in all future 
questions and replies. 

In answering any of the “ Questions submitted to Corre¬ 
spondents,” or in referring to anything that has appeared 
in “Shop," writers are requested to refer to the number 
and page of number of Work in which the subject under 
consideration appeared, and to give the heading of the 
paragraph to which reference is made, and the initials 
and place of residence, or the nom-de-plume, of the writer 
by whom the question has been asked or to whom a reply 
has been already given. Answers cannot be given to 
questions which do not bear on subjects that fairly come 
within the scope of the Magazine. 

I.— Letters from Correspondents. 

Fretwork.—F. C. (Leytonstone) writes:—“Some 
time ago, in a letter to Work, I suggested an easy 
method of taking a number of copies of a fretwork 
design-viz., clamping two pieces of wood together 
with several sheets of paper between them; then 
cutting out in the usual manner. This gives you 
two copies of the design in wood, and as many in 
paper as you please. Now suppose if, instead of 
using paper, you place a sheet of thin metal, such 
as is used for cutting stencil plates, between the 
two pieces of wood, then cut out, it will make very 
little difference in the working of the saw, and you 
will have a stencil plate from which any number of 
designs may be reproduced." 

(Haydon Bridge ) writes :— 
“I would respect¬ 
fully suggest to 
W. H. P. ( Hornsey) 
an improvement on 
his coal box (see page 
731, Vol. II.). If he 
will put the coals in 
at top (a), putting 
the top on hinges, he 
will get more room 
for coals, and his 
top will be as avail¬ 
able for table pur¬ 
poses as ever. I 
would also have the 
floor of the box 
curved downwards, 
as at B, so that 
when the coals were 
thrown in at A, the 
box being empty, 
none would find 
their way out at 
the bottom. His idea 
is a good one. As I 
use stoves with coke, 
broken to sizes, ac¬ 
cording to strength 
of the wind, I in¬ 
tend making one.” 

Coal Box. — H. B. 

Coal Box. 

II.—Questions Answered by Editor and Staff. 

Varnish.—D. B. [Durham).— As has been fre¬ 
quently stated in the “Shop” columns, varnishing 
is not a good way to finish furniture of any but the 
commonest and roughest kind. The best “varnish” 
is French polish. This you can make by dissolving 
shellac (6 oz.) in methylated spirit (1 pint). It is not 
suitable for brush work. Ordinary varnish making 
cannot be well practised by an amateur. You will 
find it better and more economical to buy what you 
want ready made, as you can easily do in your own 
neighbourhood.—D. A. 

Incubator.—T. M. (Deptford). — The T-shaped 
tube and regulator work as sketch, Fig. 1, the parts 
being lettered as in the original drawing (Fig. 1, 
page 589, Vol. II.) The difference is, as you will 
see, that the damper lever must be altered as 
shown, when the float will open damper instead of 
closing it, as you imagine. You will economise heat 
by turning the end of the flue pipe, D, up through the 
tank, as I have shown, instead of outside, as shown 
by Mr. Walker. The regulator I recommend is a 
glass tube filled with mercury and ether (see Figs. 2 
and 3). If you can, run the lifting rod, E, up through 
centre of machine. Fig. 2 is best; but if you place 
regulator at back of egg drawer. Fig. 3 will be 
preferable, as the bent arm will project over the 
eggs. It consists of a glass tube of about f in. calibre, 
bent as shown, and the end A sealed over. When 
obtained, fill the tube sufficiently with mercury, 
c (shaded dark), then add a small quantity of dilute 
ether, and agitate the tube until the fluid assumes 
the position b (shaded light), with a small air bubble 
at the sealed end A. This operation is difficult to 
describe, but is easily done when you know how. 
If you place your forefinger over the open end of 
tube, and turn it upside down and about a few times, 
the ether, being of the lightest s.g., will assume 
the uppermost position, and by a' few dexterous 
manipulations can be confined in the sealed end. 
This having been accomplished, fit a small float, d, 
to slide easily in tube. This may be made of a piece 
of ivory, nicely turned to fit; or a small cork can be 
fitted. Into this float fit a stiff straw or a piece of 
fine hard wire, e, to act as the lifting rod actuating 
the damper ; and after testing, cut same to required 
length. A small bracket, F, made of any sheet 
metal, with a hole drilled in it to fit rod, will keep 

it straight and prevent float jambing in the tube. 
The action is thus :—Ether boils at a very low tem¬ 
perature and gives oil' a vapour. Being imprisoned, 
it cannot escape, and therefore forces the mercury 
round into the long limb. This, in turn, raises the 
float, and this, with its rod, tilts the damper lever, 
and allows the heat to pass straight away instead 
of going through the tank. This will be found a 
most sensitive regulator, and is the best I know of. 
1 think I have made all clear; if not, write again. 

Incubator Parts. 

I cannot suggest any improvement in the damping 
arrangement described by Mr. Walker for a hot- 
water machine, my remarks as to improved damping 
being confined to machines of the hot air class. 
Give eggs a sprinkling every day during the latter 
half of period of incubation with warm water, and 
during the last day or two a few seconds’ soaking in 
water at about 100 5 Fahr. will minimise the chance 
of a goodly number being found “ dead in shell.” 

Cricket Bat.—No Name.— You do not state 
whether you wish to make a new spliced bat or 
want to repair a broken bat. In the latter case, 
how can I advise you without a tracing of the 
fracture ? In the former, I may tell you that there 
is considerable art in splicing a bat to ensure a 
springiness when a blow is struck, so that such 
elasticity may act as a secondary force. Celebrated 
makers use pieces of whalebone half-way up the 
handle, and one-third down the bat to achieve this 
result. Some make the handle of lancewood; some 
of willow, which seems the favourite wood for the 

hat itself. If I were making a bat, I should have 
the handle turned of hickory, and left 6 in. longer 
than I wanted for handle, and then plane it to a 
wedge shape, as shown in the illustration, marking 
the bat at the same angle, but cutting it smaller, 
so that a V-joint is made as shown in diagram 
in section. This can only be done with a chisel, 
carefully getting the four'surfaces, A, B, c, D, to fit 
accurately; the end of the handle should be also 
chamfered off, fore and aft, and the bat itself 
recessed inwards to receive this V-shaped joint, 
taking care to make it A of an inch too short when 
in place before gluing, and driving it home when 
you are satisfied with the fit. If you like to go to 
the trouble of gluing up the handle first with a 
strip i in. thick of ■whalebone between two pieces 
of hickory before it is turned, you may attain more 
“ springiness.” The after-process of stringing the 
handle will ensure that the joints will not re-open 
above the splice, whilst the wedging below will 
compel that portion in the bat to keep close. To 
add to the springiness, taper the round part towards 
the lower part of the handle, so that being thinner 
the spring may date from the junction of bat and 
handle, and not below, or the strain may shake the 

splice. Then wind on the string (good fine whip¬ 
cord well waxed with cobbler's wax is best), and 
soak the bat with raw linseed-oil, or better still, oil 
it with raw oil every two days for a month, feeding 
the butt end with all it will absorb, which will 
prevent the blows on the bat from the hard ball 
from even marking it; by well rubbing it with oil 
thus day by day a very high polish will result. 
You say you do not like pins, out I strongly re¬ 
commend, after the handle is housed home and the 
glue is set, boring with a A in. Morse bit two holes 
right through bat and handle (bored through from 
the side, of course), and then rosewood dowels, 

A > n - full- driven right through with thin glue to 
obviate any tendency of the handle to spring below 
its junction with the bat, which I hold to be fatal. 

-J. \V. H. 

Binding Work.—W. K. S. (Liverpool).— You 
made a big mistake in trying to wash off the glue 
from the back of sections of the monthly part. 

The proper method is to scrape them carefully with 
a knife, which must he used with caution and intel¬ 
ligence. It is possible to make a greater mess with 
the knife than with the water, but it is possible to 
take all the glue away if care is taken. There is a 
certain method of using the knife so as not to cut or 
tear, which I cannot express in writing, but which 
I could easily put you up to in five minutes, but you 
must try and find it out for yourself. Use the knife, 
and be careful, and you will succeed, I hope.—G. C. 

American Clock. —D. H. (North Shields). —I 
cannot help you to design a case, but if you bring 
the weights down as you suggest, you must allow 
the pendulum to pass to and fro in front of them, 
and let there be an inch at least between ; and bear 
also in mind that by having a double line, as you 
suggest, instead of single as before, that your 
weights must each be double the present ones—that 
is to say, that as they weigh about 3J lbs. each 
now, the ones you make must be about 7 lbs., 
because each line takes half ; therefore there will 
be 34 lbs. pulling the clock, and the other 34 lbs. 
pulling at the knot where tied up. The drop, of 
course, must be the same as before.—A. B. C. 

Polishing and Burnishing.— G. N. (No Ad¬ 
dress).—It depends on the shape of the articles. 
Sometimes a leather buff charged with fine emery 
or crocus is used; sometimes a burnisher, which 
may be a half-round file ground and polished quite 
smooth. No special apparatus for turning small 
wood handle, only dexterity acquired by prac¬ 

G old Leaf.— Trefalduryn.— Your note reads as 
if you had seen a gilder at work (who had already 
sized the pattern on to a bracket or brackets) take 
a leaf of transferred gold, and press it over the place 
where the pattern was already sized in, and being 
nicely done, when he removed the transfer-paper 
the design or pattern was left quite clean on the 
bracket, the transfer-paper retaining all the super¬ 
fluous gold not taken up by the design. You can 
obtain every description of tiles of Craven JJunnill 
and Co., Jackfield Works, Salop. Write for illus¬ 
trated price lists, stating quantity required.—E. D. 

Gas Engine.— L. T. (Harlesden).— There is not 
space in “Shop” to give full instructions for making 
a gas engine, and partial ones would be useless. 
The standard work on gas engines is that of Mr. 
Dugald Clerk, C.E. In reply to your second question, 
you may certainly put a copper fire-box and copper 
tubes in an iron boiler ; it is a common practice in 
locomotive engineering.—F. C. 

Proportions of Engine.— Faithful Reader.— 

If you will state the parts of the engine for which 
you require formula, the description of engine, and 
the work for which it is required, I will send you 
full particulars.—F. C. 

Electric Lighting.— Turbine.—A turbine is the 
best motor to use. You should send full particulars 
to some firm of electrical engineers—such as Messrs. 
Cooper & Paterson, Victoria Street, London, from 
whom you may get complete information, and an 
estimate of the cost of an installation, such as the 
power at your disposal will serve.—F. C. 

Book on Electric Belt-Hanging. — James.— 

“ Practical Electric Bell Fitting,” by F. C. Allsop. 
Price 3s. 6d., post free, from Allsop & Co., 165, Queen 
Victoria Street, London, E.C.—G. E. B. 

Wood Carving. — J. M. ( Newport Pagnell).— 

It is impossible to give you any very definite advice. 
You had better find out the best shop where carving 
is done in the nearest large town, and see if you 
can arrange with the master to take you on as an 
“improver.” I should think there were good places 
within reach of you ; and if so, you would do better l 
there than by coming to London, unless you can 
afford to come up for a day or so, and go the round 
of the shops. Try Rogers, of Maddox Street, 
London.—M. E. R. 

Making Blacking and Ink.— A Labourer.— As 
an ordinary paste blacking for shoes, the following 
is recommended by Dr. Ure:—Ivory black 2 lb., 
treacle 1 lb., olive oil 4 oz., well mixed together. 
Add 4 oz. sulphuric acid; and when this has ceased 
to act on the ivory black, add also 4 oz. gum Arabic in 
powder, 5 oz. vinegar, and J oz. sulphate of iron dis¬ 
solved in 5 oz. water. All must then be well mixed 
together. A cheaper paste than the above may be 
made of ivory black 14 lb., treacle 1 lb., olive oil (or 
some cheaper oil may be substituted—rape oil or fish 
oil will do) 2 oz.; well mix into paste with strong 
vinegar. A liquid blacking may thus be madeI vory 
black 3 oz., treacle 2 oz., sweet oil 4 oz. On these pour 
4 oz. sulphuric acid. Afterwards well mix these 
up with 4 pint vinegar and J pint water. Or, here 



[Work—April 18, 1891. 

is another cheap and favourite liquid blacking :— 
Ivory black 2 lb., treacle 1 lb., sweet oil 4 oz., 
sulphuric acid 4 oz.; to be mixed to the proper 
thickness with beer bottoms. It may be observed that 
the use of sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) in black¬ 
ings is neither good for the leather or the sewing 
of shoes. A harness blacking which needs no 
labour in polishing is thus made:—Gelatine 4 oz., 
gum Arabic 3 oz., dissolved in J pint of hot water. 
Strain and place in pan over fire; then add 6 oz. 
treacle, and afterwards sprinkle in 6 oz. powdered 
lamp-black. Boil till the mixture thickens, stirring 
all the time. As regards our ordinary writing inks, 
they are made of iron (in the form of copperas or 
sulphate of iron) and of gallic acid (in the shape of 
nut-galls) boiled in water with a little gum to give 
body and adhesion. If A Labourer will get No. 
31 (Vol. I., page 493), he will there find receipts for 
making inks of various colours, with other inform¬ 
ation on the subject; but we may here give him 
the rule by which the ink used in the Court of 
Exchequer, long regarded as of special excellence, 
was made, and which was divulged before a Com¬ 
mittee of the House of Commons;—Galls 4 lb., 
gum 1 lb., copperas 14 oz., and rain-water 4£ gallons. 
-S. W. 

Banjo Matters.— Sussex Banjoist.—T he num¬ 
ber of brackets you mention (twelve) are not 
sufficient for a 12 in. hoop. You ought to have 
at least twenty-four, and not more than thirty. 
If you use more than thirty brackets you only add 
to the weight of the banjo, without having any 
additional advantage. I am not surprised at 
your banjo not being a success, considering that 
you have" used only twelve instead of twenty-four 
brackets. You must have enough to pull the 
vellum tight, for however good a rim you may have, 
if your vellum is not very tight it will not sound up 
to the mark. When your vellum is pulled down 
and fairly stretched, it should feel almost like a 
piece of board on applying pressure of thumb or 
finger against it. To get it like that, you must put 
it on with the band standing well up, and then pull 
down carefully a little at a time until the top of the 
band is level with edge of hoop; but as some 
vellums stretch more than others, the band is often 

ulled below the level of the edge of rim (or hoop) 

efore the vellum is properly tight. Pulling down 
the vellum requires care and judgment, not to be 
taught by written instructions. There is nothing 
like breaking a few vellums in the pulling down 
for teaching what ought and what ought not to be 
done. Never wet a vellum after it is put on the 
banjo ; if you do, and you pull the vellum tighter, 
you are almost sure of breaking it. I should as soon 
think of filling the inside of a violin with water as 
to wet a vellum after it has been put on. The 
metal to use for hoop is German silver edges spun 
over steel wires, and lined with oak, maple, or syca¬ 
more. It is also important that the band is strong, 
say about £ in. deep, J in. or in. thick, and having 
a recess turned in it to keep the brackets from 
touching and cutting the vellum; or notches could 
be filed in to receive the heads of the pulling-down 
wires, and so keep them clear of the vellum. The 
longer the handle, and the larger the hoop, the 
lower and deeper tone you will get, and also more 
powerful. A banjo with a 20 in. handle and a 12 in. 
or 13 in. hoop cannot be timed up to concert pitch, 
but must be tuned a tone lower ; the strings of such 
a long banjo would not stand if pulled up to pitch. 
The best and most convenient size will be one with 
18 in. handle and 12 in. hoop, or 19 in. handle and 11 
in. hoop. A banjo made to this size, and properly 
strung, can be tuned up to concert pitch to play 
with piano or other instruments. The higher your 
bridge, the louder the tone; if you have your 
bridge too high, you will not feel so comfortable 
when playing as you would with a lower one. It 
will give you a better idea which suits you the best 
if you try two or three bridges of different heights. 
In starting the vellum when putting on, the pulling- 
down wires ought to be put on opposite one another, 
as shown in your sketch, and when you have got 
them all on, commence to pull down at one, and 
follow on right round the hoop. After the vellum 
is on and dry, you must not on any account give one 
but a turn and then go to the one opposite, but 
must go to the next one, and so on round the hoop. 
If you carry out my instructions you will get the 
proper baDjo tone. The great secrets are experi¬ 
ence, good workmanship, and the best materials.— 
J. G. W. 

Hammock Chair. —H. B. (Hammersmith). —You 
are not quite clear as to what a rivet is, and what a 
bolt is. What you want are some i in. bolts and 
nuts 2J in. long—that is to say, if you are working 
in 1 in. stuff—as it will be double thickness ; but go 
to any ironmonger, and you will get them. Rivets 
are entirely different things, and used for another 
purpose altogether. I can quite see you had a 
trouble to get what you wanted if you asked for 
rivets.—J. B. 

Chords for Organette.— R. B. ( Pallas Green). 
—This question much resembles one which has al¬ 
ready appeared in “ Shop,” and R. B. would do well 
to look out for it. I should like to answer R. B. as 
follows 1 The chords possible on an organette 
depend upon the number and relation of the reeds 
—in all probability the organette will only play in 
two or three keys, and the question would be easily 
answered if this information had been supplied. 
If R. B. knows anything of music or the tonic sol-fa 
notation, it would help him, but in ignorance of 
this, I may say that the keynote chord—that is, the 
first, third, fifth, and eighth of the scale—is the most 

useful and important chord. It can be used in any 
position or inversion, but not at the first and last 
chord : there, inversions are not to be used. Next 
in importance is the similar chord founded on the 
fifth as a root, and harmonising the fifth, seventh, 
and second of the scale. This chord may also be 
used in an incomplete form, inverted or rearranged 
as to the upper intervals. Of still less importance 
is the similar chord founded on the fourth, supply¬ 
ing harmonies for the fourth, sixth, and eighth. 
This chord may also be inverted or the upper 
intervals transposed. Thirds are to be used freely; 
every chord should have one in its composition, 
but not always between the same two parts, or 
minor effects would be produced where least 
desired. A succession of perfect fifths is not 
tolerated ; even two in succession are objectionable, 
and fifths without thirds are not pleasant. Octaves 
are pleasant, but not a continuation of them be¬ 
tween the same parts. It is, however, allowable to 
play a bass part with octaves added below, and a 
treble part with octaves added above. Here also 
we need, to know the compass of R. B.’s organette. 
In addition to these three chords, which are subject 
to many changes of position, giving variety, there 
are many more artificial chords, sounds for which 
are not probably provided on R. B.’s instrument.— 
B. A. B. 

Bar Magnets.— W. H. O. P. (Hackney).— In 
London! and yet you cannot get a pair of round bar 
magnets. Why, I wonder at you! Take a walk 
down the Strand some Saturday afternoon and look 
in the opticians’ windows, and if you do not get a 
pair, I’ll eat my hat. But if you cannot get them 
round, you will certainly get them flat. Take the 
nearest you can get to the size you want and make 
the holes in the case to fit them. Flat magnets 
will do just as well as round ones for your purpose. 
It is not necessary when buying these to state the 
purpose you have in view. Ask for round bar 
magnets at any electrician's or optician’s, and I am 
sure you will get them.—W. D. 

Blocking, Burnishing, Relief, etc.—J oint.— 
(1) A good dry powder for blocking Dutch metal on 
cards, etc., may be had from Messrs. Berry and 
Roberts, St. Bride’s Street, London, E.C. You might 
try powdered resin or gum sandarach. Tie in a small 
muslin bag, and dust over the card. Lift the metal 
in the stamp, as you cannot “ lay on ” on the top of 
the powder. (2) v ery likely the want of experience 
is the cause of your colours looking smeary and 
spreading, if, as you say, you use the best colours 
and varnish. But what are they 1 Use dry colours 
and white crystal varnish, and grind them well on 
the slab. Put it on the die with a hard brush, and 
wipe on hard paper. Do not use turps. (3) I gather 
that you do want experience. The gold burnishing 
is done in the way you have been trying to do it. 
But what in the world do you put the piece of thin 
copper upon your die for ? Allow your work to become 
thoroughly dry, and re-stamp again and again. 
(4) Do not be afraid of wearving me. There are 
different methods of doing relief stamping in two 
or more colours. One of them is by getting two or 
more dies, which, put together, make one complete— 
that is, supposing you want to have J B interlaced, 
each having a different colour, you get one die with 
J on it, and one with B on it. You put in B first, and 
stamp the paper with it, gilding it if you like; 
then you put in J, with a different colour, and stamp 
upon the top of B. Of course, thedies are cut specially 
for this class of work ; and when finished, it looks as 
if it had been struck with one impression. Another 
method is by painting in the different parts of the 
monogram on the die, and wiping and stamping in 
the usual manner. (5) See question 2 for answer to 
this—G. C. 

Water-Tube Boiler.— Generator.— The tube 
you propose is very old, and its use has been 
several times patented in different forms, notably 
in “Field’s” boiler. It would not answer as you 
have shown it. as there is no provision for circu¬ 
lation. I do not know that the matter to which you 
refer is patented; that can only be ascertained by a 
search at the Patent Office, or one of the Public 
Libraries where the Patent Specifications are kept. 
-F. C. 

Glue, etc.— B. W. (Walthamstow).— You should 
have no difficulty in applying the glue to the dove¬ 
tails in the ordinary way with a brush. The smaller 
the work the smaller the brush, and, possibly, the 
greater the quantity of glue comparatively which 
may have to be cleared off afterwards. Your second 
question has revived my expectations of some day 
getting an inquiry about the correct amount of 
moisture necessary to stick a postage-stamp on an 
envelope, together with a request for a full de¬ 
scription of the process, or some undertaking of 
similar difficulty. Run the saw at the speed you 
find most convenient. If you have steam, the 
speed will be different from what it will be if you 
only use foot power and a light machine. The 
quicker you run the saw the more work you will 
tie able to accomplish in a given time.—D. A. 

Sheet Brass. — Timbre. — You can get sheet 
brass of any length, breadth, and thickness you 
require at Messrs. Warner & Sons, Crescent 
Foundry, Cripplegate, London, and of Pontifex and 
Wood, Shoe Lane, London, E.C., and in Birming¬ 
ham of Messrs. W. Tonks & Co., Limited. I expect 
the reason you have to pay high is for special sizes 
of sheets not usually kept in stock. With regard to 
your second query, you do not say whether the 
sheet brass to which you refer is “ finished ” or 
rough. If it is ordinary sheet brass as it comes from 
the makers, of course, polishing pastes are of no 

use, as they will not remove scratches and dents; 
you must get up a good surface with emery cloth 
of different degrees of coarseness till you have a 
smooth surface. It should then be burnished and 
rubbed up with a leather, and as to the colour of it, 
that depends on the mixing of the metal; no process 
of cleaning or polishing will alter that. Articles of 
cast brass can be to some extent altered in colour 
by dipping in aquafortis or a mixture of aquafortis 
and other acids, but this I expect would not be 
applicable to the articles you make. In reply to 
your third question, there are several lacquers or 
enamels of the kind you require. One is called ? Zapon;’ 
it is of American origin, and it can be procured from 
the Frederick Crane Chemical Company, Newliall 
Hill, Birmingham. It is stated to be far superior in 
lustre, transparency and tenacity to lacquer, and 
much easier of application, and to be proof against 
damp, salt air, fly speck, etc. There is also the 
patent Silico enamel, which the advertisement 
states is used for protecting bright, polished, or 
plated surfaces, without altering the appearance, to 
be invisible, washable, and durable ; not sticky or 
greasy to the touch. To be had in Is. bottles of 
the Patent Silico Enamel Company, 118, Crawford 
Street, London, W. Messrs. Townshend & Thomp¬ 
son, brass founders and art metal workers, Ernest 
Street, Birmingham, advertise their goods as sent 
out covered with a perfectly transparent enamel of 
greater permanency than ordinary lacquer. But, 
whether it is the same as Zapon, or whether they 
would supply it to you, I cannot say, but a letter 
would no doubt receive their attention.—R. A. 

Brass Casting.— Shopmate.— Plaster of Paris is 
not suitable for ordinary brass casting—proper vent¬ 
ing being impracticable. It is used in type-founding. 
To cast brass you must mould in 6and, and the best 
way is to get a small quantity from a local founder. 
Several articles would be required to give sufficient 
information to enable you to do brass casting; these 
will be forthcoming when some other sets of papers 
are concluded.—J. 

Veneer.— A. W. (Manchester).— The ebony knife- 
cut veneer you will get from W. Daniel, 77, Church 
Street, Shoreditch, E.C.—A. J. H. 

Developing Prints. — Photograph. — First 
prepare three solutions—one of neutral oxalate of 
potash, one pound, to three pints of hot water, 
slightly acidified with sulphuric acid: call this A. 
Another. Protosulphate of iron, one pound, to a 
quart of hot water, and add half a drachm of sul¬ 
phuric acid: call this B. Another Bromide of potas¬ 
sium, one ounce; water, two pints: call this C. These 
solutions keep well separately, and must he mixed 
just before use. To develop : In a suitable tray, place 
six ounces of solution A, one ounce of solution B, and 
half a drachm of solution C. Mix in order given, 
and use cold. After exposure, soak the paper in 
water till limp; then immerse in the developer, 
avoiding bubbles. The image should appear slowly, 
and should develop up strong, clear, and brilliant. 
When the shadows are sufficiently black, pour off 
the developer, and flood the print with water to 
which acetic acid has been added in the proportion 
of half a drachm to th e pint; pour this off and repeat 
two or three times, using fresh acid water each time; 
then rinse well in pure water, and immerse for ten 
minutes in a fixing bath, made of three ounces of 
hyposulphate of soda to a pint of water. Wash for 
an hour or two in several changes of pure water, 
and dry. With regard to exposure, very much 
depends on the density of the negative and light. 
An average negative, held about 18 in. from a 
No. 4 Bray gas-burner shielded with ground glass, 
would probably require about ten or fifteen seconds’ 
exposure. The exact time must be obtained by 
experiment. Some negatives are done in two or 
three seconds, some requiring as many minutes. 
As a rule, a thin negative gives the best result with 
bromide paper; very dense negatives are quite un¬ 

Cycle Construction.— A Metal Worker.— This 
correspondent would like to see in Work papers 
on Cycle construction, particularly the “ Safety.” 
Let him refer to Work, No. 107, where there is a 
full description of how to make a “Safety” bicycle. 
As to cycle repairing, I shall continue to tell any 
inquirers all I can to help them on in putting to 
rights their own machines.—A. S. P. 

Simplex Dynamo.— T. H. (Farringdon Road, 
E.C.). — The dimensions of the No. 1 Simplex 
dynamo solid armature, described on page 758, 
Vol. n. of Work, are given on the same page in 
the “ List of Dynamo Electric Machines—Simpler; 
Type.” It is 3) in. in diameter by 2 in. in depth. 
-G. E. B. 

Gold Transfers.—A New Reader of “ Work.” 
—This correspondent will get the transfers from 
Iliff and Son, publishers of the Cyclist and Photo - 
graphy, 12, Smithford Street, Coventry.—A. S. P. 

Industrial Exhibitions. — Rex.— You cannot 
do better than watch the advertisements in the 
daily papers. All exhibitions are well advertised 
beforehand. There is one coming on at Glasgow. 

Glass Embossing.— G. N. (Stratford, E.).— You 
wish to know if there is anything you can add to 
fluoric acid to give a ground appearance to etched 
glass, and you do not want to use the gas process. 
There is nothing I know of that you can add to the 
acid to give the effect you desire. The gas would 
do so, but as you do not want to use that, the only 
thing you can do is to grind it afterwards with 
powdered emery. If you wish for a very fine grain, 
get the finest flour emery, put it in water, let it 

Work—April 18, 1801.] 



settle, then pour off the water gently, and use the 
top strata, which will be finer than the bottom, the 
coarsest grains settling first.—W. E. D. 

Camera Lens.— F. H. ( London , S.E .).—'The lens 
is probably an old quarter-plate combination, but it 
is impossible to give any definite opinion without a 
careful examination. As to the size of camera 
suitable—probably a quarter-plate camera; but it is 
easily ascertained if the lens is fixed in one end of 
a box and a piece of ground glass with lines ruled 
upon it, representing the different sizes of pictures, 
is held so that the image from the lens falls 
accurately upon it. When the image is seen sharply 
defined, note must be made of the space covered. 

Slide Rest.— Axle.— If Axle wants a thorough 
good compound slide rest for a 5 in. centre lathe, he 
had better write to Mr. William Gladstone, Stafford, 
where he can get a set of castings for 8s. 9d.; or if 
he still desires to make his own patterns, he can 
procure a tracing half size for five nenny stamps. 
—T. R. B. 

Taking Out a Patent.— R. W. S. (Leeds ).—The 
claims as sent would not be allowed, as they contain 
what would be held to be only coverable by a trade 
mark. If a provisional specification is to be put in, it 
requires to be very carefully considered and pre¬ 
pared both as to the title and the description, sup¬ 
posing it is intended to obtain a valid patent, and 
one that the law will support. If a provisional 
is lodged as the first step, drawings should not be 
included. In the complete specification, all that is 
recorded in the provisional and covered by the title 
may be enlarged upon, but no new part not covered 
by or included in either can bo introduced without 
vitiating the patent. All must be strictly confined 
to what has been foreshadowed in the provisional. 
The article in Work which R. W. S. 
should read and study is that contained in 
No. 44, Vol. I., page 694, and no protection 
in any colony or foreign country can be 
applied for or obtained in Great Britain. 

Each colony and foreign country has its 
own laws, rules, and regulations, indepen¬ 
dent of all or any in force here. The cost 
of a patent entirely depends on the amount 
of work in the shape of skill, knowledge, 
time, and ability required and called into 
action in preparing the documents, and 
doing all that is needed in a proper and 
efficient manner. A patentee must get 
his documents recorded in the Patent 
Offices of each country which has joined 
the convention before the expiry of seven 
months from the date of his application in 
Great Britain, if he intends to patent 
abroad. If an invention is patented only 
in Great Britain, any colony or foreign 
country may—ie., persons residing in it— 
manufacture and sell the same if the in¬ 
ventor has not protected his rights with¬ 
in the time specified. A valid patent can 
be obtained in America after the applica- w l 

tion for a provisional has been made here, -- 

provided the patentee protects his rights 
there within the time required by the con¬ 
vention, and sell tho same when obtained. 

Of course it is to be assumed that 
R. W. S. has carefully ascertained whether 
his invention is novel, useful, and not in use 
or described before; otherwise he would only 
waste his time and money applying for and 
obtaining what would be of no good when pa¬ 
tented, as the British Patent Office makes no 
investigation as to these points, but grants the 
patent entirely on the declaration of the appli¬ 
cant that he is the “ true and first inventor,” and 
that the invention is “not in use, to the best of his 
knowledge and belief.” It is of the first importance 
for R. W. S. or any other intending patentee to be cer¬ 
tain on this point, in order to prevent waste of money, 
time, and trouble, and experiencing the disappoint¬ 
ment which inevitably attends on neglect of proper 
and needed precautions. Above all things, R. W. S. 
should avoid attempting to obtain a valid patent by 
his own unaided exertions. To do work of this 
kind as it ought to be done requires nearly a life¬ 
time of practice and experience and extended 
practical knowledge and skill, which rarely, if ever, 
tails to the lot of inventors and would-be patentees 
to have acquired.—C. E. 

Carvings.— J. C. (Belper).—\t you want carving 
patterns for the decoration of ordinary household 
furniture, you will only be able to get them from 
some friendly carver who may be willing to ex¬ 
change with you or sell you some, as there is no 
regular supply of them, nor, so far as I am aware, 
are any published for sale. If you only want small 
carving patterns for fancy articles, you will bo able 
to obtain them from Harger Bros, or from Zilles. 
Those published by the former would probably suit 
you best.—D. A. 

Wheel.— J. B. (Tyldesley ).—You can make a lead 
wheel by casting from a pattern ; you can make a 
wooden wheel, and glue and peg leather around it 
for buffing; and you can get an emery wheel from 
a score of firms—say, Sterne, of Glasgow ; Lloyd, of 
Steelhouse Lane, Birmingham; or of any tool 

Wheels. — J. F. (Leeds).— You can always tell 
which is driver and. which is driven, by bearing 
these two fundamental rules in mind :—(1) In a 
simple train, the pitch of the guide screw bears the 
same ratio to that of the screw to be cut as the 
number of teeth in the driving wheel bears to 

the number of teeth in the driven wheel. (2) In a 
compound train, the pitch of the guide screw bears 
the same ratio to that of the screw to be cut as the 
product of the number of teeth of the driving wheels 
bears to th e product of the number of teeth in the 
driven wheels. It does not matter which of the 
driving wheels goes on the lathe mandrel. Certainly 
the driving wheels do not gear into one another. A 
driver gears into a driven, and in a compound train 
the second driver is on the same stud as the first 
driven. For taper turning, you swivel over the top 
slide of the compound rest.—J. 

Machine Design. — T. W. ( Manchester ). — The 
best is Professor Unwin’s “Elements of Machine 
Design,” published by Longmans.—J. 

Steel.— J. S. B. (No Address).—The best place that 
I know of for getting tool steel at reasonable prices 
is at Messrs. Pfiel, Clerkenwell.—J. 

Model Yacht.— A. A. B. ( Brighton ).— I must 
point out that E. O. N. asked for directions for 
making a model yacht, whereas you ask for a 
design for same. I would explain that Fig. 1 
herewith answers your wants. R is the rudder, 
which is exaggerated somewhat; M is the mainsail ; 
p, the foresail ; j, the jib ; and t, the gaff topsail. 
In a breeze, a jib-headed topsail (shaped like the jib 
with no yard attached) is hoisted in lieu of T. The 
best plan as to sails is to get the boat built, sparred, 
and rigged, then hoisting the gaff into position : the 
sails are readily cut out in newspaper as patterns. 
Do not stretch the sails along their respective spars, 
but allow them to stretch with the wind, and pull 
out the slack from time to time afterwards, as re¬ 
quired ; and if the main and gaff topsails show any 
tendency to “belly,” the upper sides may be hollowed 
slightly to flatten them. The jib should have a cord 
run along its foreside (like a piping cord), so as to 

Model Yacht. 

take the strain in hoisting; and the jib must be 
hoisted tight. Your want No. 2 is sufficiently met 
in Figs. 2 and 4, at page 652 of No. 92, the overhang 
of counter being lengthened or reduced, according 
as the club rule under which the boat is raced 
enforces water-line or overall measurement; and 
as to your want No. 3, you will find the sections 
given at Fig. 2 herewith will, if followed, turn out a 
very presentable craft, x x give the midship sec¬ 
tion ; 1 and 2 are placed about equidistant between 
x and the stem ; 6 is under the counter ; while 5 is 
just at the foreside of the stern-post; and 3 and 4 
are placed about equidistant between x and 6. 
Finally, you will scarcely find two model yacht 
sailors agree as to the best form of hull, and to 
become a successful hand one must not be afraid 
of experimenting ; and indeed, herein lies the chief 
pleasure of the pastime.—W. H. M. 

Soap Making.— D. W. (Liverpool). —An article 
on the above subject appeared in Work, No. 103. 
It contains all the information you ask for. 

Bent Iron Work. — Ironsides.— There is no 
particular instruction requisite, only to learn the 
art of bending graceful curves with the pliers, and 
holding them securely to one another with clips. 
It is a pretty branch of amateur work, requiring 
only a pair of tinmen’s snips, and two or three pairs 
of round and flat-nosed pliers. The wire is cut from 
sheet iron of thin gauge. A very little practice will 
enable you to turn out neat work.—J. 

Unplckable Lock. — Apprentice. — Try Chubb 
and Co., or any well-known lock-maker in London, 
for an unpickable lock. 

Books on Dynamo Construction.— Appren¬ 
tice.— “The Dynamo: How Made and Used,” by 
S. R. Bottone, Wallington, Surrey, post free from 
the author for 2s. Gd.; “ How to Make a Dynamo,” 
by A. Crofts, Dover, Kent, price 2s., post free 
from the author; “ Practical Dynamo Building for 
Amateurs," by F. Walker, price 2s. lid., post free 
from Iliffe & Co., 3, St. Bride Street, London, E.C. ; 
“ The Dynamo,” by W. B. Esson, price 7s. 6d., 
Whittaker & Co, Paternoster Square, London; 
“ Dynamo Electric Machinery,” by Prof. Thompson, 
price 16s., Spon & Co.— G. E. B. 

Book on Electrical Engineering.— Appren¬ 
tice.— There cannot be said to be any best book on 
electrical engineering. The nearest approach to 
such a book is “Electricity in the Service of Man,” 
published by the proprietors of Work. “ Electricity 
in Theory and in Practice, or the Elements of 
Electrical Engineering,” by Lieut. Bradley, price 
10s. 6d., published by E. & F. Spon, London, is also 
a useful book on the subject.—G. E. B. 

Electric Night Light.— Apprentice.— Gassner 
dry cells are suitable for lighting up a 3 c.p. lamp at 
short intervals of not more than five minutes at a 
time occasionally during the night, but will soon 
run down if frequently used on intervals of fifteen 
minutes. An 8-volt lamp will require a battery of 
at least six large Gassner cells; these will cost 4s. Gd. 
each, and furnish current (for this purpose) for fifty 
hours; then they can be re-charged with current 
from a dynamo, and their power thus restored. 
—G. E. B. 

Model Giilcher Dynamo. — Apprentice. — I 
should not advise you to attempt making a model of 
this type. The tracing you send is an excellent one, 
and the extracted data most suitable to accompany 
such a picture, but you would require working 
drawings of a reduced design to enable you to make 
patterns for the castings, etc., and these I cannot 
make for you. Far better choose a Manchester or 
a Simplex as a model, and work to the instructions 
given in my papers on “Model Electric Lights,” 
page 758, Vol. II. of Work. A 360 Watt machine, 
giving a current of 60 volts pressure, would yield, 
a current volume of 6 ampdres, which would be 
sufficient to furnish 100 c.p. in electric light, and 
absorb a little over I h.p. The 5 ampCre switch 
would therefore not have sufficient carrying 
capacity.—G. E. B. 

Barometer Tube.— Cocker. — Gauge- 
glass tubes will crack in a similar manner 
after being polished inside with a wash- 
leather mop. The cause is probably due 
to an electrical condition of the glass, due 
to the friction of the leather pad. Use a 
brass wire instead of iron wire, and put a 
clip of brass wire in the end of the tube 
after cleaning it. Perhaps some reader of 
Work will kindly suggest some other 
remedy. Do not make a hole in the wash- 
leather bottom of the cistern. If you do 
this to admit air, it will be ruined, as 
the mercury will come out through the 
hole. The atmosphere presses on the 
wash-leather, or “kid leather,” and this 
presses on the mercury. As the barometer 
tube fits tightly into the wooden box, this 
is air-tight, and its upper part is a vacuum, 
when the tube with its column of mercury 
is fixed in position.—G. E. B. 

Electric Bell Wires.— Cocker.—N o. 
32 b.w.g. copper wire is much too fine 
for use in the construction of electric bell 
coils. The smallest useful size is No. 24. 
Are you sure of the size sold you by the 
dealer ? He must have been either a fool 
or worse. I do not say that this size cannot 
be used in constructing a bell, but it must 
be a very small one, and would need several 
battery cells to ring it. The wire is quite 
useless for the coils of a 5 in. bell. This size should 
have magnet cores 31 in. by | in., fitted with bob¬ 
bins 3 in. by If in., and wound with No. 18 silk or 
cotton-covered copper wire. Use at least three 
cells of the largest Leclanchb size as a battery.— 
G. E. B. 

Gold and Silver Solutions.— G. V. (Esclair- 
monae ).—To detect the presence of gold in a solution 
of cyanide of potassium, place in it a strip of clean 
bright zinc, freshly scoured. In a short time some 
of the gold will be precipitated on the zinc, and may 
be known by its colour. To detect the presence of 
silver in a solution of cyanide of potassium, place in 
it a strip of bright copper, freshly scoured. In a 
short time some of the silver will be precipitated on 
the copper, and may be distinguished by its well- 
known whiteness. To recover gold from its solution 
in cyanide of potassium, heat the solution, and drive 
off the water as steam until a pasty mass only re¬ 
mains. Dry this, and fuse it at a bright red heat in 
a fire-clay crucible. When the brown residue has 
cooled, digest it in nitric acid, and wash the brown 
powder on a filter with water. Dry this, and fuse 
to a button in a fire-clay crucible, using dried borax 
as a flux.—G. E. B. 

Polishing.— W. D. H. (Edinburgh).— The cabinet 
to which you refer has probably been finished by 
what is known as ebonising, and your friend is, no 
doubt, quite correct in assuring you that it is not 
made of real ebony, which is very seldom used by 
cabinet-makers—so rarely indeed that it may prac¬ 
tically be considered as non-existent. Any kind of 
wood can be ebonised, but those most commonly 
treated in this way are Honduras mahogany 
(baywood), American walnut, American white- 
wood, beech, and birch. None answers better than 
the first named. If the wood is sound, it does' not 
matter if it is of bad colour or stainy. To ebonise, 
all you have to do is to stain the wood black, polish 
in the usual way, and then dull by dusting down 
with fine emery powder. The stain had better be 
bought ready-made. Darken the filling with black. 
A better colour can be got by using black polish 
than the ordinary kind. It is only necessary to put 
a little gas-black into the polish. Apply the emery 
powder with a brush or a soft cloth, and let the 


Shop, etc. 

[Work—April 18, 1S9L 

motion be in one direction—with the grain—only. 
The powder soon removes the bright gloss from 
the surface of the polish. The bright parts are got 
by simply not rubbing them down. The composition 
for picture frames can be got from any gilder or 
picture-frame maker.—D. D. 

Hodge’s Mitre Shoot.— W. N. (Winsford).— 
Any large tool dealer—such as Melliuish, Fetter 
Lane, London; or Moseley, High Holborn, London— 
could supply you with one of these tools. 

Tricycle House.— A. N. G. (Bristol ).—A paper 
upon this subject appeared in Work, No. 64. 

Transferring or Copying Printed Matter.— 
G. M. (Liverpool ).—'There is a process which has 
been used for transferring the printed picture to 
white wood for ornamental purposes. The wood is 
varnished, and when so far dried as to be only 
very slightly sticky, the engraving is well pressed 
or rubbed upon it. The varnish is too dry to adhere 
tightly to the clean paper, but it adheres closely to 
the printing ink, which is, of course, of the nature 
of oil paint. The paper can be moistened and re¬ 
moved, but an impression of the engraving will 
remain on the varnished wood. However, if a part 
of the ink is taken away, the blackness and solidity 
of the original painting must sutler. Would not 
some photographic process be really better? When 
the printed matter is on one sideof the paperonly, I 
presume that a copy might be transmitted to sensi¬ 
tised paper without the aid of a camera; or, with a 
camera, producing a good copy under any circum¬ 
stances would be easy.—S. W. 

Couch Scroll.— Kildona.—T o make measure¬ 
ments of couch scroll clearer, perhaps the artist 
intends it to mean 2 ft. 8 in. from the floor to top 
of the scroll, which would bo about right. The 
drawings are freehand. That from the top edge of 
box to top of scroll is about 20 in.; measured per¬ 
pendicular, 161 in. Nearly every couch made has a 
different pitch of scroll. 

Picks. — James. — I obtained my lock picks 
—which I find answer all ordinary purposes— 
from Messrs. Harding & Sons, Long Lane, London. 
—T. W. 

Chime Clocks.— J. S. (Edinburgh ).—The prices 
of chime clocks vary considerably, but the price of 
any ordinary chime bracket would be, in case com¬ 
plete, from £30 retail up to, say, £100, according to 
style of case, etc. I hardly know where the best 
piace would be to get the movements only, but I 
should think Smith & Co., Clerkenwell; Thwaites 
and Heed, Clerkenwell; Evans, Birmingham; or 
Potts, Leeds, would supply them.—A. B. C. 

Irregular Watch. — Novocastrex. — I am 
doubtful if I can assist you much without seeing 
and examining your watch, but I am rather inclined 
to think that it may have become magnetised. 
Have you been in or near any place where a dynamo 
is, or anything else electrical? If not, have you at 
any time given the watch a blow or let it fall, and 
so cracked either jewel-hole or end-stone of the staff", 
or flattened the end of staff pivots? If neither of 
these has happened to it, then has the mainspring 
been broken or changed?—A. B. C. 

Clock Tools. —A. B. X. ( Guildford ).—I do not 
think you can better either of these two—viz., 
Haswell & Sons. 49, Spencer Street, Clerkenwell; 
and Grimshaw & Co., 35, Goswell Road, Clerken¬ 
well. From these I get nearly, if not quite, every¬ 
thing I require. For clock wheels, trains, and 
castings, I go to I. Mayes, 55, Red Lion Street, 
Clerkenwell. Also, I occasionally do a little (tools, 
materials, etc.) with Hunt & Son, 21, Ironmonger 
Street, St. Luke's.—A. B. C. 

Bicycle Wheel.— Spring.—O f course he must 
spring the fo.rk wide enough to let one end free, 
when the other will pull out if the holes are not too 
tight-fitting on the shaft. The forks usually stand a 
considerable amount of spring outwards, and they 
have to be sprung in this way in order to get the 
wheel in.—A. S. P. 

Phonograph.— F. W. B. (Ardwick ).—The article 
on the Phonograph has not yet appeared. The 
iromise given had nothing to do with Edison’s 
atest instrument. Detailed 
instructions, with drawings, 
will be given, which will en¬ 
able anyone possessing suffi¬ 
cient mechanical ability to 
make a phonograph. It would 
certainly be a “breach of 
patent,” as you say, to make 
one of Edison’s instruments 
for your own use. The cylinders 
are not on sale, neither are 
the instruments; they are let 
out at a very high rental.— 

W. D. 

Chronometer — Auxiliary asks me to give 
him a few hints regarding the construction of a 
chronometer detent for a bar movement. I do not 
clearly understand what is meant by “ bar move¬ 
ment,” but, in any case, I am afraid it is almost 
impossible on paper to say anything sufficiently 
lucid about the construction of a chronometer 
detent to be practically useful. A chronometer 
detent is the most delicate and exact piece of 
mechanism in the whole range of watch making, 
and it is difficult to learn how to make it even when 
side by side with a tutor. But to explain how to 
construct such a piece of work merely by describing 
the process in print is, I am afraid, almost out of the 
question. I take it for granted that Auxiliary is 
acquainted with the shape and the purpose of a 

detent, and that he is anxious to make one himself. 
But I think he would be wise not to attempt to do 
so. It is the work of a chronometer maker, who is 
a specialist in this branch of the art, and it would 
be much more practical to send to a chronometer 
maker in case he requires a new detent applied to 
a watch. This, in fact, is what watchmakers of 
approved skill and experience usually do. It really 
requires a man who has all the appliances at hand 
and almost daily practice to construct a good detent. 
Of course, if Auxiliary is a watchmaker, and 
in the course of his business has to handle job 
chronometers, he will frequently be face to face 
with little difficulties which, perhaps, he cannot 
overcome. If, therefore, he will specifically state 
any of these difficulties, I shall then be very pleased 
to supply him with any information concerning 
the case he presents for my consideration.— Herr 

Rusty Milk Pan. —A. D. (New Cross). — The 
defect in your pan of rust spots, causing holes in an 
almost new article, is unfortunately one that it is 
difficult, if not impossible, to account for; it is 
known in the trade as “pilling,” or “rust spot.” 
There was some considerable discussion on the 
subject in the Ironmonger some years ago, between 
makers and users of tin plates, as to the cause of this 
serious defect, but, as far as my memory serves me, 
there was nothing definite arrived at, except that 
the best brands of plates were as liable to it as the 
commoner ones. Milk is a non-corroding fluid, and 
as a rule, articles used in dairy work last a very long 
time, so that it cannot be from the action of the 
liquid. I should think myself that it is caused 
through there being rust spots on the iron before 
being tinned, and that a rusting action continues 
after the process of tinning, eating the iron away 
between the two coats of tin. I can detect a plate 
that will “ pil ” ; the places are indicated by a few 
little marks like tiny pin-points. Select for your 
next bottom a perfectly smooth and brightly tinned 
plate, and have a gpod stout one; reject any that 
have little depressions in them, or the marks I have 
mentioned. Many ironmongers stock what are 
termed “ perfect ” or “ prime ” plates : these, being 
all selected singly, are certainly more likely to be 
free from defects than the others, which are termed 
“ wasters,” and with which the ordinary jobbing 
man repairs most articles brought to him. I do not 
see why you must have a new bottom every time 
you have a hole or two come; would not a tiny 
drop of solder over each hole meet your require¬ 
ments, especially as your pan is only a counter-pan, 
and gets no special wear or knocking about? As a 
final suggestion, try a thin tinned copper bottom : 
this will last a very long time indeed.—R. A. 

III. —Questions Submitted to Correspondents. 

Preserving Ice.— J. R. ( Middlesbrough) writes: 
—" How can I preserve about half a ton of ice 
athered here from a pond ? I want to keep it until 
uly or August next. I have at my disposal a wine- 
cellar 20 by 12 ft.” 

Knitting. —H. B. S. ( Lockwood ) writes :—“Will 
anyone tell me if the fancy check stockings which 
are usually understood to be hand-knit can be 
made by machine, and if so, by what machine? ” 

Leclanchc Battery— C. F. W. N. (Forest Gate) 
writes “ Will any reader kindly inform me where 
I may obtain a Leclanchd battery or any other small 
battery to work an alarum bell, and what it will 
cost ?” 

Fan Covering.— Phono w T rites“ I am cutting 
a fretwork fan, and shall be glad to be informed as 
to where I can get it covered.” 

Regulator. — W. P. B. ( Colnbrook ) writes:—“ Can 
any kind reader of Work instruct me as to making 
regulator for egg incubator ? ” 

IV. — Question Answered by a Correspondent. 

Newspaper Cart.— Essem writes, in reply to 

L. M. N. ( Liverpool ) (see page 765, Vol. II.);—“I 
send you herewith three rough designs for such a 
light conveyance as you ask for.” 

Newspaper Carts. 

V.— Brief Acknowledgments. 

Questions have been received from the following correspon¬ 
dents. and answers only awnit space in SHor, upon which there 
is great pressure :—H. L. D. ( Rochester ); Charlie; S. T.; 
It. C. (Sussex); W. E. ( Liverpool ); V. S. (Sheffield); A H. K. 
( Birmingham); J. R. N. (London. N.); Crank ; J. L. ; J. B. C. 
( Liverpool ); Scenery ; W. H. (Hants); Amateur; Novice; 
New Zealand; Belting; T. J. (Sheffield); Phcenix; 
vv. w. j. (Broughton ); X. Y. Z.; H. 0. i Whetstone ): A. s. \v. 
(London, N. W .); J. B. (Bury) ; C. M. J. (Perth) : I. S. ( Newcastle- 
ov^Tpne); Basso Proph.undo; R. B. (King's Lynn); J. W. 
(Kendal); G. P. ( Edinburgh ); A. F. M. (Glasgow); J. H. M. 
(Beau Parc); C. A. N. (Wolverhampton); Snobbery; A Snob 
in the County op Dorset: W. R. R. (Carlisle); J. W. B. 
( Wakefield); Amateur Electrician; W. G. S. (Manchester); 
Red Line; A. B. X. ( Guildford ); J. L. (Holloway , N.); R. C. 
( Exeter R. A. F. (Shepherd’s Bush); Joiner; H. K.D.iS outh 
Shields); W. C. 8. : E. J. C. (London , S.E.) ; J. T. (Nottingham); 
G. M. ( Brixton , S.W.); M. W. (Manchester); B. S. (Acton, W.); 
P. F. (Manchester). 


An Index to the Second Yearly Vol. of Work has 
been prepared, and can be obtained by order from 
all booksellers, price Id. It is included in Part 24 . 

Cheap Edition. Price 9s. 

Electricity in the Service of Man. 

A Popular and Practical Treatise on the 
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Cassell & Company, Limited, Ludgate Hill, London. 

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AVork—April 18, 1891.] 




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Vol. III. —Xo. 110.] SATURDAY, APRIL 25, 1891. [Price One Penny. 



Electro-Gilding Brooches , Chains, Rings, etc. [ work - Apni25 , i89i . 




Designs for Butter-Dish, Medallion, 

and Spandrels, with Instructions. 
There are few arts that are more fasci¬ 
nating in themselves, more useful for deco¬ 
rative purposes, or better suited to the 
requirements, power, and resources of ama¬ 
teur wood workers of either sex than wood 
carving; and it is par excellence an art that 
women can take up, and in which they 
may attain considerable proficiency. I 
think I may assume without fear of contra¬ 
diction that every amateur who takes up 
any manual art likes to have the work of 
his or her hands, as the case may be, on view 
as frequently and prominently as possible, 
and that to this end, designs that are ap¬ 
plicable to the elaboration of household 
furniture, or the ornamentation of articles 
used on and for the table, are perhaps more 
acceptable than any other. With this view 
I have supplied, at the Editor’s request, 
four designs for butter-dish frames, or 
wooden discs or platters, hollowed out in 
the centre to a sufficient extent to receive 
and hold a shallow glass dish for butter, 
to be obtained at most shops in which glass 
and earthenware are sold. 

Of these designs, two are arranged on con¬ 
ventional lines, or, in other words, exhibit a 
natural object—in this case the buttercup 
and its foliage—conventionally treated ; a 
third, a seventeenth century design, and the 
fourth a design in Italian style. In treating 
the butter-dish, the designs for which it 
must be understood are confined to the 
circle in which are placed Figs. 1, 2,3, and 4, 
the design selected having to be carried in 
continuance of the portion given, right 
round the sloping edge of the dish, care 
must be taken, first, to turn, or get turned, a 
disc suitable for the purpose in view, in 
accordance with the section given in Fig. 5; 
and having obtained this, to ground to 
section given for carving very slightly at 
the sides and deepest in the centre, or the 
effect will not be so good. Lime or syca¬ 
more may be the material used for the dish, 
or, better still, holly or Italian walnut. 
Unlike bread platters, the frames do not 
require washing, which 'spoils the colour of 
the wood. The glass, being loose, can be 
removed whenever it is necessary to wash 
it, and a brushing with beeswax only is 
all that is required to keep the frame in 

As the Editor has a deeply rooted objection 
to anything in the form of waste, whether 
of space in a page of the Magazine or other¬ 
wise, and strictly charged me to avoid any 
indiscretion of the kind, I have given in the 
space occupied by the glass in the butter 
frame a design which has no connection 
whatever with the butter-dish itself, and 
which is intended as a medallion for the 
centre of a box-lid, drawer front, panel, etc. 
Thjs subject, which is shown in Fig. 6, should 
be grounded out to the depth of \ in., or 
carved in high relief. Amateurs must ever 
bear in mind that the higher the relief the 
greater will be their difficulty, unless they 
understand modelling. I may remark that 
all grounds may be stamped, punches in 
different patterns being supplied for this 

The designs given in Figs. 7 and 8 are 
suitable for corners of panels, or may be 
utilised—as indeed may all the designs— 

for repousse work. The whole as placed 
in the page can be used for a square 
panel, one design, as a matter of course, 
being used for the four corners, and one of 
the four designs given for the ring encircling 
the central medallion. Moreover, spandrels 
should be selected to suit the conventional 
or natural design selected for the ring sur¬ 
rounding the centre. 

Further, the wood carver must under¬ 
stand that the same designs will apply, with 
necessary modifications, for borders, frieze, 
uprights, and mouldings, flat or on the round. 
If flat, the ground should be of the same 
depth all through. Lastly, they may be en¬ 
larged to suit the requirements of wood 
carvers to any size, due care being taken to 
preserve the proportibn between the different 
parts of the designs. A little tasty know¬ 
ledge of drawing and skill in adaptation is 
all that is necessary to secure their success¬ 
ful application to the purpose in view. 




Imperfect Electro-Gilding— How to Clean the 
Trinkets before Gilding them—Doctoring 
Soldered Joints— How to Make an Alka¬ 
line Coppering Solution — Use of the 
Coppering Solution — Scratch-Brushing 
and Finishing Electro - Gilt Articles— 
Polishing Electro-Gilt Trinkets. 

Imperfect Electro-Gilding.—We may take 
a brass ring from a man’s finger, and, seeing 
that it is bright and clean, conclude it will 
not need cleaning before hanging it in the 
gilding bath. We therefore merely wipe 
the ring with a scrap of rag, tie a bit of 
copper wire to it, and hang it in the gilding 
bath. In a few moments it has received a 
coat of gold all over, and bears the appear¬ 
ance of a golden ring. We then rinse it in 
warm water to free it from the cyanide 
salts, wipe it dry with a rag, and hand it 
back to the wearer, gilded. This looks very 
well at first sight, and vast numbers of brass 
rings thus gilt are sold by cheap Jacks to 
gullible youths and maidens. Rub the ring 
a little with the palm of the hand. The 
very thin coat of gold can be thus rubbed 
off in a few moments, leaving the bare brass 
plainly visible. All trinkets may be thinly gilt 
in a similar manner, and the thin coat of gold 
can be as easily rubbed off. If the ring or 
any other similar article is left in the gold 
bath for a few minutes, it will take on a 
brown coat instead of one having a golden 
tint. This brown coat is merely the matt 
appearance assumed by electro-deposited 
gold, and this will entirely disappear on 
brushing the coat with a brush of fine brass 
wire kept lubricated with stale beer. But 
on brushing in this way an imperfectly 
cleaned ring as it comes from a person’s 
finger, we may notice that the ring assumes 
a brassy appearance, because the gold went 
on loosely over the sweaty parts of the ring, 
and these loose particles of gold were readily 
detached from the imperfectly cleaned spots 
by the wire brush, because they did not 
adhere to the brass, but only to the film of 
dirt on the brass. This non-adherence of 
electro-deposited coats becomes more appa¬ 
rent with thick coats than with thin ones. 
To get a perfectly adherent coat of electro- 
deposited metal, we must thoroughly clean 
the surface on which we intend depositing 
the coat. Let the ring, or brooch, or pin, or 
coin appear to be ever so clean to the eye, 
it must have contracted a trace of animal 
grease, or sweat, if it has been handled or 

worn and this film of animal matter must 
be taken off before we can deposit a coat of 
adherent metal on the article. 

Cleaning the Trinkets. —All animalmatter, 
such as grease, oil, and sweat, may be 
loosened from the surface of metal by 
boiling it in a solution of strong alkali, such 
as soda, potash, or ammonia. A strong 
solution of washing soda may be used if 
nothing better can be obtained. Pearlasli 
is a better cleanser ; American pearlasli, or 
potash, is still stronger ; and the best 
cleansers (in general use by professional 
platers) are commercial caustic soda and 
caustic potash. A piece of either of these, 
about the size of a walnut, dissolved in half 
a pint of hot water, will be enough to clean 
a dozen or two of small trinkets or chains. 
First dissolve the potash or soda in hot 
water, then string a few trinkets on about. 
6 in. of No. 20 or No. 22 copper wire, and 
swill the bunch for a few minutes in the 
hot liquor. Transfer from the hot caustic- 
solution to some clean warm water, and well 
rinse the trinkets in this, to clear off the 
loosened grease. When the caustic liquid 
is cool, put it in a closely stoppered bottle 
to exclude the air, and thus preserve it for 
future use. After the grease has been 
loosened, if there is no corrosion on the 
article, it must be briskly brushed with a 
little whiting, or prepared chalk, or finely 
powdered pumice, again rinse’d, then hung 
in the gilding solution to receive its coat of 
gold. If the trinkets are corroded, the 
corrosion must be removed in a pickle 
made of two parts sulphuric acid, two parts 
water, and one part nitric acid, after which 
the articles must be rinsed in clean water. 
Chains of a strong pattern may be rolled 
up in a mass between the two hands 
with a little whiting, and rubbed until 
polished; but those of more delicate con¬ 
struction may not be treated in this way, 
but must be carefully brushed. Filigree 
work will require very careful treatment in 
cleaning, and the gold should be deposited 
on it with low battery power, to prevent 
browning the deposit, since it canuot be 
well brushed bright afterwards. Long 
chains of a delicate pattern should be 
threaded on a long thin copper wire passed 
through the links at intervals of from 2 in. 
to 3 in., or the wire should be wound spirally 
around the chain, to assist in conducting the 
current to all parts equally. Ear-ring and 
brooch pendants made of metal beads strung 
on silk should be suspended in a small 
basket of platinum gauze, in order that the 
beads may be placed in connection with a 
conductor of electricity, since silk will not 
conduct the electric current. This class of 
goods should not be put in the caustic 
solution, as this will dissolve silk, and cause 
the beads to drop off. It is also important 
to note here that all trinkets containing 
hair, photos, and other material likely to be 
injured by the hot gilding solution, must 
not be put in the caustic solution until the 
hair, photo, etc., has been removed. It is 
also advisable to remove glass and stones 
liable to injury from this cause, and to re-set 
them when the work is finished. Trinkets 
made of aluminium only will not receive a 
coat of gold, but will dissolve in caustic 
solution and in the gilding solution. The 
brush used in brushing articles before gild¬ 
ing may be an old, but clean, tooth-brush, 
or any clean brush with stiff bristles. 

Whilst finishing the articles, we shall note 
the condition of their surface. If this has 
been scratched, ordented, or bruised, or pitted 
with corrosion before it was taken in hand 
to be gilded, the marks of injury cannot be 

"Work—April 25,1891,] 

The Violin: How to Make It. 


obliterated by polishing and burnishing 
afterwards. All such blemishes must be 
removed before the articles are cleaned, if 
they are to be removed at all, and this can 
only be done by hand, either by pressing 
out the dents with suitable pieces of wood, 
or removing the scratches with a fine file 
and burnishing the filed spot. All repairs 
must be done first, as it will be difficult 
to repair electro-gilt goods when finished. 

Doctoring Soldered Joints. —If there are 
any joints made with soft solder, these will 
be difficult to coat with gold. If they are 
small, they may be doctored up in the 
following manner :—Get a piece of blue- 
stone (sulphate of copper) about the size of 
a broad bean, wet it, and rub on the soldered 
joint for a minute or so, then touch the 
joint with a piece of bright iron or steel. 
Both the iron and the joint will take on a 
coat of copper and cover the solder. Rinse 
the joint in clean water, and hang the 
article in the gilding solution, when it will 
take a coat of gold. 

If there are several soldered joints or 
much soft solder about the article to be 
gilded, or if it is desired to coat a pewter 
medal, lead cast, zinc ornament, piece of 
tinned iron, or article composed wholly or 
partly of iron, tin, lead, or sine, it will be 
advisable to first coat it entirely with copper 
in an alkaline coppering solution, made up 
in the following manner:— 

Alkaline Coppering Solution. —Dissolve 
one ounce of copper sulphate (blue-stone) 
in one pint of hot rain-water. Add strong 
liquid ammonia to this, in small quantities 
at a time, and stir well between each 
addition of ammonia until the green pre¬ 
cipitate first formed by the ammonia has 
all dissolved, and the liquid assumes a 
beautiful blue tint. Then add cyanide of 
potassium dissolved in water until the blue 
tint disappears, and the liquid has the 
appearance of old ale. It should now be 
heated to_boiling point; then set aside to 
cool in the open air, and not be used until 
the next day. At least three cells of a 
battery will be needed to deposit copper 
from this solution, and perhaps four ceils, 
arranged in series, may be required to force 
the copper on a soldered joint; but the 
copper thus deposited will be firm and 
adherent, and may be polished. This is 
not the case with thin coats of copper 
deposited from acid solutions of copper. 
XJse a piece of good copper, such as electro¬ 
type copper, as an anode in the coppering 
solution. If a crust of green salt forms on 
this whilst working, add a little liquid 
ammonia to the solution ; but if a blue 
crust forms on the anode, add a little cyanide 
of potassium to the solution. A mere film 
of copper will be all that will be required 
on the article to protect it from the action 
of the gilding solution. If the film does not 
go on evenly in a few minutes, take the 
article out of the bath, and briskly brash it 
with a brush made of brass wire, then 
return it to the coppering solution. This 
solution may be worked cold or hot, as may¬ 
be desired ; but the deposit is brighter from 
a hot solution than from a cold one. It is 
not only used in coppering articles to be 
gilded, but also to coat iron, tin, zinc, lead, 
pewter, and similar metals, before they are 
silver-plated, since silver will not adhere to 
those metals. It is also useful to give an 
18-carat gold appearance to gilded or pure 
gold goods. This is done by merely flashing 
a film of copper over the surface when 
finished, then flashing a film of gold on 
this, rinsing at once in hot water, and drying 
off in clean sawdust. By careful working 

in this way, a clever workman can get any 
desired tint of gold on the surface. 

Finishing Electro-Gilt Articles. •— On 
taking strongly gilt articles out of the 
electro-gilding solution, they will be found 
to be coated with a brown powder. This 
powder is finely divided gold in a crystalline 
condition, the mass of crystals absorbing, 
instead of reflecting, the light. To remove 
this brown appearance, the articles are 
briskly brushed with a brush made of fine 
brass wire specially drawn for the purpose, 
and named scratch-brush wire. Scratch- 

Fig. 4 .— Scratch-Knotmade of Scratch-Brush Wire. 

brushes are made up in various forms, to 
suit the kind of work to be brushed by 
them ; but the usual form of the ordinary 
scratch-brush is that of a small boxwood 
cylinder with bunches of wire sticking out 
on all sides. This is mounted on the spindle 
of a lathe, and revolved at a high rate of 
speed, whilst the work to be scratch-brushed 
is held to the brush by the workman. The 
ends of the brass wires wear down the 
points of the gold crystals, and render the 
whole surface smooth. To prevent the brass 
from wearing off in the shape of dust and 
cutting the gold coat, the brush is kept 
lubricated with stale beer, and is covered with 
a hood, to prevent the lubricant from being 
splashed over other things in the workshop. 
When a plater has not a suitable lathe, the 
scratch-brushes are made like narrow plate- 
brushes or a tooth-brush with a wooden back, 
and are manipulated by hand. Amateur 
platers and gilders with small means are 
content to use scratch-knots made by them¬ 
selves out of bunches of scratch-brush wire, 
as shown at Fig. 4. The wire is sold in 
knots: i.e., small hanks, in three grades— 
heavy, medium, and fine—at prices ruled by 
the market price of brass wire. The fine 
wire is most suitable for gold work. Get a 
knot of fine scratch-brush wire and a few 
yards of No. 20 soft copper wire. Fasten 
one end of the copper wire to a nail or hook 
driven in a wood post, lay the hank of brass 
wire on the other end of the copper wire, 
and wind this tightly around the hank until 
all the middle of the hank has been covered 
with the close coils of copper wire, then 
tuck in the free end, and fasten it off. Next 
cut off the loops at each end with a pair of 
sharp shears or with a sharp chisel, whilst 
resting the loop on a block of wood, and 
thus form two brushes, one at each end. 
First rub the freshly-cut ends on a rough 
stone, to dull the points of the wire before 
using the brush on an electro-gilt surface. 
When the ends are too much burred by use, 
cut them off with a sharp chisel, and unwind 
the binding wire a few coils at a time, as 
needed, when the brushes wear short. With 
even such scratch-brushes as these, some 
ood work can be done by hand, but it cam 
e done more expeditiously with a revolving 
scratch-brush. Rest the work on a sloping 
piece of board over a vessel placed so as to 
catch the drips of stale beer, and work the 
brush from left to right, away from the 
workman, going over all the surface until 
all the brown appearance has been removed. 
Do not leave any of this in the crevices. 

Lastly, rinse the work in warm water, and 
dry it in hot boxwood sawdust. Then polish 
with dry rouge on a plate brush, or burnish 
with highly polished steel burnisher, or one 
of highly polished bloodstone, using newly 
made soapsuds as a lubricant. 



Special Tools — Pubfling Gauge — Knife — 
Router—Iron Cramps—Planes—Appliance 
for Bending Ribs—Thicknessing Gauge— 
Steel Scrapebs — Hand Screws — Spring 
Dividers, etc.—Carver’s Screw—Files and 
Gouges—Jointing— Trueing up—Marking 
Back and Belly fob Ribs—Bending Rib 
Strips—Gluing Ribs—Planing down Ribs 
—Marking Back and Belly from Ribs— 
Sawing out Back and Belly. 

Special Tools.—In addition to the ordinary 
tools which are found in any joiner’s shop 
(both professional and amateur), such as 
smooth plane, trying plane, saws, chisels, and 
the like, there are some special tools which 
would not be found there, and of which I 
will give a short description ; but from the 
illustrations my readers may gather, perhaps 
better than from any description I might 
give, the manner in which some of these 
things are “ fixed up.” 

Purfling Gauge. —The purfling gauge or 
cutter (a. Fig. 5) is a steel shell 4)- in. long 
by f in. broad and J in. thick, with a pro¬ 
jecting end half an inch long and - 5 % in. in 
diameter; carrying a brass roller, which 
brings the thickness' to f in. Half an inch 
from the bottom of the shell are two thumb¬ 
screws, one in each side; these are for 
adjusting and fixing the steel blades or 
cutters which run longitudinally through the 
instrument. I have ground the cutters in 
my gauge to “spear” points, and they 
answer very well. 

Knife. —b is a knife such as is sold by 
stationers for erasing, but is ground to a 
long keen point. Two or three of these 
should be at hand; they are used for 
deepening the groove in which to lay the 
purfiing, for trimming the sound holes, and 
many minor purposes, and should be kept 
as sharp as the proverbial razor. 

Router.- —The router (c) is a small bent 
chisel with which the piece marked by the 
purfling tool is taken out. 

Iron Cramps.- —Two forms of iron cramps 
are shown in d and E ; six of the smaller are 
required for fixing the ribs on the model. F 
is a cramp which is sold by the dealers for 
fixing the back and belly to the ribs. G is 
one'of my own design and make, and is, I 
consider, a great deal better than f. It is 
lined with cork on both the inner sides, and 
cannot possibly injure the most delicate 
instrument. The small cramp (p) is used 
for fixing linings in the waists ; the other 
linings need no cramps. 

Planes. —1 is a small oval iron plane, 
with toothed blade, slightly round both in 
length and width, j is a similar plane, but 
with flat bottom. This is the most useful 
little tool for a number of purposes. 

Appliances for Bending Ribs. —The appa¬ 
ratus for bending ribs (k) is of totally 
different construction to the one generally 
used; it is a piece of f in. iron pipe, cut 
open all the length, and is heated by gas, as 
the illustration shows. The tube is fixed in 
an iron vice, and the gas heater is suspended 
from it by wires passing round each end of 
the tube. 

Thicknessing Gauge. — The thicknessing 
gauge, or automatic measurer, is one of the 
most important tools in a fiddle-maker’s 
“kit”; the one here given (l) is my own 
make, but was, like the bending apparatus, 
invented by my esteemed tutor, Mr. Wm. 
Tarr, of Manchester, now in his eighty-third 
year, and who is, I understand, the oldest 
living English violin maker, three of his 208 
double basses having been made in 1829, 


The Violin: How to Make It. 

[Work—April 23, 1891. 

This gauge is extremely simple in its action, 
gives the most accurate measurements, and 
is not likely to get out of order. The small 
point of the gauge being held lightly under¬ 
neath the back or belly, the thickness of 
which you desire to know, the ivory rule, the 
point of which traverses the surface, shows 
it at a glance in thirty-seconds of an inch. 

Steel Scrapers. —M and N are steel scrapers, 
having one fiat edge and three different round 
ones. The edges should be ground squai’e 
across, the scraper placed edgeways in a vice, 
and sharpened by drawing the polished back 
of a gouge, or a proper “ scraper sharpener,” 
along the edges, at an angle of about 60°. 
A scraper sharpener is a piece of in. round 
polished steel, and is fixed in an ordinary 
tool handle. When the scrapers become 
dull, draw the sharpener flat along the sides; 
this turns the “burr” to the edge again, 
then sharpen them in the vice as at first. 

Hand Screws. —Hand screws (o) are often 
wanted ; two or three sizes should always 
be in the work-room. 

Spring Dividers, etc. —AtQ is shown a pair 
of spring dividers, which are used for mea¬ 
suring distances very finely. The spring 
callipers (r) will be very useful, especially 
when finishing the neck. A pair of strong 
steel compasses (s) must be obtained. Never 
use the dividers for any purpose for which 
the compasses are intended. 

Carver's Screw. —The point of the car¬ 
ver’s screw (t) is to be firmly screwed into a 
carving block, and the stem passed through 
a hole in the bench, underneath which the 
wing nut is screwed on the stem. The 
carving block maybe turned in any position, 
and, by tightening the nut, instantly made 
fast again. 

Small Square.—A small square (u) is an 
absolute necessity, being in frequent requi¬ 
sition for such purposes as squaring the rib 
ends, testing the truth of blocks, etc. 

Fine-Toothed Plane. — A fine - toothed 
plane, such as cabinet makers use for veneer¬ 
ing, is frequently required, more especially 
if you use sycamore, which is strong in 
“ figure.” 

Files and Gouges. —Several half-round 
files, different sizes, and of varying degrees 
of fineness, will be necessary, as also the 
“ omnipotent ” gouges, without which we 
cannot possibly get along. The “ sweeps,” 
or curves, given in Fig. 5 will be sufficient 
for our requirements, but a fiddle maker, it 
may be said, cannot have too many kinds of 

Oilstones. —The oilstones for sharpening 
the gouges, both inside and outside, will, of 
course, be essential, as well as a good oblong 
oilstone set in case for sharpening plane 
knives and chisels. 

Shell Bits, Cutting Gauge, etc. —Some violin 
makers use, for cutting the circular ex¬ 
tremities of the sound holes, steel cylindrical 
shell bits, with diameters of ) in. and ^ in. 
respectively. These holes may also be 
bored by the same sizes of centre-bits, but 
great care must be taken not to use too 
much pressure, as the sound boles lose much 
of their beauty if the sharp corners be 
broken off. A cutting gauge, for reducing 
the edges of back and belly to their proper 
thickness, and a slightly tapered shell-bit 
for boring the peg holes in the handle, will 
also be wanted. 

Jointing.—We have now all the wood, 
models, and tools ready, and can com¬ 
mence our work by jointing the back 
and the belly, the pieces for which should 
be cut through as at b, Fig. 1 (page 4, 
Yol. III.) ; the insides of each piece 
should be planed quite true— always plane 

the bach across the grain, otherwise you will 
jerk pieces out of it ; then placing the true 
side downwards on the shooting board, with 
the trying plane make along the thick edge 
a perfectly square joint. This, to an un¬ 
practised hand, will be a matter of great 
difficulty, and an amateur would be well ad¬ 
vised to get this process done by a cabinet 
maker who is accustomed to making fine 
joints. There is so little wood to spare, that 
if you should be so unfortunate as to make a 
bad joint you may not have room to remedy 
the defect. When both pieces are planed so 
true that you cannot see between them when 
placed together and held up to the light, hold 
both edges before the fire till quite warm, 
then fasten one piece in the bench vice 
with the planed side towards you ; place the 
other piece with the true edge touching it, 
and very quickly go over both edges with 
fresh glue, very hot; now put the loose 
piece in position, and rub it slowlybackwards 
and forwards, pressing firmly the while. 
When you have rubbed out as much glue 
as possible, which will be known by the 
amount of suction that ensues, and the 
pieces are quite even, sponge the joint both 
sides with hot water and remove the jointed 
piece from the vice ; put it aside to set, and 
proceed to joint the other pieces. Whilst 
the back and belly are laid away to harden, 
take the inside model, and into each of the 
six recesses glue a piece of the 1 in. pine, 
width to suit, and rather longer than the 
depth of model; use only a small quantity of 
glue for the back of each block, as they will 
have to be forced out again when the ribs are 
finished ; but for safety, cramp them into 
position with your iron cramps, and put the 
whole in a warm place to dry. After your 
joints are thoroughly hard (twelve hours 
at least should be allowed for this purpose) 
you must plane the flat sides of each piece 
quite true every way—lengthwise, crosswise, 
and diagonally. 

Truing up. —For “truing up” the back, I 
use a plane of the same size as a “jack” 
plane, but bearing a coarse toothed iron, 
almost vertical ; this was made to my own 
drawings by Yarvill, of York ; and if any 
reader wishes to have a similar one, I will 
supply details. For truing the belly use 
the trying plane. 

Marking Back and Belly for Ribs. —The 
back and belly are now ready for marking 
from the ribs, and as these are not made, we 
must get them together. 

Take the inside model into which the six 
blocks have been glued, and plane these 
down to the level of the model, but take 
care not to injure the latter in doing so. 
With a straight-edge continue the centre' 
lines on the model, across each of the end 
blocks. Place the inside pattern to the 
centre line, and even with the model all 
round, next carefully trace the outline 
on the blocks; now turn the pattern and 
mark the other blocks in the same way. 
This done, write on each block, inside the 
marks, figures corresponding with those on 
the model, and repeat the whole process on 
the other side. With gouge No. 4 cut out 
the hollows in the insides of waist blocks ; 
if you find that the wood is cutting in¬ 
wards, turn the model over, and cut from 
the other side. Do not cut within the 
marks, and carve only the insides of waist 
blocks at present. Make twenty small cuts 
rather than one too deep. You should now 
fix the model edgeways in a wood vice, 
as you did when trimming it up after being 
sawed out, and, with the round side of a file 
to fit the sweep, take out all the inequalities 
which may have been made in carving, and 

make the hollows square across. The filing 
gives a better gluing surface for attaching 
the ribs. 

Bending Rib Strips.— The next operation 
is to prepare the rib strips for bending. 
With one of the iron cramps fasten one of 
the strips by its extreme end to the bench, 
and place a small piece of wood or cork 
under the cramp, so that it will not damage 
the rib ; and with the veneer plane work 
from the cramp to the end of rib, and take 
off the rough part of the wood. Now loose 
the cramp, turn the rib end for end, and 
plane the part which the cramp prevented 
you getting to previously. When all the 
strips have been treated in the same way, 
fix them on the bench again, and with a 
fiat scraper, which must be very sharp, take 
out all the plane marks. Use the scraper 
diagonally, to cross the figure of the wood. 

Divide the strips with a sharp knife, and 
the square into lengths of 5), 7-), and 9J in. 
One strip will make two top or 7-) in. ribs ; 
the other two will each make one bottom 
and one waist rib. The next process is 
one which demands both steadiness, care, 
and patience, as accidents are very likely to 
happen, and another rib may have to be 
planed up. Fix the bending apparatus 
(k, Fig. 5) in an iron vice, attach an india- 
rubber tube from the gas to the heater, 
and light the gas, but observe that it does 
not light at the wrong place. Turn the gas 
very low, and when the tube is sufficiently 
hot to scorch very slightly a piece of paper 
held on it, the ribs may be bent as shown 
in Fig. 6 . 

Begin with the waist ribs, and make sure 
that the figure of all the ribs matches in 
inclination; it is better to mark each rib to 
the blocks before bending any of them. Do 
not hurry the bending; use only gentle 
pressure ; when hot enough, the ribs may be 
bent any way you wish. It is safer to have 
near you a small bucket with cold water and 
a sponge in it, and if the tube gets too hot you 
can then cool it a little. Frequently try the 
waist ribs in course of bending into the 
places already prepared for their reception. 
The others you may bend to fit the inside 

Gluing Ribs. —Now make a “caul” or 
small block of wood (the 1 in. pine will 
do very well) to fit each of the hollows, 
and mark them to their places ; then put 
them on a stove or near the fire to get 
hot; this causes the glue to set much 
sooner. Lay a coat of glue on one waist 
block, place the hot “caul” against it, 
and putting the end of an iron cramp 
into the hole exactly facing the hollow, 
cramp it close up, but see that both 
edges are a little “proud” of the model. 
You will not be able to glue both _ends of 
each rib at one operation; let one’end set 
before gluing the other, as the cramps 
might be in the way of each other. 

When all the ends of waist ribs are fast, 
in proper positions, you should with a flat 
toothing plane cut the ribs down level with 
the model. 

Now carve the remaining blocks in the 
same way as you did the waists, but you 
must cut through the end of each waist 
rib as well as the block to which it is 
attached, otherwise a nasty joint may result. 
Correctly file all the six blocks and make 
“cauls” to fit each, then mark them to 
their places. Glue and fix each of the 
corners, leaving top and bottom until the 
last. There is no necessity to make a joint 
with the ribs at the top, as both ends will 
be cut away when you fix the neck. If the 
bottom joint of ribs is not good, the defect 

■Work—April 25,1891. ] 

The Violin : How to Make It. 


may be remedied by inserting a piece of 
purfling or fancy wood, but this must be 
exactly true to the centre mark. I have a 
weakness for putting in a narrow strip of 
I ebony, and think it looks very well when 
finished : the bottom nut or rest crossing the 
top of this piece makes a “ capital ” T. 

Planing down Ribs. — When the ribs 
are firmly set you should proceed to plane 
them down to the model, and finish them 
in the following way: set your compasses 
to 3f in., and from the point where the 
short line crosses the centre line of model, 
describe a circle, whose circumference gives 
the points at which the ribs should be 
square across. Fasten the model edge¬ 
wise in the vice, and file each curve 
square across and free from inequalities, 
and make the entire set of ribs an equal 
thickness. After this has been nicely done, 
scrape them over, and give three or four 
courses of sand-paper, the last one very fine, 

Fig. 6.—Stages of oending Waist Ribs (half size). 

back, and trace around it with lead pencil; 
turn the pattern over, and complete the out¬ 
line. Next place the model, back downwards, 
exactly true to centre joint, and an equal 
distance all round from the pencil outline 

must therefore be continued across the 

Sawing out Bade and Belly. —Your next 
business is to saw these two shapes out 
with the bow or a fret-saw, keeping just 
outside the pencil mark. With the com¬ 
passes draw a line all round the upper 
or bevelled sides of both back and belly, 
| of an inch from the edge. Now set 
your cutting gauge to T \ in. and cut a 
strong line that distance from the flat side, 
all round both back and belly. With a 
dovetail or fine tenon-saw, and gouges, cut 
away the rectangular piece thus described, 
and afterwards level it with a flat oval 
plane (j, Fig. 5) and files, finishing it in. 
thick. The model, with the ribs on, 
should again be placed in the position 
marked from them on the back, cramped as 
before, and fixed in the vice, thus fastening 
securely the back and the ribs together. 
The edges should now be reduced with files 

Fig. 5.—Some Special Tools used in Violin Making—A, Purfling Gauge or Cutter ; B, Knife ; C, Router ; D, E, Iron Cramps ; F, Cramp for fixing Back 
and Belly to Ribs ; G, Cramp of Writer's Design ; H, Wood Cramp ; I, J, Small Iron Planes ; K, Apparatus for bending Ribs ; L, Thicknessing Gauge ; 
M, N, Steel Scrapers ; 0, Hand Screws; P, Small Cramp ; Q, Spring Dividers ; R, Spring Callipers; S, Steel Compasses; T, Carver’s Screw; U, Small 
Square; V, Sweeps or Curves of necessary Gouges. 

and each one must be used on a cork rubber; 
work .lengthways of the ribs, and preserve 
the edges absolutely square and sharp. 
Now square a light centre line down the 
bottom of the ribs, and midway of this line 
make a puncture which will show the 
position of end pin, the hole for which 
should then be bored with a i in. bit. 

M a r le i n g 
Back and 
Belly from 
Ribs. — The 
ribs are now 
ready, and the 
back and belly 
can be marked 
out from them, 
but first place 
(Fig. 2, p. 5) 
the outside 
pattern to the 
joint of the 

already traced, and fasten it in that position 
with an iron cramp at each end. Now cor¬ 
rectly trace on the back the outline of the 
ribs with a fine pointed marker, and then 
remove the model, and mark out the belly 
in the same way as the back; but as 
the “tab” or “button” on the latter will 
not be required on the belly, the outline 

until there is a perfectly even projection 
over the ribs of ith of an inch. _ Be.particular 
to make the corners match in direction as 
shown in Fig. 7. Remove the model from 
the vice, and take the cramps off; now open 
the compasses to T 7 g in., place one point on 
the joint of the tab \ in. from the rib line, 
and describe a semicircle : this gives the 

form the tab 
Avill bear, or 
nearly so. In 
Fig. 8 will be 
given a back 
with edge re¬ 
duced and 
ready for pur¬ 
fling, of which 
operation I 
shall give an 
account in my 
next paper on 
violin making. 


Venetian Blinds. 

[Work—April 25,1891. 

V i: NETS A X ELI N 1) S. 


Procedure—Material—Method of Cutting— 
Contents of a Bundle of 100 ft. Super.— 
Long Laths cannot be Planed using an 
Ordinary Bench Stop, but by Tension, held 
by Hooks — Holes about one-fifth from 
Ends of Lath—Number of Tapes must be 
Two or More for over 4 ft.—Lap of Laths 
—Tapes or Ladders—How set Out—Stuff 
for Heads and Thick Laths—Adjustable 
Angle—How Secured—Pulleys and Cords 
—Rollers and Webs—Painting and Var¬ 

These blinds, once so popular, and likely 
again to become so, are of very simple con¬ 
struction, though the opportunity of making- 
mistakes is greater than in almost any other 
work with which 1 am acquainted. Like 
all other work where there is a constant 
recurrence of the same forms or the same 
operations, it is necessary to observe routine 
methods, and to divide the work up into as 
many separate portions as possible, each 
portion requiring but- few tools, and each 
also being easily mastered. It is not neces¬ 
sary to give these varied operations to 
separate workers, though in shops where 
boys are employed, they, of course, do the 

wood as smooth as possible, and not to 
make deep furrows, to need much planing 
out. A thin saw wastes less wood than a 
thick one, which is an additional reason for 
its adoption. 

The laths thus cut are sold in bundles of 
100 ft. superficial, or 480 it. run, which is 
the same ; 12 ft. long and 21 in. wide being 
equal to 2\ ft. superficial; forty of such pieces, 
therefore, are equal to 100 ft. superficial. 

The saw-mills people now usually also sell 
the laths planed and the edges rounded. 
This formerly, and not so long ago, added 
3s. 6'd. to the cost per 100 ft. ; competition 
and machinery have reduced this of late 
years,.but the laths are still advertised as 
“ hand-planed ”; and sometimes they are. 

When planed in long lengths, blind laths 
are too thin to resist the strain of planing, 
so they are held by two or three brads or 
wire nails driven into the rear end of the 
bench nearly as far as the heads, which 
are cut off, and the remainder filed to 
the necessary shape. The laths pressed 
down on these hooks will hold well enough 
for a finely-set plane to work well upon them. 
The edges are rounded with a plane made 
for the purpose, but failing the special tool, 
an ordinary I bead plane will do well. 

It is customary to have three tapes, and 
consequently three holes and cords, to all 
blinds over 4 ft. wide ; and Venetian blinds 
for shop windows may well have four, or 
even more, tapes and cords, according to 
their size. 

As a Venetian blind must be fixed to¬ 
gether in such a way that it can be drawn | 
up, and so that the laths lap or cover each 
other, laths 24 in. wide are usually placed 
2 in. apart—six to the foot. Tapes or webs, 1 
with, cross-pieces sewn at intervals, are j 

These tapes, or ladders, as they are j 
sometimes called, are made of a webbing j 
intended for the purpose ; and before Carr’s 
patent woven web appeared in the market, ! 
the making of the tapes was the great diffi¬ 
culty in the way of beginner or amateur, 
but now the patent woven ladder webs make 
blind making possible to anyone who can | 
use wood-working tools and a paint-brush. 

To those who wish to know how the 
blind makers of a former time managed, 

I may say that the tapes were tacked 
temporarily on a board, to the edge of 
which a strip of wood was affixed. This j 
strip we divided carefully with compasses 
into parts 2 in. between the lines, and 

Tig-1 • 

Tig. 3. 

Tig. 5 . 

Fig. 1.—Section of Pulley Lath through Pulleys. 
Fig. 2.—Underside of Pulley Lath, showing 
Pulley and Roller. Fig. 3.—Section of Pulley 
Lath through Roller. Fig. 4.—Section through 
both Pulley and Roller, showing Position of 
Cord (B) and Spacing Block (A), and Cord (C) 
to alter Angle of Lath. Fig. 5.—Right-Hand 
End of Lath, showing Relative Positions and 
Sizes of Mortises—B, Centre Line of Cord ; X, 
Front; Y, Back. 

simplest portions of the work; but it is 
necessary to divide the work up into parts, 
and do each part before another is begun, 
or confusion will result from the want of 

The wood of which Venetian blinds are 
made is American pine—that variety which, 
when exposed to the air, takes a pinkish 
tinge being preferable; and it should be 
free of knots, shakes, sap, or resin—resin, 
that is, that looks as if a knife had been in¬ 
serted into the wood, and the opening made 
thereby filled with a glutinous stopping. 

The qualifications of pine for this work 
are its lightness, straightness of grain, and 
ease of working, and its standing the heat of 
the sun, which, behind glass, is often con¬ 

Pine, as most of our readers know, is 
usually in planks 11 in. by 3 in. ; for blinds, 
however, the saw-mills proprietor is more 
concerned about quality than dimensions—■ 
smaller timber will do, if good. Supposing, 
however, the stuff is 11 in. by 3 in., it is first 
reduced to 2} in. (this is the usual width for 
blind laths, for reasons which will be ex¬ 
plained presently); then it is cut down the 
centre, and then cut after cut is made, so 
as to remove pieces 24 in. wide and 4 in. 
thick. This is the ordinary thickness, and 
the saw used is a circular saw, ground so 
that it is thin at the edge ; the teeth are 
small and the set slight, so as to leave the 

If the laths are bought unplaned, the 
workman may plane them first, as above, or 
lie may cut the laths to the appropriate 
lengths and then plane them ; it is scarcely 
needful to remark that in that case the filed 
hooks are not used. It is optional to round 
the edges before or after tlie flats are planed, 
but very often the laths are cut to the proper 
lengths, then the edges planed with a jack- 
plane in groups of about twenty-five at a time 
in a trough made for the purpose'; then the 
flat surfaces planed and the edges rounded. 
The holes for the passage of the cord used 
to be made with a gouge, preferably one 
ground inside ; but for those who mean to 
make any considerable number of blinds, a 
punching press, of which many suitable 
patterns are made, is a necessary investment. 
When the gouge is used, a bradawl is put 
through the laths at the proper distance 
from each end, thereby holding the group of 
about six laths in position while they are 
being sawn, as well as marking the place for 
the hole. In deciding the place for cutting 
these cord holes, it may help to advise the 
usual allowance of 4 iu- for freedom of the 
lath at each end, and one-fifth of the length 
of the lath for the distance of the holes 
from each end : thus— 

Sin. o 2 4 in. () Sin. 

other distances on other sides of the strip, 
or on other strips which did duty upon 
occasion when other distances were needed. 
Having the tapes on the board, and the 
divided strip visible on its further edge, the 
operator transferred the marks with a T- 
square and pencil; only a little care to 
stretch the web equally tight was needed | 
to ensure a satisfactory result. It is 
evident that the worker could allow the 
proper distance for the lowest and thicker . 
lath by this way of marking the tapes, in , 
which respect only the old way was supe¬ 
rior ; but the woven web may be recom- ' 
mended to all amateurs and beginners, j 
notwithstanding that the folding of the cut , 
ends of the web are a slight difficulty. 

The narrow tapes, about £ in. wide, are 
usually set out by winding the material ; 
round a piece of wood 24 in. wide and f in. 
thick; this may be of any convenient length, 
and when the tape is neatly wound, red 
chalk or black lead is slightly rubbed along 
each corner or arris of the covered strip of 
wood. A sharp knife or chisel is then used 
to cut along the centre of the £ in. edge of 
the wood, thus dividing each strap from its 
neighbour, and leaving each with marks 
indicating the place to sew on to the wider 

I mentioned the lowest and thicker lath 
just now : anyone who has seen a Venetian 
blind knows that it contains thin laths, 

40 in. lath for a 41 in. opening. 

Work—April25, i 89 i.] How to Make a Ouarter Horse-Power Steam Engine . 


varying in number according to its length, 
and two stouter laths, one at the bottom 
and one at the top, to which the tapes are 
affixed, the whole being suspended to the 
head or pulley lath, as it is variously termed; 
4 cut stuff is about right for these thicker 
laths, and 1 in. or 2 cut for the head or 
pulley lath. “ 4 cut stuff” is a technical 
term. It means that the plank has four 
cuts in it, thus making five boards about 
§ in. thick. 

In order to give adjustment of angle to 
every lath in the blind, there are rollers let 
into the pulley lath, the axes of which are 
parallel to the edge of the lath. The mov¬ 
able laths rest in the tapes affixed to the 
stout lath at the top, which is fixed to the 
pulley lath by webs passing over the afore¬ 
said rollers, and parallelism of the whole 
(which is important) is secured by using a 
spacing block, or a pair, between thick lath 
and pulley lath, while the web is drawn over 
roller and lath and tacked in its place. 

Before we proceed to paint our thin laths, 
we must take off with some glass-paper the 
fibre or rough edge left at the ends of the 
laths by the saw. This is usually done a 
number at a time, and the group of thin 
laths can be held in various ways so as to 
secure contact with the glass-paper on each 
edge of the ends in turn. 

The probable reason why 2 \ in. has been 
universally chosen as the ordinary width for 
Venetian blind laths is because that is the 
widest that could go between the beads in 

in. sashes, and that width of lath has be¬ 
come universal, because variations in width 
would be inconvenient. 

The blinds are drawn up by cords passing 
over pulleys ; the axes of the pulleys are at 
right angles to those of the rollers just men¬ 
tioned, and by a simple method the cords 
are made to draw up—in most cases at the 
right-hand of the window—while the cord 
that slopes the laths at pleasure is usually at 
the left hand. 

In the diagrams that accompany this 
description this will be seen, and the 
arrangement of pulleys and rollers made 

The pulley laths serve the double purpose 
of fixing the blind, and also form the place 
of attachment for the pulleys and rollers. 
Reference to Fig. 1 will show how these 
pulleys are arranged so as to escape contact 
with the sash beads. The outer beads are 
usually f in. by J in., therefore the foremost 
of the two pulleys should be quite that dis¬ 
tance from the front. The pulleys are made 
of various sizes, but 1 in. diameter is the 
most useful size for all but the smallest 
blinds. The mortises for the pulleys are 
generally cut with a | in. chisel. 

The rollers are seen in Figs. 2, 3, and 4, 
and are cut with a f in. or f in. chisel; the 
length is about 1 if in. The lower side of 
these mortises must be enlarged, as shown 
in Figs. 3 and 4, because the web which 
passes over the roller also passes over the 
lath, which is 2.| in. wide. 

The figures also show how the pulleys and 
rollers are centred, the latter needing the 
ware to be let into a mortise cut for its 
reception. This is shown in Fig. 4. The 
holes for screws for fixing must not be for¬ 
gotten, as it is most inconvenient to find no 
screw-holes when you have the blind put 
together and are about to fix it. Figs. 2 and 
5 show suitable places for screws. 

The stout laths which form the top and 
bottom laths, and to which the tapes are 
secured, have cord-holes corresponding to 
those in the thin laths, but those in the top 
are larger than those in the bottom, which 

are small enough to retain the knot in the 
cord, neatly covered by the tape, and resting 
in a countersink made in the bottom of the 
bottom lath. 

We have now our blinds cut to size, and 
the cord-holes cut or punched ; they are, of 
course, planed, rounded, and the edges of 
the ends and corners rubbed with glass- 
paper. We will now paint or varnish them. 

In painting blinds we must guard against 
the use of too much oil; no boiled oil must 
be used at all, on any account, and the first 
coat of colour the laths receive is very fre¬ 
quently composed of size and whiting. This 
should have no water added to the size, 
which should not, in melting, be allowed to 
boil. When well melted, the whiting should 
be crushed and stirred in gradually; and not 
a great deal is needed, or the mixture will 
be too thick to put on easily , and will dry 
with coarse brush-marks. The painting of 
blind laths needs a quick and light touch, 
or some of the laths will be broken. A 000 
or 0000 brush is suitable—oval brushes are 
preferred by many—and the lath, while 
being painted, is held by the left first finger 
and thumb at the hole in the lath, the other 
end resting on the board fixed on the paint¬ 
ing bench. The paint which follows the 
size colour may be ordinary raw oil colour, 
rather sharp, and still more turps for the 
finishing coat. 

For varnishing, two coats of patent size of 
best quality—vellum size for choice—the 
first coat of which may have some water 
added, and the second some, but less. The 
varnish may be best church oak, and blinds 
should have two coats of varnish, pure as 
received from the maker. 

The arrangements for drying the laths 
differ, but the general plan is to fix a piece 
of quartering, in which is driven pieces of 
the stoutest iron wire (about i in. diameter), 
about 15 in. or 16 in. long and about 4^-in. 
apart. Each of these will hold about ten laths, 
and the whole arrangement of quartering 
and wires is fixed on the wall horizontally, 
and higher than the eyes of the workmen. 

I need say nothing about the putting to¬ 
gether and fixing, because anyone who can 
do the preceding work can easily overcome 
the remaining difficulties, but one word of 
warning must be uttered : do not, in put¬ 
ting in the cords, allow the cord to depart 
from its true course, which is down the 
centre of the wide tapes, and therefore alter¬ 
nately to the right and left of the short tapes 
on which the laths rest. If you make any 
mistake, rectify it at once ; do not treat it 
as a matter of indifference, for a cord in¬ 
serted in the wrong way will do mischief to 
itself and the tapes until it is put right. 

Lastly, as the parallel position and equal 
spacing of the thin laths depend on the 
accuracy of the tapes, so the spacing and 
parallelism of the lowest lath depend on 
the care with which it is tacked in its 
place. The absence of attention to this 
trifle makes a great difference in the appear¬ 
ance of the finished work. 

After a trial or two the making and finish¬ 
ing a Venetian blind will not be found so 
difficult as it may seem at first sight. It 
will be good practice for anyone who has 
in his possession, or can become possessed 
of, an old blind to take it to pieces and put 
it together again. From this point of view 
it follows as a matter of course that any 
paper will prove useful to those who merely 
wish to clean the blinds or even to furnish 
them with new tapes. In taking a blind to 
pieces for the first time, due regard should 
be paid to the construction and arrange¬ 
ment of the cords. 


BY F. A. M. 

Theory and Action of the Slide- 

Engines not made Self-Acting at First—The 
Plain Slide-Valve without Lap—Slide- 
Valve with Lap for Expansive Working—• 
Stroke of the Eccentric—Lead of the 
Valve—Angle of Advance, of Admission, 
of Expansion and Release, of Exhaust 
and Compression — Inside Lap — Use of 
Lead—Lineal Admission and Expansion 
in Parts of the Stroke—How to Arrange 
for more Expansive'Working—High Rate 
of no use in Unjacketed Cylinders— List 
of Castings and Tools required for 


The Slide- Valve. —It would be quite possible 
to put together the engine we have in hand 
without any directions beyond those which 
accompany the drawings; but no amateur 
engine-maker will be content to be ignorant of 
the action of so vital a part of the machine 
as the slide-valve, nor of so beautiful and 
ingenious an adaptation of means to an end 
—a problem which may well be considered 
a,s a kind of pons asinorum in steam engineer¬ 
ing. Besides, if we do not master the slide- 
valve, we cannot certainly go on to deal 
with link motion or expansion gear. 

It may not be generally known that the 
first steam engines required a man, or boy, 
constantly beside them, to turn on and off 
at every stroke the cocks which directed the 
steam into and out of the cylinder. We can 
hardly imagine such a state of things in 
these days; but it continued until a boy, who 
wished to exchange work for play, had in¬ 
genuity enough to connect by strings the 
handles of the cocks with some of the 
moving parts of the engine, in such a way 
that the engine did for him the work he w 7 as 
set to do—a real invention, for he had made 
the steam engine self-acting. 

The distribution of steam in the modern 
engine is controlled by the eccentric and 
slide-valve — a beautiful and smoothly 
working arrangement, almost perfect in 
its action. The eccentric is keyed upon 
the shaft and gives motion to the slide- 
valve, so that, no matter what may be the 
position of the piston in the cylinder, the 
slide-valve will always be, of necessity, 
in the correctly corresponding position. The 
steam is led from the boiler into a steam- 
chest, or valve-box, upon the side of the 
cylinder, and the duty of the valve is to 
direct the steam upon the back of the 
piston to drive it up the cylinder for three- 
quarters of the stroke ; then to stop the 
supply till the piston reaches the end, and 
then to bring the steam upon the front face 
of the piston to drive it back, whilst it 
allows the first cylinderful of steam to 
escape by the exhaust pipe. 

Looking at Fig. 1, the valve v and the 
ports or steam-ways P, P,' will be seen in 
section, leading the one to the top and the 
other to the bottom of the cylinder (called 
top and bottom merely for convenience of 
description). There is a third port between 
the other two called the exhaust port, e, 
which is always covered by the slide-valve, 
and through this the steam makes its escape; 
the pressure under the valve, therefore, 
will be the same as that in the exhaust pipe 
which opens into the air, whilst the pressure 
upon the outside of the valve is 50 lb. per 
square inch, or whatever may be the pressure 
in the steam pipe which supplies steam to 
the box in which the slide-valve works. The 
valve fits so perfectly upon the face that 
only the merest whiff of steam—a hardly 


How to Make a Quarter Horse-Power Steam Engine. [ Work - A P rii 25 , i 89 L 

perceptible quantity—can pass between^ the 
surfaces, and the same is true of the fit of 
the piston in the cylinder. All that escapes 
in either of these places is loss, and, if well 
and carefully fitted, there need be no loss. 
The difference of the pressure outside and 
inside the valve causes it to be held up 
firmly against the valve-face on the side of 
the cylinder. The figure also shows the 
eccentric which moves the valve, but this is 
drawn as if it were turned a quarter 
round, so as to show its flat side instead of 
its edge. 

We may now pass on to Fig. 2 and in¬ 
vestigate the action of the plain slide-valve 
without lap. At Fig. 2 a will be seen the 
valve which belongs to Fig. 2. Lay a piece 
of tracing paper over Fig. 2 a, and trace the 
valve with the base line to h, and the 
verticals g, h, and k. Lay this tracing on 
Fig. 2 and see that these vertical lines 
correspond with those of the figure beneath, 
whilst the edges of the valves a b, c d, 
coincide with the edges of the ports a b, 
c d ; thus the valve will be in the middle 
of its course, whilst the point g on the trac¬ 
ing will coincide with 2 , the centre of the 
circle representing the movement of the 
eccentric. Evidently the ports are all 
closed and no steam can pass anywhere ; the 
piston then must be at one end of its course. 
Let us place the crank upon the line z r, and 
suppose the piston to be at the top end of 
the cylinder. Looking at the valve, we see 
that whether the crank moves upwards or 
downwards from r, the valve must move to 
the left so as to uncover port p to the 
steam and port p' to the exhaust; if then 
the crank is to go round upwards from r, 
the eccentric must be fixed at s, but if the 
crank is to go downwards, and go round as 
a watch does (forwards), then the eccentric 
must be placed at t to make the valve move 
to the left. Fix the eccentric at t, and the 
engine ivill run fomvards; fix it at s, and it 
will run backwards. 

Thus we arrive at this conclusion : that 
when the edges a b, c d, of the valve are 
the same width as the ports, the eccentric 
must be keyed at an angle of 90 degrees in 
front of the crank. 

Let us now suppose we determine that the 
engine shall go forwards and the crank go 
downwards from r. Suppose it to move 
one-quarter round from r 2 to y z, then the 
eccentric will have moved from t to v, and 
the valve will move to the left while the 
eccentric passes round the quarter circle till 
the point g coincides with v, d with c, and 
b with A. The piston is now in the middle 
of its course, moving at its greatest velocity, 
and the valve has been opening both steam 
and exhaust openings wider and wider 
till they are now opened to their widest ex¬ 
tent. Continuing the movement through 
another quarter circle, the crank continues 
its course till it arrives at b z , bringing the 
piston to the bottom end of the cylinder, 
whilst as the eccentric passes over the arc 
v s, the valve returns again to its former 
central position, gradually closing the steam 
and exhaust openings as the piston comes 
gradually to rest. Now, however, though 
the valve is in its first position, the crank is 
at e and the eccentric at s, and therefore 
the further movement of the crank and 
eccentric will cause the valve to move to 
the right of its central position, opening 
port p' to the steam and port p to the ex¬ 
haust, so that now the direction of the 
steam is reversed, it flows into the back 
end of the cylinder, and the steam which 
did the work during the last stroke escapes 
under the valve to the exhaust. 

Fig. 2, with the tracing of Fig. 2a, will 
enable the student to find the corresponding 
position of the valve for any position of the 
crank. It simplifies the problem by getting- 
rid of the eccentric rod, the angularity of 
which is so slight that the error thus intro¬ 
duced is un appreciable. 

Having now studied what may be called 
the rudimentary slide-valve, which would 
only be suitable for a water engine, we will 
proceed to show how by altering its dimen¬ 
sions its working may be greatly improved. 

A great fault in the arrangement of the 
valve of Fig. 2 is that it does not allow the 
steam to be used expansively. Without 
going deeply into the subject, it must be 
evident that, with the valve just considered, 
the steam will continue to enter the cylinder 
and drive forward the piston to the very 
end of its stroke, and that then the exhaust 
valve will allow the whole cylinderful of 
high pressure steam to escape, though it has 
in it power enough to do a great deal more 
work. Suppose, instead of this, we had 
arrested the flow of steam into the cylinder 
when the piston had only travelled through 
half its stroke, the half cylinderful of 
steam, say at 40 lb. pressure per square 
inch, would have begun to expand, and 
would have continued to press forward the 
piston until it arrived at the end of its 
stroke, when, having doubled its volume, its 
pressure would have fallen to one-half 
(reckoning from vacuum) what it was at 
first. By this means half as much steam 
would have been made to do almost as much 
work as the whole cylinderful. 

There are, however, practical reasons why 
it is not well to carry the system of expan¬ 
sion very far in a small unjacketed cylinder 
like the one we have before us, and the 
limit has been fixed at three-quarters—that 
is, the proportions of the slide-valve have 
been arranged in such a way that when the 
piston shall have travelled over three- 
quarters of its stroke, the ingress of more 
steam shall cease, and the remainder of the 
stroke be completed whilst that steam ex¬ 
pands. The arrangement saves at every 
stroke one quarter of a cylinderful of 
steam, and the average pressure is reduced 
about 2 lb., whilst the terminal pressure 
falls to three-quarters of the initial. 
How this is done can be seen by referring 
to Fig. 3, which, with its valve, represents 
the arrangement and proportions actually 
adopted. The letters of reference are the 
same as in the former example, and the 
tracing of the valve, Fig. 3a, should be made 
as before. Laying this second valve trac¬ 
ing on Fig. 3 in its middle position, we 
notice that whilst the points b and c on 
the valve coincide as before with edges 
b and c of the ports, edges a and d of 
the valve overlap the port opening by a 
distance d d, a a, equal to the width of 
the port opening ; this distance of overlap 
is an important dimension, and it is called 
the lap of the valve ; in this case we should 
say we have one port of lap. 

Let it be noticed that the valve is not, 
when in its middle position, properly placed 
to begin to admit steam through port p so 
that the piston may begin its “ in ” stroke ; 
it will not do this till the valve has moved 
to the left, until edge d reaches edge d. 
Moreover, it will not have opened the port 
fully till edge d reaches edge c. Supposing 
we wish to arrange the valve to open this 
port fully, we must make the radius of the 
circle of the eccentric equal to the distance 
c to d, or a to by and since in our case we 
have made the ports £ in. wide, this radius 
will be ^ in., and the eccentric will have an 

eccentricity of i in., and the stroke of the 
eccentric and valve will be 1 in., which is 
the way the size of the eccentric circle on 
Fig. 3 was determined. To find the proper 
angular position for the centre of the eccen¬ 
tric upon this circle, move the valve to 
the left till edge d has just passed edge 
D by the thickness of a visiting-card, 
say Ai in. ; this distance is called the lead of 
the valve. Now observe where the line g h 
on the tracing cuts the eccentric circle at t, 
join t z, and produce the line to s; t is the 
position the centre of the eccentric must 
occupy when the crank is at r ready to 
begin the “ in ” stroke, and the angle r z t 
is called the angle of advance. It is the an¬ 
gular distance by which the eccentric pre¬ 
cedes the crank; in this case, were it not 
for the slight addition made to it by the 
lead, this angle would be 120 degrees. We 
may now, by the help of our diagram, watch 
the action of the valve, and determine at 
what points in the revolution of the eccen¬ 
tric the inlet and outlet of the steam occurs. 
Beginning at t, the valve edge d having 
just passed d let the eccentric move on to v, 
and cl to c ; here the valve is fully open ; 
pass on from v to p (determined by the edge 
d reaching r>), and the valve closes and stops 
the admission of more steam ; t z p is the 
angle of admission. By dropping from p the 
perpendicular p f upon the diameter t s, 
we find that if the distance t s represents 
the length of the stroke, then distance t p 
represents that part of it during which 
steam is admitted. Let the eccentric con¬ 
tinue its course from p to 0 , and the valve 
will reach its middle position ; but here 
another event occurs. Edge c of the valve 
passes edge c of port p, which opens it to 
the exhaust; the steam that was expanding 
in the cylinder will therefore escape when 
the eccentric reaches the angular position 0 , 
and the piston the position corresponding 
to o', whilst the stroke does not end till the 
points is reached at 180 degrees from t; 
angle p z 0 then is the angle of expan¬ 
sion, angle 0 z s the angle of release; if t s 
represent the length of the stroke, then 
t p is the admission, %> o' the expansion, 
and o' s the release. Following the eccen¬ 
tric round from s through w to n, we note that 
at s the piston begins its return stroke, 
which ends when the eccentric reaches t; 
but that, just as the exhaust begins at angle 
of 0 2 s before the completion of the stroke, 
so in like manner the exhaust ends at n 
before the exhaust steam has been com¬ 
pletely expelled. Dropping a perpendicular 
from n to n', we find that if t s represent 
the length of the stroke of the piston, then, 
when it shall have returned from s to n\ 
the port p will be closed to the exhaust, and 
during its remaining course from n' to t it 
will compress the exhaust steam remaining 
in the cylinder, which will have the effect of 
raising its pressure; so that when, just 
before the next stroke begins, the port p 
opens to the steam again, this high pressure 
steam will not have to fill a port-way 
and cylinder-end at atmospheric i pressure, 
but will find there already a pressure of 
some 15 or 20 lb. The angle nzt then is 
called the angle of compression; it is a de¬ 
cided advantage to the engine. Moreover, 
the angles of release and of compression 
can be varied : we can take from one and 
add it to the other by simply adding to or 
reducing the distance b to c. Suppose a little 
piece m (Fig. 3a) to be fitted inside the valve, 
and watch its effect; it will move the points 
o and n on the eccentric circle a little fur¬ 
ther to the right; it will take a little from 
the release and add it to the expansion, and, 

work-A P rii 25 ,i 89 i.] How to Make a Quarter Horse-Power Steam Engine. 


by the same amount, it will increase the 
compression. Such a piece added as at m 
would be called inside lap; it is sometimes 
used, but the more usual practice is to make 
b c equal to B c. 

The use of the lead is to take up the 
looseness of the joints of the connecting-rod 
ends, and so to prevent any knock on the 
dead points. It will be understood that as 
the force of 
the steam 
urges the 
piston first 
in one direc- 
t i o n and 
then in an- 
other, if 
there were 
the slightest 
amount of 
play any¬ 
where in the 
joints, be¬ 
tween the 
piston and 
crank, the 
pins would 
be forced 
first to one 
side and 
then to the 
joint, caus¬ 
ing a dis- 
agreeab 1 e 
thump at 
the begin¬ 
ning of each 
new stroke, 
at the mo¬ 
ment the 
steam came 
on to the 
piston. By 
means of the 
lap, and also 
with the 
help of the 
the motion 
of the piston is re¬ 
tarded at the end of 
each stroke, so that 
the momentum of the 
fly-wheel takes up all 
looseness in the joints, 
in such a way that 
the pressure of the 
fresh steam is trans¬ 
mitted solidly to the 
crank-pin. When this 
is properly done in 
every respect, not the 
slightest knock or 
thump will be heard 
as the engine piston 
reverses its movement 
in the cylinder. 

If it be required to 
find at what parts of 
the stroke in inches 
the various incidents take place, the ec¬ 
centric circle in Fig. 3 can be surrounded 
by another circle, as seen dotted in the 
figure, having a radius equal to that of 
the crank—2J- in.—and the various angles 
of the eccentric positions can be produced 
to the circumference of the larger circle, 
and perpendiculars let fall upon its dia¬ 
meter ; these perpendiculars will now mark 
off the different parts of the stroke in inches. 
By this method it was found that, the stroke 
being 4-J in., the admission occupied 3y\ in., 
the expansion f in., and the release x % in. 

It may now be said, that as the ports are, 
of necessity, made large enough to give free 
exit to the exhaust steam at atmospheric 

E ressure, it is not necessary that they should 
e fully opened to admit the high-pressed 
steam ; we can, therefore, if we like, employ 
on eccentric with only | in. eccentricity. 
We shall leave it to our readers to work out 
the full results of this change, only stating 

that the angle of advance will be increased 
by about 8 degrees. The cut off will occur 
soon after the half stroke has been passed, 
and the ports will never open more than J 
in.—one-half their width. The arrangement 
would be a good one; it would use less 
steam and give out but little less power 
than the one already examined. Economy 
in so small an engine is not of much con¬ 
sequence. Possibly it might amount to a 
saving of a penny a day, and readers might 
do well to adopt it if they can afford to 
sacrifice a little power, or if their boiler is 

deficient in steaming capacity. An expan¬ 
sion of one-half is about the limit of what 
can be obtained by the single slide-valve. 
Even with that amount the release and 
the compression grow to rather formidable 
proportions. If Ave wished to Avork still 
more expansively, we should have to employ 
a second eccentric to work a second slide- 
valve, moving upon the back of the first, 

and by this 
means the 
might be 
carried to 
any degree 
desired. It 
is, however, 
no advan¬ 
tage to use 
a high de¬ 
gree of ex¬ 
pansion in a 
' cylinder not 
with a steam 
jacket; and 
the very 
small a - 
mount Ave 
might hope 
to save in so 
small an 
engine does 
not make it 
Avorth while 
to incur so 
much extra 
expense and 

List of Cast¬ 
ings sup¬ 
plied, and 
of Tools re¬ 
quired, for 
making the 
\ II. 1\ En¬ 

In buying 
castings, the present 
writer has found some 
difficulty in dealing 
Avith those avIio are 
only knoAvn to him by 
■Tieir advertisements. 
Many of these are 
strictly honest, but it 
is not so easy to know 
how best to deal when 
prepayment is de¬ 
manded. Some adver¬ 
tisers, partly through 
carelessness, are apt 
to delay a long while 
before attending to an. 
order ; and, Avhen at 
last the goods arrive, 
there is some essential 
part missing. If one 
is liable to such an¬ 
noyances in England) Iioav much more so 
in the Colonies ! It is with a view of pre : 
venting such annoyance to those readers of 
these papers Avho might Avish to obtain a 
set of castings, that a set of excellent 
patterns have been made. From these, as 
soon as it is practicable, castings will be made 
by a man on Avhom some of us think Ave 
can depend. So that it is hoped that the 
OAvners of the patterns will soon be in a 
position to execute orders for them from all 
parts of the United Kingdom, the Colonies, 
or anywhere else, and to forward the cast- 


Our Guide to Good Things. 

[Work—April 25,1891. 

ings complete, without unreasonable delay. 
Of this, however, due notice will be given 
by advertisement in Work. 

Another great annoyance to a would-be 
•engine builder is to find himself suddenly 
pulled up by the want of some little forging 
it was supposed he would be able to make, 
or of a bit of brass rod to make some small 
part for which no casting has been supplied. 
To avoid this, castings are provided of many 
very small parts which might have been 
made of a bit of brass rod, if the workman 
happened to have a suitable piece, but, for 
want of which, he might have had to wait. 
Our readers’ patience will be sufficiently 
tried if they undertake this piece of work 
without -any disappointment of such a kind, 
and an attempt has been made to save them 
all unnecessary trouble. 

The first list, here following, is that of all 
castings and materials required to make the 
engine alone, without either pump or 

List of Castings and Materials for Mak- 


Engine Alone, without Pump or 


No. of Pattern. Description of Casting. No. of Castings. 


.. Bedplate. 



.. Cylinder . 



.. Top Cover. 


5 .. 

.. Bottom Cover 


6 .. 

... Piston . 


7 .. 

.. Piston Bottom 


10 .. 

.. Steam Chest 


12 .. 

.. Steam Chest Cover 


25 .. 

.. Crosshead. 


17 .. 

.. Fly wheel .. .. .. 


18 .. 

.. Crosshead Guides 


28 .. 

.. Angle Bearings .. 


29 .. 

.. Caps for do. 


34 .. 

.. Eccentric. 


35 .. 

.. Ece. Half Strap (rod end) 


36 .. 

do. do. do. (outer end) 1 

All the above in Cast Iron. 

4 .. 

. Gland forCylinderCover 


8 .. 

.. Piston Rings 


9 .. 

.. Piston-rod Nut 


11 .. 

.. Gland for Steam Chest.. 


13 .. 

.. Slide-valve. 


11 .. 

.. Valve-rod Nuts .. 


30 .. 

.. Bearing Brass (bottom) 


31 .. 

.. do. do. (top) 


32 .. 

.. Con.-rod Brasses (small) 


33 .. 

do. do. (large) 


All the above in Gun Metal. 

16 .. 

.. Connecting-rod . 


38 .. 

.. Valve-rod. 


39 .. 

.. Eccentric-rod 


These three in Malleable Cast Iron. 

1 Crank Shaft in Wrought Iron. 

With the above, 5 Stauffer lubricators. 


-size; one 

in. brass screw stop valve with 


to fit. 

Castings Required for Feed Pump. 

No. of Pattern. Description of Casting. No. of Castings. 

19 .. 

.. Pump Body. 


20 .. 

.. Pump Cover 


21 .. 

.. do. Gland 



do. Union Nut-.. 


23 :: 

.. I in. Spindle-valve 


24 .. 

A in. do. do. 


25 .. 

.. Pump Plunger 


26 .. 

.. Liner for do. 


All the above in Gun Metal. 

27 .. 

.. Pump Eccentric Rod .. 


Of Malleable Cast Iron. 

35 .. 

.. Half Strap of Eccentric 

for Pump 


36 .. 

.. Other half of do. for do. 


37 .. 

.. Pump Eccentric 


Of Cast Iron. 

Castings, etc.. Required for Governor. 

40 .. 

.. Governor Bracket 


43 .. 

... do. Balls 


Of Cast Iron. 

41 .. 

.. Governor Sleeve or Body 


42 .. 

Do. Pivot Pin 


44 .. 

.. Driving Pulley 


45 .. 

.. Throttle-Valve 


46 .. 

... Do. do. Case 


47 .. 

Do. do. do. Gland 


Of Gun Metal. 

Other Materials : Four inches of \ in. steel tube 
J in. bore. One pair of X in. brass mitre wheels. 

Tools Required to Make the I H.P. Engine. 

1. A metal turning lathe, with slide-rest, is neces¬ 
sary ; if the fly-wheel is to be bored, it must have 
a gap capable of taking in a diameter of 16 in. 
If it is not a self-acting lathe the cylinder had 
better be ordered ready bored. The lathe 
should not be less than 5 in., or at least 4i in., 

2. A universal chuck three or four inches in 
diameter is desirable. 

3. A face-plate chuck 8 in. to 10 in. diameter is 
necessary. It must have dogs and bolts. 

4. An angle-plate chuck to bolt on the face-plate. 

5. A vice. A 10s. 6d. parallel vice might do, but a 
larger one would be better. 

6 . A set of flat and round files and some cold chisels. 

7. Screwing tackle, a screw plate and taps up to 
-I in. or j 3 5 in., a stock, and dies for brass gas- 

8 . A set of straight flute or Morse twist drills up to 
i in. with drill chuck. 

9. A drill gauge is very useful; it costs 12s. 6d. from 
Churchill’s, and contains a number of holes 
from fa in., up to l in. rising by a, in. 

10. A surface-plate and scribing block. 

11. Squares and callipers. 


*** Patentees, manufacturers, and dealers generally ore re¬ 
quested to send jrospectnses, bills, etc., of their speciali¬ 
ties in tools, machinery, and workshop appliances to the 
Editor of WORK for notice in “ Our Guide to Good 
ThingsIt is desirable that specimens should be sent 
for examination and testing in all cases when this can be 
done without inconvenience. Specimens thus received 
will be returned at the earliest opportunity. It must be 
understood that everything which is noticed, is noticed 
on its merits only, and that , as it is in the power of any¬ 
one who has a usefid article for sale to obtain mention 
of it in this department of WORK without charge, the 
notices given partake in no way of the nature of adver¬ 

9.—Black’s Patent Fastener. 

Mr. Alexander Black, High Street, Cowden¬ 
beath, N.B., has produced a new kind of fastener 
for shirt studs, a speci¬ 
men of which he has sent 
for insjiection, and which 
seems likely to be useful 
to those who wear shirt- 
studs, solitaires, etc., as 
the patent fastener en¬ 
ables the wearer to insert 
and remove them with 
the greatest ease, and 
Fig. 1.—Black’s Fas- absolutely without injury 
tener. Fig. 2. — to the linen. The fastener 
Ditto, side view. can he fitted to any size 
or form of stud; and 
Mr. Black claims for his invention that it is 
more secure when inserted than any othor, and 
forms, with the top, one piece only ; thus over¬ 
coming a difficulty never successfully met hither¬ 
to. In Fig. 1 is shown a representation of the 
stud when about to be inserted in the hole or 
holes made for its reception ; Fig. 2 shows a side 
or sectional view of the appliance. It is used by 
inserting the ribbed end a of the fastener under 
one lip of the button-hole (as in Fig. 1), and then 
pushing it first to the right as far as it will go, 
and then to the left' under the other lip of the 
hole, or in other words, to the left in order to 
bring b under the other lip. When it is desired 
to remove the stud, the movement is simply 
reversed. The spring clips the linen firmly in 
inserting and removing, and closes or locks when 
the stud is in position. There is no wear to the 
linen from the stud revolving in the hole. The 
neck being flat, it cannot turn, and always lies in 
position to be readily removed. The more stiffly 
starched the linen is, the better the working of 
the stud. 

10.—“The Art of Graining and Imitating 

I have received from Mr. W. G. Sutherland, 
the managing director of the Decorative Art 
Journals Company, Limited, Parts 1, 2, and 3 of 
a superb work entitled, “The Art of Graining 
and Imitating Woods.” Mr. Sutherland’s name 
is so well known in the decorative world in con¬ 
nection with that kind of art-work of which he 
is so able a master and exponent, that it is enough 
for me to say that anything he produces is well 
worthy the attention of all professional painters 
and decorators who desire to attain excellence in 

their craft, and of all amateurs who are 
interested in the subject, and who wish not only 
to try their hand themselves at the imitation of 
woods by brush-comb and the requisite pigments, 
hut also to possess safe and sure guidance in the 
art and the means of discriminating between 
good and had imitations of the original woods, 
both in colour and veinings. I am sorry that I 
am unable to state at the present moment the 
price of the parts of this magnificent contribution 
to the literature of decoration, hut I can put my 
readers on the right track for learning this for 
themselves by saying that the Company’s address 
is 15, St. Ann Street, Manchester, and that Mr. 
Sutherland will undoubtedly be pleased to answer 
any inquiries. Further, the London publisher is 
Mr. Henry Vickers, 12, Catherine Street, Strand, 
W.C., where anyone resident in the metropolis 
and its vicinity might see the work, if he was so 
minded. To give those who cannot do so-some 
idea of it, I may say tb the size of the page is 
18Jin. by 13| in., and that there are eight of 
these large pages in each part, and four examples 
of the graining of different binds of wood, beau¬ 
tifully and artistically rendered in colour, and 
representing the work as it should look when 
brought to completion. A chapter is devoted to 
the treatment of each kind of wood, and the 
letterpress is enriched with characteristic initial 
letters and tail-pieces, and in some cases with 
illustrations of the appliances used, of the modes 
by which some of the desired effects must he 
produced, and of examples of reining in black 
and white when it is helpful to show the pecu¬ 
liarities of the natural wood otherwise than by 
colour. To give some idea of the method of 
treatment adopted for the text, I will take 
Chapter VIII., on bastard mahogany or hay- 
wood—the kind of mahogany that is brought 
from Honduras, in Central America. In this we 
have first some mention of the history of the 
wood, especially us regards its use in this country 
and its rise and declension in popular favour. 
Then we are told in separate sections, each under 
its own heading, the “colours required;” the 
“grounding,” how it is to be made ; and “how 
to grain it,” describing clearly the manipulation 
that is necessary. We are then introduced to 
“ another method ” of arriving at a similar result 
by “ flogging in the ground,” “ pencilling,” and 
“glazing.” The value of the directions is 
further enhanced by side-notes in small typo, 
which enable readers or those who use the hook 
as a work of reference to gather the nature of the 
text without wading through it from beginning 
to end, by merely running the eye down the side 
of the column until the position of the informa¬ 
tion required has been found and noted. 

11.—“Photography in a Nutshell.” 

Hot long ago I called attention to a manual of 
photography entitled “ Photography in a Nut¬ 
shell,” which was sent by the publishers, Messrs. 
Iliffe & Son, 3, St. Bride Street, London, E.C. 
It was in a paper wrapper, and its price was Is. 
I have now received another copy from Mr. 
William Tylar, 57, High Street, Aston, Birming¬ 
ham, which I am hound to notice on account of 
its marked peculiarity in having every right-hand 
page blank for notes. Mr. Tylar says : “ I have 
much pleasure in sending for review my latest 
edition of ‘ Photography in a Nutshell.’ I am 
sure that practical workers will welcome the 
combination of a practical book of referene'e with 
a note-hook, especially as the interleaf is so 
arranged that the printed index refers to the 
written notes as well as to the corresponding 
printed paragraphs. It is an entirely new 
departure in photo literature.” That it indeed is, 
and a departure that might he adopted with 
advantage in other hooks—especially books for 
use in schools and colleges. The new edition is 
hound in cloth, and its price is 2s. 6d. Whether 
or not Mr. Tylar is the “ Kernel,” the nom de 
plume of the writer of the volume, is a matter for 
speculation into which I do not attempt to enter, 
hut with this, the entire absence of title page 
from the copy in my hands—another new de¬ 
parture in literature generally — has probably 
something to do. The Editor. 

Work—April 25,1891.] 


9 i 


A Corner for Those who Want to Talk It. 

*,* In consequence of the great pressure upon the 
“ Shop ” columns 0/Work, contributors are 
requested to be brief and concise in all future 
questions and replies. 

In ansvjering any of the “ Questions submitted to Corre¬ 
spondents," or in referring to anything that has appeared 
in “Shop," writers are requested to refer to the number 
and page of number of Work in svhich the subject under 
consideration appeared, and to give the heading of the 
paragraph to which reference is made, and the initials 
and place of residence, or the nom-de-plume, of the writer 
by whom the question has been asked or to whom a reply 
has been already given. Answers cannot be given to 
questions which do not bear on subjects that fairly come 
within the scope of the Magazine. 

I.— Letters from Correspondents. 

Self-Acting Model Yacht.— T. H. C. writes :— 
“I enclose particulars of a self-acting model yacht 
I have made. She is 40 in. overall— i.e., from stem 
to stern—13 in. wide, and 8 in. deep, with a false 
wooden keel 1 in. wide by J in. at stern, tapering 
down to 4 in. by i in. at prow, and below this is a 

Self-Acting Model Yacht Sails. 

leaden keel of 22 lbs. weight, J in. by £ in., tapering 
down to 1J in. by 1 in. at prow. Spars—Mainmast, 
above deck, 37£ in.; topmast, outside the head of 
mainmast, 2G£ in. ; boom, 37 in. ; gatf. 231 in. ; 
jibboom, 251 in.; fore staysail boom, 20 in.; bow¬ 
sprit, outside stem head, 35j in.” 

Rate for Circular Saws.— A Wood-Worker 
writes -.—“Do we drive our circular saivs too fast ? 
This is the gist of a question put by F. A. M. on page 
12, Yol. III. I am aware of the fact that machine 
saws driven by steam are driven very fast indeed, 
the limit being in the stability of the machinery— 
that is, its smoothness of running and absence of 
vibration. It is this last desirable quality that 
prompts makers to adopt the box pattern now so 
general, in preference to the older plan of several 
frames bolted together. But it may be that such 
velocity is not absolutely necessary, except as an 
essential to rapid sawing. Could we then saw at 
half the pace with a saw velocity reduced in pro¬ 
portion, and the motive power equally diminished? 
I believe we could. But it would be necessary to 
abolish slip, which is the banc of belt driven 
machinery. We are between two difficulties—a slack 
belt means slip, and a tight belt means waste of 
power, while all the applications of resin, etc., 
which may prevent slip, involve the loss of some 
power by the parting or belt and pulley, -which is as 
inevitable as the movement. What is to be done, 
then, to secure the desired result at the least cost ? 
Gearing is noisy, and not to be thought of; but it 
may be that we can learn a lesson from the cyclist. 
We know that if his rear-driving safety was con¬ 
nected with pedal by means of a very tight belt, he 
could not perform the great distances at the great 
speeds now so often accomplished. And if it were 
known to me how to alter a treadle machine in my 
possession, which now drives the saw by a leather 
belt, into a machine which drives with a chain, 
which need not be tight, but fits each wheel, I 
would experiment, and make the result known in 
Work. For some time past there has been an 
advertisement of a hand circular saw in Work 
(which was in the late Exhibition), and I believe it 
works well, although the saw revolves but slowly; 
the feed is in proper proportion, and there is no slip. 
Probably the teeth of the saw might need adapting 
to the speed, making the angle of clearance less, 
and making the tooth more a cutting tool and less a 
scraper; but if the space between the teeth is suffi¬ 
cient to contain the waste of the stoutest stuff it is 
used to cut, I think such a modification could but be 
of benefit.” 

II.—Questions Answered by Editor and Staff. 

American Organ Coupler. — Coupler.— The 
sketches given on page 633, No. 91, are correct, and. 
do not require reversing as you suggest. Fig. 1 
shows the bass coupler, which acts on the octave 
below the note touched; and Fig. 2 is the treble 
coupler, which acts on the octave above. The “A ’’ 
end of the wires is pressed down by the button on 
the forepart of the key, and the “ B ” end presses on 
the collar or button on the plunger of the key an 
octave above or below, as the case may be. You 
ought to have no difficulty in arranging the wires 
and bending the flattened ends so that they will 
work without catching against each other, as the 
amount of movement is very slight. The platform 
need not be as much as 2 in. wide, and the wires 
Bleed only overhang sufficiently to work. But the 

sizes of the various parts depend entirely on the 
amount of space available, and are not arbitrary. 
You appear from your sketch to have room for the 
coupler described without shifting the register or 
lath through which the plungers pass. As regards 
the broken screw in the reed plate, you may per¬ 
haps be able to move it by applying the edge of a 
small cold chisel to the head of the screw and gently 
tapping it with a hammer so as to cause the screw 
to be gradually moved round. After two or three 
turns, you would be able to get hold of it with the 
pliers and screw it out easily. If you cannot manage 
this, you might drill the screw out, but the first 
method is preferable. A hot wire held on the top 
of the screw and a drop of oil placed on it will facili¬ 
tate the turning of the screw.—M. W. 

Coach - Painter’s Outfit. — Apprentice. —Y ou 
want to know “ where to get good pencils and var¬ 
nish brushes,” etc. There should be no difficulty in 
a town like Leicester to get all that you require. I 
purposely avoid saying, “ Go to a good shop and pay 
a fair price’’—advice often given in journals to 
inquirers. At the outset, the inquiry is for a good 
shop and about a fair price. Such a reply assumes 
that the querist will know a good shop w'hen he sees 
it, and what is a fair price when the price is stated. 
A few questions to an old w r orkman about paint¬ 
brushes and pencils will win you more information 
than any stranger’s answer will help you to. But, 
in utilising your question for the benefit of others 
as well as yourself, it suggests a few remarks. It is 
nearly everywhere the rule for employers to find 
varnish brushes for w-orkmen. All they are expected 
to find are the pencils for fine lines, stripes, or bands, 
a putty-knife, a stopping-knife, and a chisel-knife. 
The pencils are camel-hair, sable (red and brown), 
and ox-hair from the ear of the ox—nearly white 
hair—tor some purposes. The ox-hair and camel- 
hair are mixed in pencils for striping. Coach- 
painters’ pencils are known as “ liners," as they are 
used for the lines on carriages, the hair being from 
2 in. to 25 in. long. The terms for sizes are by the 
quills in which they are held, the band pencils 
being in goose-quills, stripe pencils in duck and 
crow-quills, and tine-line pencils in lark-quills. The 
short-haired pencils are known as the same, with 
the addition of the swan’s-quill, for spot-work or 
carriage gear painting. These last an employer 
finds for his men. The prices of the “liners "are 
from 3d. to Is. 10(1. each. To try their quality, there 
is nothing better than drawing from the wet tongue 
over the lips, so as to saturate them with wet, 
and then spread them flat on a piece of glass with 
the fingers. They should feel free of knots, and, 
when flat, should be parallel-edged and square- 
pointed. In use they are not square-pointed by 
finely tapering ; the flatting out on the glass makes 
them square - ended, where the separate hairs 
may be counted, so fine is the spread of the hairs 
under the fingers of the fine-liners. It is said of 
steel watch-springs, that they are dearer by weight 
than gold. These fine hairs of the Russian ox, 
sable, or camel are dearer than either by weight 
when mounted as pencils, and it may not be amiss 
to remark that gold intrinsically is a worthless 
metal compared to many others, or with such 
humble materials as hair, drugs, etc. Having 
bought your pencils — dearer than gold, some of 
them—you have to handle them with wood to 
suit the size of the quills. Soft cedar is a good 
wood for the purpose, as it is soft enough not to 
burst the quill when pressing it in. Be sure to file 
the part you pocket into the quill with a fine file; 
by holding the quill part in the mouth, or putting in 
warm water, it saves from splitting the quill; a 
little varnish on the dry point of the handle and in 
the quill cements them together. The putty and 
other knives are from 9d. to Is. 6d. each. Just a 
word about taking care of pencils : you must not 
leave them in the paint-dipper for the paint to dry 
on the hairs; some paints are like glue, some cor¬ 
rosive. Wash them out with turpentine, wipe 
them dry, and draw the hair between the fingers as 
they hold a clean piece of hard tallow ; spread the 
hair out flat and straight with tallow, enough just 
to make them stick to a bit of clean panel or glass, 
and put them thus into a small box or tray-draw. 
This tallow is easily washed off before using again. 
A good plan to compare prices is to get a price list 
from two or three makers. They will not vary 
much: the most intelligently written and illustrated 
one will doubtless commend itself to you. J. B. 
Smith, 117, Hampstead Road, London, N.W., issues 
a 42-page catalogue, fully illustrated, as do many 
other firms whose names I forget.—J. C. K. 

Book Sewing.— One in Trouble.— Read the 
articles upon “Bookbinding” in Vol. IL of Work, 
where all instructions are given for sewing books. 
If you follow the details there given, you may be 
able to sew your volume — G. C. 

Phonograph.— The article on the above, with 
working drawings, will be published when space 
can be spared for it. I hope you will find them 
answer your purpose, and that you will be able to 
make the instrument.—W. D. 

Telephone.— R. A. D. ( Forest Hill).— From the 
meagre description you give it is impossible to tell 
what is the matter with your telephones. Your 
magnets may not be strong enough, or too near to, 
or too far away from, the diaphragm. Or the dia¬ 
phragm itself may not be tightly clamped. You 
want a transmitter and battery to get good speak¬ 
ing results.—W. D. 

Enlarging Photographs.— Nil Desperandum 
does not say if the photographs are paper prints or 
transparencies; in any case there is no necessity 

to injure them. If on paper, they must be fixed on 
a fiat surface in a good light, avoiding reflections, 
and a negative made of them in the usual manner. 
If on glass—that is, glass transparencies -they must 
be placed so that a strong light is reflected through 
them. A large sheet of white cardboard is the best 
reflector, set at an angle of 45 3 behind the trans¬ 
parency-all other light except that passing through 
the transparency carefully shielded from the lens. 
Anegative is now taken in the ordinary manner.—D. 

Whole-Plate Camera.— H. B. (Hammersmith ).— 
If you refer to the first volume of Work, you will find 
full instructions for making a whole-plate camera. 
The size you want is for plates, 65 in. by 4$ in. You can 
easily reduce that given to suit this measurement; 
you may make it somewhat lighter all through. If you 
can grasp the principle of the thing, you will have 
little difficulty. To give drawings, measurements, and 
text, would occupy too much space in these columns. 
You can get the metal and other fittings of Parks, 
1, Orchard Buildings, Kingsland Road, N., and the 
lenses of any photographic material dealer; there 
are scores in London. The kind of lens depends 
very much on the kind of work required. The best 
kind of lens for general work would be either of the 
rapid rectilinear or symmetrical type. The portrait 
form is not suitable for anything else but portraiture, 
the field being too round. The size of the stand is 
very much a matter of taste—about 5 foot is an 
average height. You will find diagrams and de¬ 
scriptions of this also on referring to the back 
numbers of Work.— D. 

Roller Model.—J. G. (Aberdeen).— The necessity 
for rollers or castors under heavy drawers is by no 
means so great as you seem to suppose, and to have 
them under drawers no larger than those in an 
ordinary dressing chest would be quite superfluous. 
As a matter of fact, your idea is by no means a 
new one, for X have known of similar contrivances 
being used for many years whenever required. The 
ordinary sash roller is far better for the purpose 
than the model you send, which, from a practical 
tradesman’s point of view, is defective in many 
respects for general purposes. You will thus see 
that I cannot hold out any hope of your making a 
success with the article if you were to incur the 
expense of patenting it. In case you wish to try 
what chance you have with your roller in the open 
market, submit your idea to any of the Birmingham 
cabinet brass founders.—D. A. 

Water in Gas-Pipes.— S. M. (Kidderminster).— 
From the fact that where dry gas meters are used 
there is seldom, if any, trouble about water in the 
pipes, I conclude that it is caused by a certain 
amount of water being brought into the pipes from 
the water that is used in a wet meter. Put a syphon 
in the lowest part of your pipes with a small tap, 
which, if turned off now and then, will remedy the 
defect.—It. A. 

Incubator.— Chicks.— An article on “Howto 
Make an Incubator” appeared in No. 89 of Work. 

Home-Made Furniture.— S. C. (Ashton-under- 
Lyne). —You may send photographs of any of your 
home-made articles, together with descriptions of 
how you made the same. If suitable, publicity shall 
be given them. 

Japanning Oven. —E. H. (King's Cross).— The 
temperature of your oven should range from 260’ 
to 300’. It is advisable to stove the ground colour 
first, and then put on the decoration, and stove 
again at a little less heat. For paints, japans, and 
medium for applying gold-leaf or bronze-powder, 
apply to Mander Brothers, Varnish Manufacturers, 
Wolverhampton; or to Wilkinson, Heywood, and 
Clark, Caledonian Road, N. Works: West Drayton, 
Middlesex. Either of these firms will supply your 
needs.—R. A. 

Ice-Cream Freezer.— J. C. (Belfast).—It is a 
very simple affair, and consists, as you are perhaps 
aware, of a pewter cylinder with a bottom, and 
with a well-fitting cover. You do not state what 
size you require it to be, and not knowing your 
trade or w'hat tools you have, it is rather a difficult 
matter to advise you upon ; but, however, here goes. 
To make one 15 in. deep and 6 in. diameter, get a 
piece of pewter 1? in. thick (or a shade less will do), 
18$ in. by 15 in. If you can get a tinsmith to turn it 
round for you in his rollers, it will save you a lot of 
trouble ; if this is out of your power, you can bend 
it round on a piece of iron pipe, 4 in. or 5 in. in dia¬ 
meter, or on a round piece of wood. Let the edges 
“butt" together—not “lap” them—and solder down 
the seam with a hatchet, soldering-iron, or a blow¬ 
pipe. Cut a circular piece, and solder in one end 
for the bottom; file off all superfluous solder, and 
scrape smooth. For the lid, cut out a rim 2 in. in 
depth, and long enough to go round the outside of 
the vessel just described; solder as before, and 
solder a similar circular piece to the one in the 
bottom ; if you can hollow it up, it will look all the 
better. Then bend a piece of tin or lead pipe to form 
a handle, and solder it on to the lid, and the affair 
is completed. Finish up with glass-paper and a 
burnisher if you want it to look anything.—R. A. 

Telegraph Wires.— Ned. —Lay the line wire in 
the groove of the insulator on one side. Pass one 
end of the binding wire over the line wire to the 
left of the insulator ; form this part of the binding 
wire into a loop, and hold this in the left hand. 
Then pass the other end of the binding wire over 
the line wire to the right of the insulator, draw it 
tight, and then bring the line into the insulator 
groove on one side, whilst the binding wire is 
pulled tight into the groove on the opposite side. 
Pass the right-hand end over the line to the left. 



[Work—April 25, 1891. 

and the left-hand end over the line to the right; 
pull both well into the groove, then twist the two 
ends together with a pair of stout pliers, and cut otf 
the surplus ends. Each wire end in the T v cable 
must be separated and cleaned with emery cloth 
to the length of 2 in.; these cleaned ends must be 
spliced or twisted together, moistened with sol¬ 
dering fluid, and soldered in the ordinary way. 
Wipe clean with a rag, and bind the joint with 
tarred tape. After this is done, restore the outside 
insulating and protecting covering.—G. E. B. 

Light Roadster Bicycle.— A Well-Wisher of 
“Work.” —The weightof tubing fora light roadster 
or racing machine would be all over 15 in. b.w.g., 
the thickest tubes would be 1 in., and smallest 4 in. 
The spoke wire, if for direct spokes, would be No. 10, 
11, or 12; if for laced or tangent wheels, No. 15 is 
„ heavy enough. Handle 

% bar may be bent by heat- 

/—<=■ ing to a bright red the 

/ /0 part you wish to bend; 

•j^i" A grip the straight part in 

a vice—that is, the end 
part where the handle 
will be placed—and use 
the remainder for a 
lever; it will thus be 
readily bent. If the bend 
Bicycle Frame. is somewhat quick, the 
part bent will incline to 
oval: this maybe cured by hammering carefully on 
a smooth anvil. The only other bent tube is the 
seat tube, and it may be bent in the same way. See 
that as much of the tube as you wish to bend is 
heated at once, and equally. The sketch given 
above has marked on it the thickness of the various 
tubes composing the frame. Some diamond 
frames—such as the “ Referee” and “Swift”—have 
the tubes a and b both i in.; so it is a matter of 
choice. For an ordinary heavy roadster all the 
tubes would be 1 in. heavier than indicated in the 
diagram.—A. S. P. 

Amateur Printing.— Eleven.— Information as 
to the cost of requisites for this work may be had 
from the Model Printing Press Co., 3, Ludgate 
Circus Buildings, London, E.C.: or from the Bir¬ 
mingham Machinists’ Co., Parade Iron Works, Bir¬ 
mingham. As he is something of an amateur work¬ 
man, Eleven thinks that if he knew how to set 
about it, he might make a press for himself. I think 
so too, and will, if he wishes it, help him to full 
directions for constructing a small press.—S. W. 

Home-Made Camera.— W. J. U. ( Leytonstone). 
—An article on the above appeared in Work, No. 70. 
It will probably suit you. 

Oilstone. — Rishton.—Y ou would be able to 
procure the stone you require from Mr. R. Hickman, 
Worcester Street, Wolverhampton. I do not know 
of any book on the subject of cutlery.—T. W. 

Hinge and Catch.— J. E. W. (Camberwell).—I 
have seen such spring hinges and catches as you 
refer to, but they are by no means common, and at 
the time of receipt of your letter I was unable to 
say where they could be obtained. However, as the 
result of inquiries among the cabinet brass-founders 
in Birmingham. I find that Messrs. R. Gardner & Co., 
66 , Granville Street, Birmingham, can supply you 
with them.—D. A. 

Medical Coil. —A. B. [Accrington).— A series of 
articles on “ Coils ” is now in course of preparation. 
In these a medical coil will be fully described and 
illustrated.—G. E. B. 

Pipe Mounts and Ferrules.— J. D. (Dundee).— 
To make an ordinary pipe mount, a plate of silver 
has to be prepared exactly the size, or perhaps a 
shade smaller than will fit tight round the two pieces 
that are to be joined by its means. The easiest way 
to obtain a pattern of suitable size and shape for 
this plate is by wrapping a piece of smooth paper 
round the place where the mount is to go, and very 
carefully cutting all the surplus away with a pair of 
scissors until one thickness of the paper is all round 
the pipe. If this is well done, due attention being 
paid to the straightness of the soldering seam and 
of the ends, then the silver can be cut to it exactly. 
The next thing to do is to get the plate flat, and 
then proceed to turn it up into a tube quite free 
from bruises or kinks. For this a “triblet” is re¬ 
quired. It is nothing but a piece of smooth, round, 
tapering piece of iron or steel and a bending block, 
such as is figured in No. 41, page 648, Vol. I. of Work. 
A mallet also may be necessary if the silver is thick; 
if it is not, then it will come up by the pressure of 
the hand almost; or, in place of block and mallet, a 
pair of half-round pliers will do if the silver be 
rather thin. For mounts of less than an inch in 
length, I should say size 6 Shakespear gauge would 
be plenty stout enough. The next step is to fit the 
soldering seam so that the two edges are quite level 
and true with each other; see also that no burr from 
the file is left before tying with wire. A scraper, 
made from a three-square file, is usually the tool 
used, but a knife will do as well. Should the mount 
be long, it would be well to file small nicks in the 
edges that, form the seam (as shown in Fig. 1, a a), 
for the solder then holds better, and will not be so 
likely to open during the later operations it has 
to undergo. When fitted, it has to be tied with iron 
binding wire in such a manner that the edges of 
the seam are retained in their places during the 
operation of soldering. Wire should not be used too 
thick, as in cooling it will shrink, and may bruise 
the work. In most cases the tying of the wire will 
not be difficult, but it will be so when the mount is 
very taper (as in Fig. 1). Here there are means 

taken to prevent the binding wire slipping down, 
which, I think, needs no further explanation than 
the sketch. Many of the details of soldering are 
given in No. 37, page 588, and No. 46, page 732, of 
Vol. I. of Work, so that, can be passed over here, 
and we can proceed with the mount after it has 
been soldered and “ pickled,” and all pieces of 
unflushed solder filed away. The mount is sure to 
be more or less out of shape now, so we have first 
of all to get it true and smooth; this can be done 
pretty well on the triblet, previously spoken of, with 
a smooth-faced mallet. A lathe would be useful at 
this and at the polishing stages, but we are to do 
without it. So if the triblet and mallet or hammer 
will not get the mount smooth (and it will not if 
very thin metal is in use), then it will be worth 
while to get made a kind of ribbed burnisher (as 
shown in Fig. 2). I do not know that this is made 
and used generally, but with it it is quite possible 
to rub the thinnest of collars true and smooth. The 
size of it would be from 7 in. to 10 in. long, and about 
1 in. wide; the thickness will be A in , or thereabouts. 
An old flat file can be made to do capitally. The ribs 
or ridges should be quite smooth, and the size shown 
in sketch will do for their average size. The sketch 
shows only part of this tool, for I have not the pre¬ 
sumption to ask for space to illustrate it at its full 
dimensions. Somehow or other we will suppose 
now that the mount is in shape, and fits the pipe ; 
therefore we have but to smooth it, up and polish it. 
It may need filing to remove hammer marks, etc.; 
if so, then get them out at once with the file. I)o not 
depend on glass-paper or emery-cloth. These two 

Pipe Mounts and Ferrules. Fig. 1. — Mount. 
Fig. 2 .—Ribbed Burnisher. 

articles are very useful in their way, but they tend 
to make the corners rounding when they should be 
sharp. Either can be used after filing, but use the 
smoothest quality. The next thing is to polish the 
mount. The theory of polishing is a simple one. 
It is the application by friction of abrasive materials 
in stages of gradually increasing fineness. If that 
theory is understood, it will be easy for this corres¬ 
pondent or anyone else to make shift with materials 
to hand. Those I now speak of are the proper 
articles, a lathe not being allowed; As the mount 
we are to polish may be thin, and therefore likely 
to get out of shape, it will be best and easiest to fit 
a piece of wood to it, which will serve the double 
purpose of supporting it and of allowing it to be 
handled with comfort. The first thing used is a 
stick of water of Ayr stone; this is used with 
water, a damp sponge being employed to remove 
the mud-like stonings as they are produced. The 
next polishing material is powdered pumice-stone 
and oil; after that, crocus and oil (or rotten-stone or 
Tripoli powder and oil). Any or all of these are to 
be applied by means of buffs charged with them. A 
buff is merely a strip of buff leather (soldiers’ belts), 
glued to a piece of wood. With these and plenty of 
elbow grease the mount will soon become bright 
and smooth. Next brush it with damp whiting 
(not too hard a brush, please), and then wash it in 
hot soda and water to remove every atom of grease 
and other polishing material. In rouging—tools, 
rouge, hands, all must, be clean and free from grit. 
Use a buff at first; then charge the palm of the 
hand or ball of the thumb for finishing, thus using 
the skin as a finer kind of buff. After washing 
once more to remove any rouge there may be, the 
mount is ready for fixing on. Each material used 
must be entirely removed from the work before 
the next finest is used, and for that, reason separate 
buffs are to be obtained. They only cost about 3d. 
each ; and as for the other polishing materials, the 
water of Ayr stone, the crocus, and rouge can be 
obtained in three-pennyworths or thereabouts at 

any jewellers’ material shop. Powdered pumice 
and whiting can be got at any oil-shop, for they are 
used in the household. There are other materials 
used, but these are sufficient for the present jobs. 
With reference to ferrules for the ends of sticks, the 
same set of processes has to be gone through ; they 
are, however, less carefully finished. With reference 
to the plate at the end, which is to stand the wear— 
What is to be put in ? Steel, iron, or only a thick 
metal plate? Whatever it is, pewter solder seems 
good enough to hold it. These ordinary ferrules can 
be bought so cheap that, except for practice, nobody 
would make them.— H. S. G. 

Carpet Measure Plan. 

Carpet.— West Kensington.— Had you stated 
exactly where your difficulty lies, I could no doubt 
have done something towards removing it, but 
apparently you want to be told all about carpet 

f fanning, which really cannot be done in “ Shop.” 
t may be that you want to have a definite rule to 
go upon in all cases, a sort of “guide to carpet 
planning in a nutshell,” and, to accommodate you 
as far as possible, the best advice I can give you is 
to use your common sense, and not to be afraid of 
taking all measurements with the greatest accuracy. 
Something near the mark will not do. Be careful 
to take not only the measurements along the walls, 
but take them from angle to angle wherever there 
is an opportunity of 
doing so. These will ma¬ 
terially assist you when 
you proceed to set out 
the full-sized plan of the 
room—in fact, you cannot 
do without them. When 
measuring, take down 
on a sheet of paper a 
rough plan of the room, 
and mark in position the 
various dimensions. The 
carpet itself will be best 
fitted and made to a full- 
sized plan, which you 
can mark out on a large 
floor with chalk. To 
give you some idea of 
measurements, the small diagram which accom¬ 
panies this will be useful. As it is necessarily 
on a small scale, the measurements are not 
stated. You will understand that the dotted 
lines must be measured, and, of course, round the 
walls. Experience only can teach a man to know 
exactly what cross measurements are absolutely 
necessary. As a beginner, you will find it better 
to take too many than too few. Act on the re¬ 
verse of the saying, “ When in doubt leave out,” 
by putting in all that may assist you when planning 
the carpet, even though you find afterwards that 
some of it is superfluous. If you attend to this brief 
advice on a very wide subject, and use your brains,